Volcano news - Archive Nr. 18

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Pacaya volcano, Guatemala
Via Shérine @sherineFrance Image courtesy Berner Villela Fotografia https://t.co/595ATaUl0o

Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico
A webcam image as captured somewhat earlier today

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, United States

Update 12:48 UTC:  The increase in seismicity and deformation recorded since Monday afternoon at Kīlauea Volcano's East Rift Zone east of the Pu'u 'Ō'ō vent is continuing this evening. The activity is associated with the intrusion of magma eastward from the Pu'u 'Ō'ō magma system. Since this morning, seismicity rates in the lower East Rift Zone east of Highway 130 have increased. An outbreak of lava in a new location remains a possible outcome of the continued unrest. At this time it is not possible to say with certainty if or where such an outbreak may occur, but the area along the East Rift Zone downrift (east) of Pu'u 'Ō'ō remains the most likely location.

Scientists of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory are on overnight duty to monitor the changing seismicity and deformation, and residents of the Puna District should remain alert.

Recent Observations : About 250 located earthquakes have occurred since the Pu'u 'Ō'ō collapse event yesterday afternoon. Since that time, earthquakes have migrated eastward from Pu'u 'Ō'ō to the lower East Rift Zone. Since around 8:00 a.m. HST this morning, seismicity rates in the lower East Rift Zone east of Highway 130 have increased slightly on two seismic stations. The seismicity consists primarily of small-magnitude (less than magnitude 3) earthquakes at depths of less than 10 km (6.2 miles). Many of these earthquakes have been felt by residents in the area. A tiltmeter on the Pu'u 'Ō'ō cone has recorded a steady deflationary tilt since late last evening, with several sharp inflation offsets. These offsets probably recorded the continued episodic collapse of the crater floor. A tiltmeter located 12 km (7.5 miles) east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō has recorded a slowing rate of southeastward-directed tilt of the ground along the East Rift Zone, suggesting diminished but continued deformation associated with the intrusion into the lower East Rift Zone.
Kīlauea's summit eruption has thus far not been affected by the change at Pu'u 'Ō'ō. Tiltmeters at the summit have recorded a slight deflationary trend since early this morning, and the level of the summit lava lake lowered by a few meters (yards). During a helicopter overflight to Pu'u 'Ō'ō earlier today, geologists observed a new fissure and crack extending about 1 km (0.6 miles) uprift (west) from the west flank of the Pu'u 'Ō'ō cone. A small amount of lava erupted from the crack during yesterday's collapse of the Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater floor. Geologists also noted red ash that was deposited around Pu'u 'Ō'ō and blown farther downwind; the ash resulted from small explosions that accompanied the collapse of the crater floor.
Poor weather and an ashy plume from the Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater prevented geologists from observing the newly collapsed crater floor or the west pit area where a perched lava pond was erupting before yesterday's collapse event. Geologists observed a few small, sluggish breakouts of the 61g lava flow, likely from lava still moving through the lava-tube system; the 61g vent was likely severed from the magma supply to Pu'u 'Ō'ō.
Geologists did not observe any new ground cracks downrift of Pu'u 'Ō'ō in areas where seismicity was concentrated over the past day.

Hazard Analysis : The migration of seismicity and deformation downrift (east) of Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone following Monday's collapse indicates that a large area along the East Rift Zone is potentially at risk for a new outbreak. The location of any future outbreak will determine what areas are in the path of new lava flows.
The situation continues to evolve and USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists continue to closely monitor Kīlauea's East Rift Zone and summit. More updates will follow as information becomes available.

Earthquakes of the last 24 hours varying in depth from 300 meter to a couple of km's. Risk for an outbreak at the eastern part pf the National Park or even the populated area east of the park is still present (see full report).

May 2, 2018


Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, United states
Report from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory :
Update 15:20 UTC
:  Just in : A collapse of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater floor Monday afternoon on Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone has prompted increases in seismicity and deformation along a large section of the rift zone, with seismicity currently occurring as far east as Hwy 130. A outbreak of lava in a new location is one possible outcome. At this time it is not possible to say with certainty if or where such an outbreak may occur, but the area downrift (east) of Puʻu ʻŌʻō is the most likely location, as this is where seismicity and deformation have been concentrated overnight.
Residents of lower Puna should remain alert and watch for further information about the status of the volcano; watch for Hawaii County Civil Defense messages at http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts
Recent Observations: Between about 2:00 and 4:30 pm on Monday, April 30, following weeks of uplift and increasing lava levels within the cone, the crater floor at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō on Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone collapsed. Poor weather prevented HVO from flying over the activity or seeing details of the activity in our web cameras on site. Following the collapse, HVO seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from Kīlauea Volcano’s summit to an area about 6-10 miles downrift (east) of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Overnight, this activity localized downrift of Puʻu ʻŌʻō and continued to propagate eastward along the rift zone.
The largest earthquake of this sequence so far was a magnitude 4.0 earthquake just offshore south of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō at 02:39 this morning, Kīlauea’s summit eruption has thus far not been affected by the change at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō.
Hazard Analysis: The migration of seismicity and deformation downrift (east) of Puʻu ʻŌʻō cone following Monday’s collapse indicates that a large area along the East Rift Zone is potentially at risk for a new outbreak. The location of any future outbreak will determine what areas are in the path of new lava flows. The situation is rapidly evolving and USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists continue to closely monitor Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone and summit. More updates will follow as information becomes available.

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, United states
Mick Kalber wrote on April 28 :
A perched pond sits atop the west end of a very inflated Pu'u 'O'o crater this morning, as USGS scientists continue to forecast what may be a major change in the eruption on the East rift zone.
Almost the entire vent is now filled with lava... and nearly all the surface flow activity was found within a mile of the vent.
Numerous pahoehoe flows and several skylights... and almost nothing downslope from there at all.
Paradise Helicopters' exalted pilot, Sean Regehr got us up close and personal with Pele's hot liquid rock... mahalo plenty, Sean!

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, United states
Report from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory :
Just after 2:00 p.m. HST today, April 30, 2018, a marked increase in seismicity and ground deformation (change in ground surface shape) began at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō on Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone. A few minutes later, a thermal webcam (PTcam) located on the rim of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō crater showed the first of two episodes of crater floor collapse; the second collapse began at 3:20 p.m. and lasted about an hour. Webcam views into the crater and surrounding area were frequently obscured by poor weather conditions. However, shortly after 4:00 p.m., the PTcam recorded images that were likely the signature of small explosions from the western side of the crater as the floor collapsed. At the time of this update (6:00 p.m.), there was no evidence of new lava within the crater, seismicity remained elevated in the vicinity of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, and ground deformation at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō had significantly slowed.
Kīlauea’s summit eruption has thus far not been affected by this afternoon’s activity at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō.

May 1, 2018


Soufrière Hills volcano, Guadeloupe
Robin Lacassin @RLacassin : Magnitude 3.9 shallow (2km depth) volcano-tectonic earthquake below la Soufrière volcano in Guadeloupe

April 28


Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 18 to 24 April 2018
Via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

 

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia)
PVMBG reported that at 0637 on 20 April an eruption at Ibu generated a gray-white ash plume that rose at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kanlaon | Philippines
PHIVOLCS reported that during 17-19 April dirty-white steam plumes from Kanlaon rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, NW, and NE. White steam plumes rose 300-600 m and drifted SW and NW during 20-24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA)
During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015.
Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March.

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan)
An explosive eruption at Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama, NW flank of Karakuni-dake), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, occurred at 1555 on 19 April prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). This was the first eruption in that area since 1768; frequent and recent activity has occurred from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak). Ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above new vents in the SE part of the crater, and a large amount of ejected tephra including boulders were deposited around the crater area. Webcams showed expansion of vents by 2100. A new fumarole was observed at 1630 on 20 April in the vicinity of the highway, on the W side of Iwo-yama. During overflights on 20 and 21 April scientists observed multiple vents with fumarolic emissions, and intermittent ejections of black-gray muddy water. The activity continued through 23 April.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 April an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. An image acquired around six hours later indicated that the ash from the event had dissipated.

Maly Semyachik | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that activity at Maly Semyachik increased during the second half of March; the ice covering the crater lake melted within a 5-6-day period, and a weak thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 22 March. A weak thermal anomaly continued to be detected through 20 April, though no further activity prompted KVERT to lower the Aviation Color Code to Green.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile
Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 17-18 April associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. Seismicity consisted of long-period events and tremor associated with explosions. The webcam recorded pulsating white gas emissions with possible ash, nighttime incandescence, and an intermittent ejection of ballistics from explosions. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sinabung | Indonesia
PVMBG reported that during 18-22 April gray-to-white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 1604 on 20 April an event produced an ash plume that rose 3 km and pyroclastic flows that traveled 1 km down the E, SE, W, and NW flanks. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

April 26, 2018


Kilauea: Halema'uma'u Crater + Pu'u O'o Crater, Big Island, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
The lava lakes within both Halema'uma'u Crater (summit area) and the west pit of Pu'u O'o Crater on Kilauea volcano have both overflowed within the past week, and remain at high-stand levels.

The time lapse sequence (below) shows how the lava levels within Pu'u O'o rose around 7m in under a month, and became perched before overflowing.

via USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes) / Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

https://twitter.com/USGSVolcanoes/status/987082005090193408

Overflows from the perched lava pond within west pit, a small crater adjacent to the main Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō crater on Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone, continue to build up the levees around the pond. The rising level of the perched lava pond is a sign of the increasing pressure within the magma system beneath Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō. This overflow, captured by a USGS-Hawaiian Volcano Observatory time-lapse camera, occurred on April 17, 2018.

Image of Pu'u O'o Crater, taken during a helicopter overflight on 18 April 2018, with the west pit in the foreground.

via USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes) / Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Image from the Halema'uma'u Crater thermal-imaging webcam around 12 noon on 23 April 2018. This image shows that the lava lake is still almost level with the floor of the crater.

via USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes) / Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Manaro Voui crater, Ambae, Vanuatu (Philippa)
The eruption from Manaro Voui crater on the island of Ambae continues, and the Volcanic Alert Level is still at 3 (out of 4 levels). Both the cone and the crater within the cone continue to increase in size.

via Brad Scott (@Eruptn) / Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (@vmgdVU)

The image (below), taken from a different angle on 21 April 2018, shows that ash emissions have now ceased, although steam / volcanic gas emissions persist, and that Lake Voui has now separated in two due to the growth of the eruption cone.

via Brad Scott (@Eruptn) / Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (@vmgdVU)

Meanwhile, the humanitarian crisis worsens on the island. A state of emergency was declared last week. 750 people have lost their homes, either as a direct result of volcanic ash fall, or indirectly due to landslides, and 11,000 people local inhabitants are at risk of both short and long-term health problems. (Information source: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - Asia Pacific).

Local residents are still waiting to be evacuated off the island. The process is being hampered by logistics, the estimated potential cost of a (permanent) evacuation (~US$1.8 million) and how this is going to be paid for, and where inhabitants can permanently be re-settled to on neighbouring islands.

via RNZ

https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/355823/ambae-evacuation-could-cost-millions

The ship RVS Tukoro was meanwhile last week making its way to Ambae to provide aid and support to the island's inhabitants.

via UNICEF Pacific (@UNICEFPacific)

Some tribal men want near the crater for rituals. These are a couple of the images they have taken (images courtesy Vanuatu news facebook)

Sinabung, Sumatra, Indonesia  (Philippa)
The first image (below) shows Mount Sinabung erupting on 22 April 2018. Compared with the image (below that) taken on 12 April 2018, and we can see that the latest eruption is less ash-rich than 10 days prior. It will be interesting to see what Sinabung does next: quieten down slightly, or extrusion of another lava dome, which pressurizes the volcanic system leading to larger, more explosive eruptions again?

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)

El Misti, Peru (Philippa)
The photo (below) makes us at Earthquake-Report.com very happy, and not just because it features the crater rim of El Misti volcano. All of the women featured are volcanologists - but more than this, they are the leading volcano researchers and volcano monitoring managers in their respective areas from around the world, including the U.S., New Zealand, and Costa Rica. To us, they are sheroes (legends)!

The field trip to El Misti near the Peruvian city of Arequipa was part of a workshop on assessing volcanic hazards.

El Misti last erupted in 1985. The volcano has mostly been 'quiet' since then, other than a couple of seismic swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) events in 2014, which are indicative of the country rock breaking underground as magma ascends.

via Ramón Espinasa Pereña / IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk
(https://www.facebook.com/groups/iavceihazardsandrisk/)

El Misti volcano - view from Arequipa
- via Jan Lindsay (@GeoJanUoA) / IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risks
(https://www.facebook.com/groups/iavceihazardsandrisk/)

Mount St Helens, Washington State, USA (Philippa)
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are running a series of articles which retrospectively follow the week-on-week geophysical precursors and media reporting of the May 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens.

The USGS report from 18th April 1980 mentioned that there had been around 12 small-scale explosive eruptions of steam and ash at the summit area within a 24-hour period, but the main hazard was the instability of the north flank of the volcano.

With logging roads becoming accessible again as the winter snow melted, there was also concern for how to keep curious visitors away from the volcano before a bigger eruption.

The full article can be read here:
https://www.facebook.com/USGSVolcanoes/posts/2000928369935714

via USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes)

Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy (Philippa)
A snow- and hail-covered Mount Etna, as seen on 22 April 2018 from a helicopter following a thunderstorm.

via Boris Behncke (@etnaboris)

Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA (Philippa)
If any of you who read the Earthquake-Report.com happen to live in Gardiner, Montana, in the U.S., look out for this public event next month featuring scientists from the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

via Annie Carlson / Geyser Gazers (https://www.facebook.com/groups/4939307398/)

Meanwhile, click on the link (below) to enjoy this (hydrothermal = hot water) eruption from Grand Geyser filmed on the opening day of Yellowstone National Park after winter.

via Jake Frank / Geyser Gazers

Grand Geyser eruption - posted 20 April 2018

April 24, 2018


Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 11 to 17 April 2018
Via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

Ambae | Vanuatu
Based on observations from satellites, webcams, pilots, and the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (local community reports), the Wellington VAAC reported that during 11-14 April ash plumes from the vent at Ambae’s Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.9 km (6,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SE. On 12 April news articles noted that ashfall had affected the N part of Ambae, with photos showing thick ashfall deposits on houses and agricultural land, and reports of contaminated water supplies. On 15 April a VAAC office reported that the eruption has ceased. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 April a discrete, low-level ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Sinabung | Indonesia
PVMBG reported that at 0640 on 12 April an event at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose 200 m and drifted WNW. At 1655 pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that drifted WSW. At 0827 on 15 April an event generated an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

April 19, 2018