Volcano news - Archive Nr. 14

For the latest part of this report - Click here

Mount Unzen, Japan (Philippa)
Here at Earthquake-Report.com we love it when our readers send us volcano images from their holidays. The one below though was taken in homage to Katia and Maurice Krafft, French volcanologists who were well-known for their video footage and images. Tragically, they died at this volcano - Mount Unzen - on 3rd June 1991. Despite standing with journalists and fellow volcanologist Harry Glicken at what they thought was a safe distance from the summit area and on high ground, a pyroclastic density current (an avalanche of hot volcanic gases, ash and rocks caused by the collapse of an eruption plume) suddenly diverged from a channel that previous flows had gone down, killing all of them instantly.

via Roberto C. Lopez (@Bromotengger)

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 21.22.38

Image of Maurice and Katia Krafft via US Geological Survey

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 21.36.00

Out of all the volcanoes I have ever visited, Mount Unzen is by far the most foreboding one. It was the site of Japan's worst ever volcano disaster, when a collapse of one of its lava domes triggered a tsunami, which killed 14,524 people. Now there are at least engineered structures and early warning systems in place to try and mitigate future disasters. However, people still live around the volcano.

A visit to the Mount Unzen Disaster Memorial Hall is a sobering experience, but nevertheless educational. Unzen Disaster Museum (English Guide)

Video footage by Maurice and Katia Krafft
Mount Unzen (Japan), Vulcano (Italy), Eldfell (Iceland), Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania)
Below is an extract from a documentary on Maurice and Katia Krafft. Although they captured stunning footage of many different volcano eruptions, the lack of health and safety measures from that time is somewhat shocking for us modern-day volcanologists!

via Auckland Museum / YouTube


The next video is an extract from Werner Herzog's 'Into the Inferno'. Amongst other locations, it shows the Kraffts at Mount Unzen on the day they were killed by a pyroclastic density current (see from around 2'12").

via doppiamente / YouTube

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia (Philippa)
There has been an image circulating on social media reportedly taken from the summit of Mount Agung this week, possibly showing a growing lava dome. We refuse to publish this image. Aside from the relevant person not being able to verify either the location, time or date that the image was allegedly taken, we are critical of anyone who ventures into the exclusion zone of an active volcano, putting other people's lives at risk.

Instead, we present a gif showing two aerial images of Agung's summit area taken by satellite.

via Simon Carn (@simoncarn) / Planet Labs Inc. (@planetlabs)


Meanwhile, the sped-up footage below, taken from a safe distance via webcam, shows one of the explosive eruptions at Agung earlier today.

via Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_BNPB)

Mount Agung looked even more beautiful from an even further, safer distance at sunrise (05:40 a.m.) on 10th December 2017.

via Ineke Willeboordse (@Iwilleboordse)

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 23.28.26


Bogoslof, Alaska, USA (Philippa)
Has the 2016-2017 eruption ended at Bogoslof? This is the question currently being pondered by the US Geological Survey, which this week lowered the Aviation Color Code and Alert Level for this volcanic island to 'Unassigned'.

Trying to determine the true end of an eruptive cycle at any volcano is notoriously difficult. The decision in this case was based on 3 factors: 1) There have not been any further explosive events at Bogoslof since August 2017; 2) there have been no significant signals in the seismic, infrasound, or lightning data over the past 3 months; 3) satellite observations of Bogoslof (using thermal infrared imagery) indicate that the lake within Bogoslof's crater is cooling down.

During Bogoslof's most explosive, phreatically (steam-driven) / phreato-magmatically (water-magma interaction) generated eruptions, plumes of steam and ash reached altitudes of over 10.7 km / 35,000 ft., i.e. just below the cruising altitude of commercial aircraft in the busy airspace over Alaska. This is the reason why even volcanoes in remote areas of the world can cause big problems for aviation.

via USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes)

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 22.50.52

Villarica, Chile (Philippa)
As previously reported, Villarica volcano is currently on Yellow Alert (as per monitoring agency SERNAGEOMIN's 4-level alert system). The image below was taken with a long exposure on the night of 4th December 2017.

via Francisco Negroni (www.francisconegroni.com)

Villarica 041217 Francisco Negroni


Tongariro National Park, New Zealand (Philippa)
Our favourite volcano image of the day is this one: the Red Crater, lava flows, and Emerald Lakes at Tongariro National Park.

via Nico Fournier (@nicovolc) / Department of Conservation (@docgovtnz)

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 23.22.45

Mount Vesuvius, Italy (Philippa)
Historic images are both fascinating and useful for discerning the past eruptive behaviours of volcanoes in order to forecast their potential future behaviour. This image from 8th December 1861 depicts an eruption of Mount Vesuvius (background) and the deserted streets of the town of Torer del Greco (foreground), in which only volcanologist Luigi Palmieri remained.

via David Bressan (@David_Bressan)

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 23.38.35

December 12, 2017

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia (Philippa)
Today there have been around 30 occurrences of slightly greater intensity eruption plumes from Mount Agung.

via Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_BNPB)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 19.31.47

As a result of rainfall remobilizing volcanic ash on the flanks of Agung, there have also been lahars. The footage below was shot in Tangkup village.

Another interesting by-product of Agung's eruption activity is accretionary lapilli, formed when ash particles interact in the air with rain drops, creating these small balls of rock. 'Lapilli' actually refers to the size of these ash balls rather than their composition, and defines tephra (rocks ejected from a volcano) of 2-64 mm (0.08-2.52 inches) in diameter.

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 19.44.10

Villarica, Chile (Philippa)
As previously reported here on Earthquake-Report.com, Villarica is one of three volcanoes in Chile which (monitoring agency) SERNAGEOMIN have recently raised the alert level to Yellow. The image below of the active lava lake within the crater was taken earlier this week by a team from (Italian volcano monitoring agency) INGV, which has collaborated with OVDAS (volcano observatory in Temuco, Chile) to install a new volcanic gas sensor at Villarica.

via Marcello Bitetto (@marcellobitetto)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 19.50.32

via SERNAGEOMIN (@Sernageomin)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 19.56.46

Sabancaya, Peru (Philippa)
Sabancaya has been erupting explosively about 70 times a day since 6th November 2016.
The ash columns reach altitudes of around 3.3 km, and depending on the wind direction, can be blown up to 50 km away. Most of the ash fall appears to be within around 10 km from the summit area.

Staff from (Peruvian volcano monitoring agency) IGP, together with volcanologists from the US Geological Survey, have recently been conducting extensive fieldwork on the volcano to conduct annual maintenance on monitoring equipment and to evaluate the effects of its on-going eruptions.

via TV Peru (www.tvperu.gob.pe)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 20.03.49

The Director of the Arequipa office, Gustavo Macedo (see image above) has reported that in the province of Caylloma, which is less than 5 km from the summit area, there is no longer any vegetation, and the ash fall there is currently about 6 cm thick.

There is evidence of recent lahars (fast flows of water, remobilized volcanic ash, rocks, and other debris), and IGP are worried that with heavier rainfalls there will be more lahars of a greater magnitude and with longer run-out distances from the summit area. Bear in mind that one of the worst tragedies at a volcano, which was due to lahars AFTER the eruptions, was at Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia, in which over 23,000 people died. IGP therefore ask the public in the surrounding areas to pay attention to the reports which they issue on a weekly basis, and to heed any preventative and preparedness advice issued by the local authorities.

Sabancaya volcano is currently on alert level Orange. Its eruptions over the past year have already caused local communities problems, including contamination of drinking water supplies due to ash fall.

video (with text in Spanish) via IGP / YouTube

Öræfajökull, Iceland (Philippa)
Could Öræfajökull be awakening from a 290-year slumber? 160 earthquakes were detected this past week at (relatively shallow) depths of up to 10 km in and around the volcano's caldera (collapsed crater). Additional monitoring equipment has recently been installed, including more seismometers (to detect earthquakes, including those generated by the movement of magma underground), GPS stations (to detect deformation - inflation / deflation of the flanks - and movement), river monitors (to detect changes in water height and flow rates if snow and ice on the volcano is melted from below by magma), and webcams. The Civil Protection Agency have also recently met.

Watch this space!

To learn how to pronounce 'Öræfajökull', see the post (below) from 5th December.

Photo by GunnÞóra / via Iceland Magazine

Iceland Magazine - Record number of earthquakes in Oraefajokull volcano

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 19.05.34

Skaldbreiður, Þingvellir, and Game of Thrones, Iceland (Philippa)
From 2013 - fieldwork images from (shield volcano) Skaldbreiður and its lava flows, which erupted around 9,000 years ago, and Þingvellir plains, where the Icelandic parliament was founded in 930. The main image shows volcanologists collecting rock samples, which were subsequently analysed to determine when the eruptions occurred. The bottom right-hand image shows the tv crew filming Game of Thrones.

The reason why Skaldbreiður is currently of interest is because of recent earthquakes in the area. According to volcanologist Dave McGarvie (Open University) these have NOT been generated by the volcano, but is nevertheless new activity.

via Dave McGarvie (@subglacial)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 18.53.01

'Dangerous Neighbours' - webcast lecture (Mon 11 Dec) (Philippa)
Professor Jenni Barclay (University of East Anglia, UK) will be giving a lecture entitled 'Dangerous Neighbours' tomorrow (Monday 11th December) at both 15:00 UTC, and repeated again at 18:00 UTC, at the building of the Geological Society in London, UK.

The good news for us is that this lecture will be live streamed via a link within the website below.

London lecture: Dangerous Neighbours - with Professor Jenni Barclay

The lecture will be about: "Improving how we understand and reduce the risk for those who live alongside active volcanoes." ...and will cover not just the knowledge about volcanoes from a geo-scientific perspective, but also with regards to the impacts of eruptions due to societal norms, politics, and culture.

Jenni is definitely a volcanologist worth listening to. Aside from lecturing and conducting research at UEA, she is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee for Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Eastern Caribbean, has been the Principle Investigator for the STREVA (Strengthening Resilience In Volcanic Areas) project working also in Ecuador and Colombia, and is often involved in outreach activities, including producing Volcano Top Trumps (Volcano Top Trumps) and trash can volcano eruptions.

Masaya, Nicaragua (Philippa)
Volcanologists from the UNRESP (resilience to persistent volcanic emissions) project are currently back in Nicaragua conducting field work on Masaya.

Here they are with local field technician Elvis checking one of the weather stations. This equipment monitors variables such as wind speed and wind direction to help both the UNRESP scientists and the local volcano observatory forecast which areas the eruption plume** will affect on a daily basis.

** the dirtier coloured 'cloud' in the background

via UNRESP project (@UNRESPproject)

Screen Shot 2017-12-10 at 21.49.10

December 10, 2017

Stromboli, Sicily, Italy
Minor explosive activity - Video time lapse of approx. 30 minutes
Thanks to @CultureVolcan for the hint of the nice flaring activity
Enjoy the streaming webcam yourself at :

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia (Philippa)
Aside from on-going effusive venting at Mount Agung on the east side of Bali, two events of a higher-intensity occurred today at 07:59 and 14:57 local time. Both these events produced eruption plumes containing ash, but it has not yet been determined whether this ash was derived from juvenile material or lithic material, i.e. whether it derived from new magma rising or just old material clearing from the walls of the vent.

As a precaution, a Volcano Observatory Notification to Aviation (VONA) was issued and the Aviation Alert Level raised to Orange. However, since the winds were only weak and the plumes only reached heights of 2.1 km and 3.0 km above the summit area, i.e. way below the cruising altitudes of commercial planes, Ngurai Rai Denpasar (international) airport and Lombok airport have remained open and are operating normally.

No casualties have been reported, and there have been no new additions to the evacuation centres for inhabitants from the exclusion zones around Agung volcano.

via Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_BNPB)

07:59 eruption

14:57 eruption

Agung 081217 Sutopo

Ambae, Vanuatu (Philippa)
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department has lowered the Alert Level for Ambae to Level 2 - Major Unrest, and reduced the danger zone to 2 km around the crater rim and specific areas. (via Brad Scott @Eruptn)

December 8, 2017

Spotlight on...the crisis manager - Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (Philippa)
The media coverage of the volcanic eruptions on various different islands of Indonesia has been mixed: some good, some just sensationalist. But we at Earthquake-Report.com are pleased to see this positive feature by Jewel Topsfield (The Sydney Morning Herald), which quite rightly praises the work of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, who is the Head of PR at the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency BNPB.

Those of you on Twitter may have seen some of his communications about Sinabung, Agung and other Indonesian volcanoes (see below). He also communicates the science behind some of the many other natural hazards that Indonesia is prone to, including earthquakes, tsunamis, forest fires, floods, and the increasing effects of climate change.

Sutopo actually does a lot more work behind the scenes in helping those affected by natural hazards than he modestly reports on, including his on-going efforts to try and find (and fund!) a feasible resettlement solution for the inhabitants from around Sinabung volcano, which has been erupting for the past 4 years. On behalf of these people, thank you!

The Sydney Morning Herald - 'The crisis manager handling Bali's Mt Agung eruption one tweet at a time' - feature by Jewel Topsfield

via Jefri Tarigan

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 11.43.59

Sinabung, Sumatra, Indonesia (Philippa)
Another amazing shot taken today of Mount Sinabung on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. This volcano continues to explosively erupt on a daily basis, with cycles of dome forming and collapse.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa/ )

Sinabung 071217 Endro Lewa

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia (Philippa)
The latest images (below) of Mount Agung on the east side of Bali show a modest steam plume from earlier today.

via Oystein L Andersen (@OysteinLAnderse)

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 11.31.12

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 11.31.27

The volcano remains at Alert Level IV, as in-between calmer activity there have been lahars (fast flowing mixtures of water, remobilized volcanic ash, rocks, and other debris) flowing in a southerly direction, and yesterday there was increased venting at the summit area.

Thanks to the monitoring efforts of PVMBG, disaster management agency BNPB, and the local authorities, there have not been any casualties. This is partly due to the evacuation efforts of the right places at the right times. However, people on Bali are asked to remain vigilant in case of changes in activity.

The exclusion zones are currently 8 km around the summit area, with extended areas to 10 km to take account of the possible flow directions and extents of lahars.

The footage of this lahar was filmed on the flanks of Agung on 5th December 2017.

via Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (@Sutopo_BNPB)

Feature - can volcanologists forecast when eruptions will happen? (Philippa)
The article at the link below relates to Mt Agung and the Indonesian volcanologists at monitoring agency PVMBG. However, this question is asked of all volcanologists the world over. The short answer is - no - we cannot predict when there will be large eruptions, much less forecast them, but merely use the data collected with different monitoring instrumentation to try and estimate the probabilities of different eruption events happening. The article explains further:

Reuters - 'Scientists watch and wait as Bali's menacing volcano rumbles' - feature by Kanupriya Kapoor

For the record, Mt Agung and other volcanoes are not 'menacing'. Local inhabitants the world over recognise that volcanoes can also provide as well as destroy, for example making the soils in the surrounding areas fertile for agriculture. Also, I am not sure why this article's headline is '...watch and wait...', as Mt Agung had already started erupted in the week before this article was published.

Volcanoes of Chile: Villarica, Planchon Peteroa, Nevados de Chillan (Philippa)
Three volcanoes in Chile are currently on Yellow alert: Villarica, Planchon Peteroa, and Nevados de Chillan. The meaning of a Yellow alert is outlined below (in Spanish): minor explosions, fumarolic activity, and an increase in monitored activity generally.

via SERNAGEOMIN (@sernageomin)

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 12.26.07

In this TV news interview a good friend of ours from last year's Cities On Volcanoes conference in Chile, Alvaro Amigo, explains how SERNAGEOMIN monitors these and other volcanoes in Chile.

via T13 Movil / Tele 13 (@T13)

Como se monitorean los volcanoes? (in Spanish) TV interview on Villarica, Planchon Peteroa, and Nevados de Chillan volcanoes, Chile

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 12.32.16

Chilenos speak Spanish 'muy rapido!' (very quickly!), so if any of you are able to understand the interview, please let us know what is said. Muchas gracias!

Amazingly, a mountain biking race is still due to go ahead at Nevados de Chillan this weekend. The video footage below says: "Come see the fumarolic activity...."

via Nevados de Chillan (@NevadosSki)


Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 29 November 2017 - 4 December 2017

Via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

Screen Shot 2017-12-07 at 00.40.04-compressed

Agung | Bali (Indonesia)
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Agung, which began on 21 November, continued during 30 November-5 December. On 29 November gray ash plumes levels were rising to 2 km above the crater rim, resulting in ashfall to the SE. During 30 November-5 December emissions continued to rise 2 km; most were white in color, but dense gray ash emissions were noted during 1-2 December. Satellite data indicated that lava effusion continued at least through 1 December, and the erupted volume of lava was estimated to be 20 million cubic meters, equivalent to about a third of the total crater volume. The base of the plume was often reddish during 29 November-5 December reflecting incandescence from lava in the crater. BNPB noted on 5 December that 63,885 evacuees were distributed in 225 evacuation shelters.
Lahars were first noted on 21 November and continued to be observed through 5 December. The lahars flowed down drainages on the S flank (along the Tukad Yehsa, Tukad Sabuh, and Tukad Beliaung drainages) and also down the Tukad Bara drainage on the N flank, impacting houses, roads, and agricultural areas. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA)
AVO reported that during 28 November-5 December low-level unrest continued at Great Sitkin. Nothing noteworthy was identified in seismic data nor in partly cloudy to cloudy satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that strong gas-and-steam emissions at Klyuchevskoy were recorded by a webcam during 2-5 December, and contained some ash starting at 2300 on 5 December. The gas-and-ash plumes were visible in satellite data drifting 170 km E. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Pacaya | Guatemala
On 28 November INSIVUMEH reported that 6-8 Strombolian explosions per hour at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material as high as 25 m above the main cone. A lava flow traveled 30 m down the NW flank of the cone.

Villarrica | Chile
Gradually increasing activity at Villarrica since 15 November prompted OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 5 December, and warn the public to stay outside of a 1-km radius around the crater. Increased activity was characterized by recorded volcano-tectonic earthquakes, increased thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, and increased lava-lake activity. The infrasound network, photos, and field observations confirmed a higher lake level and explosions that were ejecting material deposited in the crater area. Lava fountains 150 m high were documented by POVI during the second half of November.

December 6, 2017

Volcanoes of Iceland (Philippa)
How brilliant is this? - Upfront of eruptions, a website which teaches you how to pronounce the names of the different Icelandic volcanoes! Öræfajökull is currently top of our list.

via Ragnar H Thrastarson (@RagnarHeidar) / Icelandic Meteorology Office (@Vedurstofan)

Icelandic volcanoes - Learn to pronounce them BEFORE they erupt!

Oraefajokull volcano, Iceland. Image via Dave McGarvie (@subglacial)

Oraefajokull volcano, Iceland. Image via Dave McGarvie (@subglacial)

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia (Philippa)
The latest images from Mount Agung on the east side of Bali are below (taken 03 and 04 December 2017 respectively).

via Oystein L. Andersen (@OysteinLAnderse)

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.43.38

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.40.57

As reported below, the aviation alert level has been lowered and the international airport on Bali has been re-opened. Several international airlines have resumed flights. However, despite just the faint plume from the summit area compared to the much bigger eruption column last week, further explosive eruptions are likely, and the situation continues to be closely monitored. Agung continues to be at (overall) alert level IV, and the extent of the exclusion zones continue to be at a radius of 8 km around the volcano, with extended areas to 10 km to the north, north east, south east, south, and south west of the crater.

In the event of increased activity, including lahars (debris flows) which occur due to heavy rainfall remobilising volcanic ash and debris after eruptions, people are asked to heed the warnings and advice of the local authorities. Tourists are asked to contact their airlines or travel companies prior to traveling to the airport in case of any activity causing delays, cancellations, or diversions.

For further information (in English), see:

MAGMA Indonesia website - Press Release page

Dr Janine Krippner's In the Company of Volcanoes - useful resources on Mt. Agung, Bali, Indonesia

Nyamulagira + Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Philippa)
For any of you who missed the 2nd episode of 'Expedition Volcano' on BBC2, this is now available on BBC iPlayer for the next month:

Expedition Volcano - BBC2 - Series 1, Episode 2

...and....we have just heard that this programme will be broadcast in the U.S. sometime in February 2018.

It is a fascinating look not only at two of the most active volcanoes in the world, but also their effect on the people and wildlife in the surrounding areas, from providing opportunities to causing conflict.

Read more about 'Expedition Volcano' in this interview with Aldo Kane, who was responsible for everyone's safety during the making of the programme. Although he talks mainly about the dangers from the volcano itself, during filming at Nyamulagira, in which the scientists only had 2 hours to collect as much data as possible on the volcano, Aldo also had to be on the look out for local militia operating in the area, which is why it is impossible to monitor this particular volcano despite its regular eruptions.

BBC Science Focus - How to survive inside one of Earth's deadliest volcanoes - interview with Aldo Kane

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.41.45


Mount Etna, Sicily (Philippa)
The image below was taken by moonlight on the night of 3rd December by volcanologist Boris Behncke (INGV). This is the amazing view from his kitchen window! Here we see two vents: on the right-hand side - 'u puttusiddu' on the New Southeast Crater, and on the left-hand side - 'nautru puttusiddu' on the Voragine Crater. The incandescence (glow) is due to the high temperature volcanic gas emissions, which become 'visible' like this at night.

via Boris Behncke (@etnaboris)

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.43.52


Villarica, Chile (Philippa)
In the latest video footage (below) we can just about see - and audibly hear! - the active lava lake within Villarica volcano. Filmed on 4th December 2017.

via SERNAGEOMIN (@Sernageomin)



Nevados de Chillan, Chile (Philippa)
Below is a gif showing one of the latest eruptions of volcanic ash and steam at Nevados de Chillan. The gif also shows what looks like an infrasound signal (low frequency sound waves generated through the atmosphere) rather than a seismic signal (sound waves generated through the ground). Monitoring agency SERNAGEOMIN's volcano observatory for central Chile - OVDAS - report that the eruption column reach heights of around 2 km above the crater area. The volcano is currently on Alert Level Amarilla (yellow).

via SERNAGEOMIN (@Sernageomin)


Below is footage of an even bigger eruption on 2nd December 2017:

Momotombo, Nicaragua (Philippa)
On this week 2 years ago, Momotombo volcano began to erupt after 110 years of quiescence. The eruption started effusively at first, but then progressed onto larger, more explosive Strombolian-style eruptions, which eventually ceased again in April 2016.

via IAVCEI Hazard + Risk (@IAVCEI_Hazards)

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.40.22

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.40.41


Volcanoes of the Canary Islands (Philippa)
Below are a couple of the stunning images, including the winning image, from a photography competition highlighting the volcanoes of the Canary Islands. The competition was run by Asociacion Volcanes de Canarias and the government of the Canary Islands in association with several local companies.

via Noche de Volcanes (@nochedevolcanes)

Segundo Concurso de Fotografia Volcanica Volcanes de Canarias

winning image - Bruma Volcanica, El Hierro - taken by Antonio Hdez. Santana

winning image - Bruma Volcanica, El Hierro - taken by Antonio Hdez. Santana


Monogenetic (One-time erupting) cones on Lanzarote - taken by Ruperto Moralez

Monogenetic (One-time erupting) cones on Lanzarote - taken by Ruperto Moralez


Reventador, Ecuador (Philippa)
A recent image (below) from Reventador volcano.

via Instituto Geofisico

Reventador 031217 IG

December 5, 2017

Trash can volcano - UEA Norwich, UK (Philippa)
Whilst the volcanoes here in the UK have long-since been either extinct (Lake District ~60 million years ago) or considered dormant (Arthur's Seat, Edinburgh), trash can 'volcanoes' are actively erupting! The one in this image was part of a practical experiment in an undergraduate volcanology class earlier today at UEA in Norwich. The 'eruption' is created with liquid nitrogen and lots of coloured balls for extra effect. Because of the weather conditions this one even generated a rainbow!

via Professor Jenni Barclay (@VolcanoJenni)

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 22.39.50

Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 22-28 November 2017

Via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

Schermafbeelding 2017-12-04 om 15.41.33

Agung | Bali (Indonesia)
PVMBG reported that at 1730 on 25 November, after the number of volcanic earthquakes significantly increased, ash plumes rose 1.5 km above Agung’s crater rim and drifted 12 km WSW. Ashfall was reported in areas SW including Besakih (7 km SW), hamlets in the upper part of Pempatan (7.5 km W), and Temukus, prompting remaining residents to evacuate to the S. Eight inbound and 13 outbound international flights were cancelled, affecting 2,087 passengers. Crater incandescence was observed at 2100, signifying the presence of lava in the crater. BNPB noted that the number of evacuees was 25,016 (spread out in 224 shelters)
On 26 November dark gray ash plumes rose 2 km at 0505, 3 km at 0545, and 4 km at 0620, and drifted E and SE. Ash emissions continued throughout the day; a few explosions were heard within a 12-km radius. PVMBG issued a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) elevating the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Red. Satellite data recorded sulfur dioxide gas concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 tons/day. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including North Duda (9 km S), Duda Timur (12 km S), Pempetan, Besakih, Sideman (15 km SSW), Tirta Abang, Sebudi (6 km SW), Amerta Bhuana (10 km SSW) in Klungkung, and some villages in Gianyar (20 km WSW). Ashfall was the thickest (5 mm) in Sibetan (11.5 km S). News sources noted that Lombok International Airport closed during 26-27 November.
PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) on 27 November, and the exclusion zones were expanded to a general 8-km radius and to 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. Dense ash plumes continued to rise 2-4 km above the crater rim. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l., or just over 6 km above the crater rim. Pictures and video showed a white steam plume adjacent to a gray ash plume rising form the crater, signifying two distinct active vents. According to news articles the Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali closed due to the airborne ash. On 28 November BNPB noted that the number of evacuees had increased to 38,678, and were distributed in 225 evacuation centers. The Ngurah Rai International Airport reopened on 29 November, after the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA)
Recent observations of a robust steam plume and a period of gradually increasing seismicity over several months at Great Sitkin prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 22 November. On 19 November local observers photographed a light-colored vapor plume rising about 300 m above the vent and drifting 15-20 km S. A satellite image acquired on 21 November showed steam continuously jetting from a small fumarole on the W side of the 1974 lava flow within the summit crater, and at least one area where snow and ice had been melted.
Seismicity had fluctuated but increased overall since July 2016, most notably in June 2017. The seismic activity was characterized by earthquakes less than M 1, and occurred either just below the summit or just offshore the NW cost of the island, 30 km below sea level. Possible explosion signals were recorded in seismic data on 10 January and 21 July 2017, but there were no confirmed emissions.

Schermafbeelding 2017-12-04 om 15.46.56

AVO Alaska image from November 19

December 4, 2017

Nyamulagira crater, Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo (Philippa)
If you are in the UK, Ireland, BeNeLux, or other countries in which the BBC broadcasts, look out for part 2 of 'Expedition Volcano' tonight (Sunday 3rd December) at 21:00 UTC on BBC2.

Screen Shot 2017-12-03 at 20.49.27

The programme follows a team consisting of several volcanologists, including Chris Jackson (@Seis_Matters), Kayla Iacovino (@kaylai), and Jeff Johnson (volcano infrasound), tropical medicine doctor Xand van Tulleken (@xandvt), safety expert Aldo Kane (@AldoKane) and a camera team as they investigate not just Nyiragongo volcano, but the communities who live in the neighbouring city of Goma, and wildlife in the surrounding areas.

Volcanologist - Professor Chris Jackson

Volcanologist - Professor Chris Jackson

Not sure if you will be able to view these outside of BBC iPlayer, but below are some clips:

Chris Jackson gets his first view of mighty Nyamulagira

In the heart of Africa, a team of international scientists investigate two of the world's most active volcanoes

Aldo describes the route down to Professor Chris Jackson

In case you missed Episode 1 of 'Expedition Volcano' last week, it is still available to view for another 27 days on BBC iPlayer: Expedition Volcano - Episode 1 (BBC iPlayer)

Screen Shot 2017-12-03 at 20.49.02

03 December 2017

Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia
Gunung Agung continues to erupt to this day. Since the first phreatic eruption on 25/11/2017 at 17:30 WITA with a height of 1,500 meters from the top of the crater, then followed by eruptions in a row. On 11/25/2017 at 23:00 WITA eruption is still ongoing.
Next on 26/11/2017 at 05.05 WITA happened erupsi with height of dark gray column of dark pressurized to reach 2.000 meter, then at 05.45 WITA height reach 3.000 meter. PVMB continuously reports the progress of eruption to BNPB Post and to the community.
On 26/11/2017 at 06:20 WITA the height of eruption reaches 3,000 meters to 4,000 meters from the peak towards the southeast at a speed of 18 km per hour. Analysis of the spread of volcanic ash from Himawari BMKG satellite shows that the distribution of ash leads eastward to the southeast to Lombok. The nature and direction of the distribution of volcanic ash depends on the direction of the wind.
PVMBG has issued a flight warning (VONA, Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) raised from Orange to Red.
The status of Gunung Agung is still alert (level 3) with recommendations within a radius of 6-7.5 km from the summit crater should be no community activity. Masyatakat that still exist in dangerous radius immediately evacuate with orderly.

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 14.44.45

Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 15-21 November 2017

Via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 14.33.35

Agung | Bali (Indonesia)
PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption at Agung began at 1705 on 21 November, following a low-frequency tremor signal. An ash plume rose 700 m above the crater rim and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions).

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 15.00.51
Oraefajokull | Iceland
The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Öræfajökull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvíárjökull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Öræfajökull. There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvíá river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve.

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 14.55.55

Matua Island (Russia)
SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Sarychev Peak were observed on 13 November. Weather clouds prevented observations during 14-20 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 14.59.34

Volcanoes Ecuador
While making a pre-tour for my Galapagos trip, i was able to see now and then volcanoes, often in the distance from 50 to 100 km distance. Here are some of the pictures i have taken the last couple of days.

Tungurahua volcano Ecuador

Tungurahua volcano, Banos - Picture taken from a great spot to watch the volcano: "Ojo del Valcano" (the Eye of the volcano.

Antisana volcano, Ecuador

Antisana volcano photographed from Mishualli, in the Ecuadorian Amazonas region.

Sangay volcano Ecuador

Sangai volcano photographed from La Casa del Suizo, our hotel near Mishualli, in the Ecuadorian Amazonas region.

Cotopaxi volcano Ecuador

Cotopaxi volcano photographed from the base of the volcano at 4000 meter while he was just a few moments out of the clouds

Cotopaxi volcano Ecuador

Same Cotopaxi volcano photographed early in the morning from the Executive floor of our hotel in Quito. He is still steaming and active

Popocatepetl, Mexico

Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 15.20.54 Schermafbeelding 2017-11-26 om 15.22.15

November 26, 2017

Special Feature - Historic eruption: Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (Philippa)
There are certain historic eruptions, which have been pivotal for those of us in the volcanology community. The tragedy which occurred on this week in 1985 at Nevado del Ruiz is one of them. It was the most catastrophic natural disaster ever in Colombia, the second deadliest eruption of the 20th Century after the 1902 eruption of Mont Pelee on Martinique, and the fourth deadliest eruption in recorded history in terms of fatalities. Over 23,000 people lost their lives, including 70% of the population of Armero, a town over 88 km away from the volcano.

Nevado del Ruiz had last erupted 69 years previously. In 1984 the volcano showed signs of awakening again, including earthquakes and fumarolic activity. Climbers reported observations of volcanic gas emissions at the summit.

By September 1985 a civic response committee had been formed in the nearest city of Manizales. Several seismometers sent via the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization had been installed. Geoscientists had drafted a hazard map for the area surrounding the volcano.

Activity started innocuously at around 3 p.m. on 13 November 1985 with a phreatic (steam-drive) eruption. Local authorities met, but no evacuation was called, as there was no indication from the seismic monitoring of the activity that was about to follow. (Bear in mind that seismic monitoring and other forms of volcano monitoring were not as advanced 32 years ago as they are now. Also bear in mind that there was confusion with the hazard map regarding the potential extent of the different volcanic hazards, not to mention confusion from people not being to identify their location on the map, and economic interests.)

At 9.09 p.m. a moderately-sized magmatic eruption was detected by the scientists in Manizales. Events thereafter happened too quickly to prevent what happened next! The heat generated by this eruption started to melt the glacier and snow on top of Nevado del Ruiz, creating three fast-flowing lahars (flows containing water, rocks, volcanic ash, and other debris). These traveled along valleys and six main river channels on the flanks of the volcano, picking up more water and flowing even faster.

via US Geological Survey

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.22.17

Infrastructure, including roads, bridges, power lines, telecommunications, and radio** masts were obliterated, which is why people had no early warning to evacuate. Within an hour a lahar hit the nearest town of Chinchina, killing over 1000 people, and by 11.30 p.m. the first of the lahars hit Armero, killing 20,000 people and injuring 5,000 others.

** Radio was the main form of mass communication in the region at that time

Two hospitals, 50 schools, and more than 5000 homes were destroyed. With regards to farming, which was the main income generator for the region, 60% of livestock, 30% of grain and rice crops, and half a million bags of coffee perished.

via US Geological Survey

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.21.47

In the immediate aftermath of the tragedy there was chaos. Aside from the destruction of the infrastructure and telecommunications, rescue attempts were made near-impossible by thick, thick mud everywhere. Even with helicopters sent by the U.S. Military to aid with search and rescue, there was no way to get people out such as 13 year old Omayra Sanchez Garzon, who was trapped under debris in the mud and water for several days, eventually succumbing to either hypothermia or gangrene.

via Frank Fournier

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 13.36.20

Meanwhile, scientists were desperately trying to re-establish monitoring of Nevado del Ruiz in order to determine whether or not there were likely to be more eruptions following this first one, particularly with around 90% of the glacier still intact on the summit area. Again, the U.S. Military assisted with helicopters and eventually with bringing in international volcanologists and field technicians to help.

Many lessons have been learned from the Nevado del Ruiz and Armero tragedy, particularly with regards to communication and funding.

Shortly after, the Volcano Disaster Assistant Program (VDAP) was created by the US Geological Survey, which maintains a response team and equipment for rapid deployment where needed. Their assistance in the 1991 Pinatubo crisis in the Philippines, for example, helped to avert a much bigger disaster there. More recently VDAP has expanded their role to provide assistance with outreach work to build preparedness and resilience among communities living on volcanoes.

For the survivors of Armero it is important that the tragedy of 1985 is not forgotten, not just out of respect for those who perished, but to inform the younger generation, who are blase about the prospect of future eruptions and lahars. The three videos below (in Spanish with English subtitles) were produced as part of the STREVA project, and are entitled 'Remembering', 'Living With the Volcano', and 'Knowing the Volcano'. The 3rd video features the current generation of Colombian volcanologists and how they monitor Nevado del Ruiz.

via @StrevaProject

Chaiten, Chile (Philippa)
On this day one year ago I hiked to the summit of Chaiten with around 30+ volcanologists from around the world as part of a pre-Cities On Volcanoes conference field trip. Like Armero in the Nevado del Ruiz feature above, the town of Chaiten succumbed to partial destruction caused not by the 2008 eruption of Chaiten volcano per se, but by heavy rainfall shortly afterwards remobilizing volcanic ash on the flanks, triggering lahars and then flooding.

In contrast to the Nevado del Ruiz tragedy, there was only 1 fatality in Chaiten (from a heart attack) and an evacuation was successful, but the emotional damage was greater. Furthermore, this volcano is a mere feeder vent to the much bigger, glacially-covered Michinmahuida volcano!

If it is ok with you, I would like to post a feature sometime soon on the amazing people that we met from Chaiten, particularly their experiences from several months after their evacuation, and highlighting the recovery and rebuilding process that has happened in the years since then.

via Philippa Demonte (@fLip_uk)

Chaiten 067 me summit DSC01325

Historic eruption: Kilauea Iki, Big Island, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
This week we have been enjoying the hilarious, but educational, tweet battle between the curators of the USGS Volcanoes and Alaska Volcano Observatory accounts. Check out the #VolcanoFunFacts hash tag. Among other eruptions, this one got mentioned: the lava fountaining of Kilauea Iki, which occurred on this week in 1959. The claim for the highest lava fountaining of the 20th Century - 580m - was recorded here later in the eruption on 29th November 1959.

Not to be outdone, (Italian volcano monitoring agency) INGV waded into the fray to set the record straight. According to them, the highest recorded lava fountaining of the 20th Century was actually on Mount Etna on 4 September 1999, when fountaining reached a height of 2000 m above the Voragine crater. This has since been surpassed (in the 21st Century) by a 3 km high lava fountain from the same crater on 3 December 2015. (Information via Boris Behncke / @etnaboris)

via US Geological Survey / USGS Volcanoes (@USGSVolcanoes)

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.40.32

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.44.48

The eruption on this part of Kilauea volcano has long since stopped, but if ever you are lucky enough to be able to visit Big Island, I can highly recommend the hike along the Kilauea Iki trail.

National Park Service - Hawai`i Volcanoes - Day Hike - Kilauea Iki

Historic eruptions: Pavlof, Alaska, USA (Philippa)
Alaska Volcano Observatory's retort to USGS Volcanoes Kilauea Iki coverage (above) is Pavlof volcano, which has anniversaries this week for four of its historic eruptions.

via Alaska AVO (@alaska_avo) - USGS - AVO - Historic eruptions - Pavlof

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 11.08.50

Historic eruption - Ngauruhoe, North Island, New Zealand (Philippa)
On this week 100 years ago, Mt Nguaruhoe erupted. Read the fascinating eye witness accounts at the hyperlink below.

Otago Daily Times - 16 November 1917 - Ngauruhoe Eruption

via Otago Daily Times (@Otagodailytimes) / Otago Images (www.otagoimages.co.nz)

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 11.38.28

Sinabung, Sumatra, Indonesia (Philippa)
The image (below) shows the latest explosive eruption, which occurred earlier today at Mount Sinabung.

A new lava dome is already forming, such is the rate that the new, grey lava is erupting at the summit.

Via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)

Sinabung 16Nov17 0657 Endro Lewa

Volcan de Fuego, Gautemala (Philippa)
Fieldwork to test new, drone-mounted volcanic gas sensing equipment continues at Volcan de Fuego. Here is the researchers' office view at the moment.

via Josh Lucas (@JoshLucas27)

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.25.02

According to Emma Liu, Fuego was having periodic explosions like the one in the image below about every 10-20 minutes earlier this week. These are caused by slugs of volcanic gas rising through magma to the top of the conduit. Yes, the volcano is farting!

via Emma Liu (@EmmaLiu31)

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.32.52

Pacaya, Guatemala (Philippa)
Meanwhile....The same group of (British) volcano and aerospace engineering researchers has also been testing their volcanic gas sensing equipment at Pacaya. Drone just in shot.

via Emma Liu (@EmmaLiu31)

Screen Shot 2017-11-16 at 10.30.45

November 16, 2017

TV programme - Jungle Volcano - Nyiragongo volcano, DRC (Philippa)
For those of you in Great Britain, Ireland, the BeNeLux, and other countries able to watch BBC programmes, look out for 'Jungle Volcano', which was filmed at Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Episode 1 will be broadcast on Sunday 26th November, featuring an international team of scientists and film makers, including Chrstopher Jackson (@seis_matters), Kayla Iocovino (@kaylai), Xand van Telleken (@xandvt), and Aldo Kane (@AldoKane).

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 23.42.51

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 23.43.45

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 23.43.59


Manaro Voui vent, Ambae, Vanuatu (Philippa)
The latest satellite image of the new vent in Manaro Voui crater lake shows the growth of the new peninsula and ashfall around Ambae island.

via Simon Carn (@simoncarn) / Planet Labs Inc (@planetlab)

Screen Shot 2017-11-14 at 00.19.13


Webcam images and other volcano images, World (Philippa)
Below are a selection of some of the best volcano webcam images and photos from the past 24 hours.

Klyuchevskaya | Kamchatka, Russia - via The Siberian Times (@siberian_times) / Denis Budkov

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 23.33.42

Mount Agung | Bali, Indonesia - via MAGMA Indonesia (@id_magma)

Mount Fuji | Japan - via www.fujigoko.tv

Mt Fuji 2017-11-13 at 22.20.37

Turrialba | Costa Rica - via OVSICORI-UNA

Turrialba 2017-11-13 at 22.36.46

White Island |New Zealand- via www.geonet.org.nz

White Island 2017-11-13 at 22.23.49

Augustine | Alaska, USA - via Alaska Volcano Observatory

Augustine 2017-11-13 at 22.29.36

Iliamna | Alaska, USA - via Alaska Volcano Observatory

Iliamna 2017-11-13 at 22.31.05

Spotlight on (historical and social volcanologist) Jazmin Scarlett (Philippa)
BBC 100 Women recently featured historical and social volcanologist Jazmin Scarlett (@scarlett_jazmin) on their Instagram take-over. Jazmin is currently completing her PhD, in which she has used La Soufriere volcano and the Caribbean island of St Vincent to investigate how societies co-exist with active volcanoes.

Read more about Jazmin's fascinating research, which covers the physical sciences, social sciences, humanities, and disaster management here: BBC 100 Women - Jazmin Scarlett

via BBC 100 Women (@bbc100women)

Screen Shot 2017-11-14 at 00.39.54

Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: 1-7 November 2017

via Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program / US Geological Survey

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 22.02.50

Agung | Bali, Indonesia
(Monitoring agency) PVMBG reported that white plumes from Agung rose as high as 500m above the crater rim during 1-7 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones remained at 6 km, with an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Aoba | Vanuatu
Based on analyses of satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 6-7 November ash plumes from Aoba rose 2.1-4.3 km (7,000-14,000 ft.) above sea level and drifted E, NW, W, and SW.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)

Kirishimayama | Kyushu, Japan
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that during 2-6 November activity at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe Peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to be slightly elevated. White plumes rose 300-400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

November 14, 2017

Ruapehu, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand (Philippa)
Mount Ruapehu is a glacier-covered stratovolcano...and the site of a popular ski resort. An eruption from the crater lake on the volcano could cause fast flowing lahars (mud flows) from sudden melting of the snow and ice and remobilisation of the volcanic ash below it. In order to make skiiers and other tourists aware of both this potential hazard and of the early warning system that is in place (volcano monitoring agency) GNS have made this video:

via IAVCEI Hazard + Risk (@IAVCEI_Hazards) / Graham Leonard (@grahamleonard) / GNS

Also interesting to hear in the video that the development of the early warning system has involved not just geophysical science research, but also linguistics research into the content of the early warning announcements, acoustics research to check the speech intelligibility of the warning announcements (will people be able to hear the announcements clearly with ski helmets on, reverberation from the flanks of the volcano, and noise from an eruption and/or lahars?), social science research, such as observations of how people reacted to the warning announcements during test trials, and educational outreach.

DEVORA, Auckland, North Island, New Zealand (Philippa)
Meanwhile, elsewhere on North Island, this week there is a forum happening in Auckland for the DEVORA project (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland).

Auckland lies directly on a volcanic field, so the project as a whole is investigating how a modern day eruption in this area could potentially affect the city, not just in terms of physical damage, but also economically. The aim is to create awareness of the volcanic field and to strengthen the resilience of Auckland upfront of any future eruption.

This week's forum is discussing potential eruption scenarios so that plans and reactions for Auckland can be tested. Best practices are also being learned from actual post-eruption clear ups and re-builds that have occurred in other countries, including Chile.

To learn more about DEVORA, see this website:
DEVORA - Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland

Mount Eden and the city of Auckland - via GeoNet (https://www.geonet.org)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 10.41.28

Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala (Philippa)
Fieldwork with British volcanologists (University of Cambridge, University of Bristol, + others) continues at Volcan de Fuego, where they are testing new technology to measure volcanic gas emissions and take ash samples from within eruptive plumes using drone-mounted instrumentation.

Trying to get accurate measurements of volcanic gas emissions on a regular basis is notoriously difficult, as so much depends on the daily weather conditions, including sunlight and humidity, and getting the instrumentation in just the right place to get the best possible measurements multiple times.

via Emma Liu (@EmmaLiu31)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 10.01.23

Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Philippa)
We at Earthquake-Report.com love it when different sciences collide. The image below of a moon bow** in front of (volcano) Mount Teide was taken by the atmospheric observatory AEMET, which is situated at an altitude of 2,370 m above sea level.

** A moon bow is similar to a rainbow, but at night time

via AEMET (@AEMET_esp)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 09.43.32

If any of you are interested in the volcanic history of the island of Tenerife by the way, you might be interested in this: a hazard map of the island together with zones of different geological features.

via IAVCEI Hazard & Risk (@IAVCEI_Hazards) / CSIC / CNRS / Universidad de Las Palmas

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.09.51

Karangetang, Siau Island, Sulawesi, Indonesia (Philippa)
The image below shows Karanagetang, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, having erupted at least 50 times since 1675. This stratovolcano's activity is characterised by lava dome growth, followed by collapse, explosive eruptions, rock avalanches, pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), and lahars. Karanagetang is currently at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and has an exclusion zone of 1.5 km around the summit, with extended exclusion zones to 2.5 km to the South East, South, South West, and West of summit.

via MAGMA Indonesia (@id_magma)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 10.46.43

Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA (Philippa)
Below are images from around the caldera of Mount Katmai, a volcano which collapsed following explosive eruptions in 1912. The lower image shows the ignimbrites (hurridly deposited volcanic material from pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches) from these eruptions, which created the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.

If you are interested in visiting this area, the University of Alaska Fairbanks runs an international volcanology summer school.

Caldera of Mount Katmai - via Dave McGarvie (@subglacial)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 10.54.31

Valley of the Ten Thousand Smokes - via Bob Gooday (@BobGooday)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.01.32

Popocatepetl, Mexico (Philippa)
Night time views of explosive eruptions at Popocatepetl, thanks to infra red / night vision cameras.

via @Popocatepetl_MX / Sky Alert (@SkyAlertMx) / www.webcamsdemexico

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 10.59.41

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.00.36

Santa Maria Regla, Mexico (Philippa)
The image below is interesting not just for volcanologists, but also for geomorphologists - geoscientists who study changes in the landscape. First, there were flood basalt lava flows, which then cooled and cracked to form these polygonal and hexagonal columns. Then water flowed along the top and gradually eroded down through the rock to form this ravine (also known as a canyon) and waterfall.

via Jaime S. Sincioco (@jaimessincioco)

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 09.57.07

Historic photos of volcanoes, World (Philippa)
We at Earthquake-Report.com love discovering historic photos of volcanoes, in particular the selection (below), which were taken in the late 19th Century / early 20th Century by 'volcano chaser' Tempest Anderson.

A further selection of his images can be found at this site:
Early photographs of volcanoes and avalanches around the world taken by vulcanologist Tempest Anderson

Female adventurer at Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy - year unknown

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.24.13

Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, 1906

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.26.37

Bunkers Hill, St. Vincent - 1902

Screen Shot 2017-11-07 at 11.28.18

November 7, 2017