Deadly M7.3 Halabjah earthquake at the Iran-iraq Border - At least 545 people killed - November 12, 2017

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Special injured/fatalities report for this earthquake in cooperation with the 2017 Earthquake Impact Database
Present updated toll (which will almost surely increase the following hours) - 530 FATALITIES and 10,018 INJURED PEOPLE

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- Latest updates below

Update 14:46 UTC: 2 more pictures - a) a collapsing home on a truck and b) totally destroyed apartments that did not collapse only because of the resistance of the pillars. Interesting to see is that the damage in the apartment buildings occurred only at the lower levels.

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Update 13:59 UTC: a video which shows the kind of destruction to cope with. Big question how many people are still buried below the rubble but we estimate many.

Update 13:36 UTC: Middle East tectonics and earthquakes result from the interaction of the Eurasia, Arabia, India, and Africa Plates. This regional tectonics map shows plate motions with
respect to the Eurasian Plate. The location of the earthquake is shown by the red star.

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 14.36.05

The boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates is a zone of oblique convergence with a combination of folds and thrust faults and right-lateral strike slip faults.
The Zagros Mountains are a fold and thrust belt extending across western Iran into northeastern Iraq. Thrust faulting in the foothills of the northwestern Zagros Mountains caused this
earthquake.
In this region, the Arabian Plate moves in a north-northeasterly direction at about 2.5 cm/yr with respect to the Eurasian Plate. (see image below)

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Update 13:15 UTC: For those among you interested in the technical details of the earthquake, Robin Lacassin made a special Twitter Moment section - A #MustRead

https://twitter.com/i/moments/930036181986881537

Update 11:41 UTC: Mark Allen : Cross-section gives an idea of Zagros structure - adapted from Dezful region of Iran to SE. Red dot represents the recent Iraq/Iran #earthquake hypocenter

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Update 09:21 UTC: Landslide expert Dave Petley: The M=7.3 Halabjah earthquake that occurred late yesterday in Iraq has the potential to have triggered large numbers of landslides, but at present there are too many uncertainties to make any sort of reasonable estimate.

Update 09:10 UTC: Nice crowd sourcing initiative at https://t.co/tna9jDS6EY

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Update 09:04 UTC: Detailed numbers of killed and injured people per region :

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Update 08:43 UTC: The numerous, also very dangerous, aftershocks making the earthquake region a hell for the people who cannot evacuate to other areas.

Update 06:38 UTC: Dr. James Daniell,  damage/loss expert at CEDIM Karlsruhe, Germany, has calculated that the expected economic losses will be 345 million $ (range: $119m to $787m). His calculations are resulting in a median of 346 fatalities (range 87 to 905)

Update 23:41 UTC: Based on our experience we do fear that the toll will become much higher during the morning hours when daylight makes SAR and assistance easier. We also think that contrary to Iran, war torn Iraq has not a very developed earthquake response team and accordingly fatalities and injured numbers are underestimated at this time.

Update 23:39 UTC: Picture of the damage in a building in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq

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Update 23:03 UTC: Iranian media are now reporting 100 fatalities at 2 AM in the morning local time  (61 people in Sar-e-Pol-e Zahab, 30 in Kermanshah and 9 in the Shirin Palace)

Update 22:49 UTC: Detailed list of fatalities and injured as known at this update time

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Update 22:25 UTC:  VIDEO of collapsed buildings

Update 22:18 UTC: Table with the latest figures

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Update 22:07 UTC: Turkish Foreign Min. offers condolences to Iraq, says 'ready to help' with aid agencies

Update 21:21 UTC: another picture of the severe damage

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Update 21:17 UTC: these people (in Iran) have wisely decided to spend the night in a tent because of the fear for aftershocks

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Update 21:09 UTC: Detailed numbers of fatalities/injured per region

Screen Shot 2017-11-12 at 22.08.30-compressed

Update 20:21 UTC:

Update 20:20 UTC:

https://twitter.com/EQuake_Analysis/status/929804130104872968

Update 20:11 UTC: Main earth movement based on the current focal mechanism. Image courtesy Observatoire Geoscope
Do beach balls looks like Chinese or Latin to you, check this article "Understanding Beach Balls"

Screen Shot 2017-11-12 at 21.10.29

Update 20:07 UTC: One of the first pictures showing the damage - unclear where the picture was taken

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Screen Shot 2017-11-12 at 21.04.00

Update 19:46 UTC: The fatalities toll has increased to 8

Update 19:41 UTC: Shaking map with possible related damage from the natural disaster specialists at CATnews (Risklayer - CEDIM), Karlsruhe, Germany. Map generated by Andreas Schäfer.

Screen Shot 2017-11-12 at 20.40.23

Update 19:33 UTC: Unfortunately we have to report that the first 4 fatalities and 16 injured have been reported in the Province of Erbil, Iraq

Update 19:28 UTC: Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects : 200 to 3000 injured people and 50 to 1000 fatalities.

Update 19:25 UTC: USGS has calculated that there will be a maximum "very strong" shaking but this was felt by more than a half million people!

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Update 19:17 UTC: the area has many villages and we fear that many people will be injured

Update 19:16 UTC: Based on the present earthquake parameters (Magnitude, Depth, Population, etc) and our experience with earthquake damage impact, earthquake-report.com calls this earthquake extremely dangerous and expects injuries and serious damage

Derbendîxan, Iraq, 22.4 km (13.9 mi) SSEPopulation: 0
Ḩalabjah, Iraq, 32.6 km (20.2 mi) SSWPopulation: 57,333
Sarpol-e Z̄ahāb, Iran, 52.4 km (32.6 mi) NPopulation: 51,611

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Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 7.3

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2017-11-12 21:48:15

GMT/UTC Time : 2017-11-12 18:18:15

Depth (Hypocenter) : 22 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Donation - long - San Francisco

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the "I Felt It" button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
GEOFON Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 22:30 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It
  • Fintas - I felt for 30-60 seconds ; we were in the 7 th floor of Lulua Center residential building . Fintas , Kuwait swinging and we run to the road when the tremor stopped.
  • Erbil - Lasted maybe two minutes. I live in villa. Curtains swinging in my house and crane across the street violently swinging... I thought it would snap in half. Crane shook for a long time but that is only because it already had momentum.
  • Derek/Al Malikeyyeh - Light shaking
  • Salmiya - It lasted for few seconds when I was steping into the tub to shower and felt dizzy or should I say very similiar to hangover.
  • Kalar - It was at 06:01 PM +GTM, it was just few seconds (2-3). No Damage. Yesterday was a real shake in my town.
  • ABU Dhabi - It wasn\'t a pleasant feeling, with a sickness feeling. It lasted anything between 20 and 40 seconds.
  • EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 22:30 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran Nov 12 21:33 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
  • Baghdad - Strong shaking
  • Karachi - Very strong shaking
  • Shuwaikh Industrial - Cracking noises clearly heard in structure. Swinging chandelier for about 20 seconds.
  • Dubai - Lights swinging slightly
  • Doha - Slight shaking and dizzy feeling around 9.30-9.40pm. Affected other areas of Doha too.
  • Al Jahra - Lasted approx 10 seconds felt movement and dizziness.
  • Mangaf - Strong shaking
  • Erbil - It was around 21:30 and we saw the lights swing. People felt soft shaking and then we ran out of the apartment (19th floor) once we realized it was an earthquake. It shook for a long time - maybe 2 minutes. It was very hard to run down the stairs as the building was swinging. Other buildings now have cracks in the plaster. We had a lamp fall over.
  • GEOFON Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 21:33 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 21:33 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 20:32 3.6 16 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Baghdad - The shaking lasted over 2 minutes. The strongest shaking occured about 45 seconds after onset. Sorry could not time it with a watch due to preoccupation with building evacuation. I was on 7th Floor of Al-Mansour Hotel, Baghdad. It felt like intensity VI on MMI scale. One crack in plaster. Some loose objects toppled. I am a geophysicist, btw.
  • hamedan - Light shaking
  • Ahwaz - We were scared
  • EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 20:01 3.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • amrya - A strange feeling for the first time
  • EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 19:54 4.1 14 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Western Iran Nov 12 19:28 3.5 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 19:25 3.8 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 19:06 3.7 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Azerbaijan Gharbi,Mahabad - It was 10 seconds and very scary!no damage thankfully!
  • Tehran - A flower pot hanging from the ceiling began to swing at around 9.45 pm. local time. Lasted a few seconds.
  • EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 18:52 3.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Maidan Hawally - Light shaking
  • Dubai - Strong shaking
  • Baghdad - Moderate shaking
  • EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 18:48 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 18:34 4.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Halabjah, Iraq Nov 12 18:29 5.3 10 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 18:29 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Sar Qalah - Shaking lasted about 45 seconds. Adjacent drilling rig wobbled ominously and rattled loudly.
  • Darbandikhan city - It was really scary
  • Mangaf - Shaking of 1mins
  • sulaymaniah - Very strong shaking
  • Diyala - It lasted about 2 minutes, strong shaking causing swaying of buildings but no damage.
  • USGS Halabjah, Iraq Nov 12 18:18 7.3 23 MAP I Felt It
  • Cebu City - Light shaking
  • Bali - Very weak shaking
  • Kashipur - no
  • Kuwait City - Light shaking
  • Jabriya - Strong shaking
  • Khaitan - Very weak shaking
  • Erbil - Felt like I was on a water bed, being firmly shaken. Lasted less than 3 minutes
  • baghdad - Light shaking
  • manama - Very weak shaking
  • HAWALLI - IT WAS SPONTANEOUS AND BOTH ME AND ONE OF MY COLLEAGUE FELT THE EARTHQUAKE.
  • Doha - 2 minutes
  • Mangaf - It just made my chair shake. No noises.
  • Baghdad - Weak shaking
  • Baghdad - Weak shaking
  • Dubai - I felt the building shaking during 1-2 seconds, I live in the 18th floor.
  • Al Taji - Moderate shaking
  • Taji - 30-45 seconds duration; no damage witnessed
  • Manama - Weak shaking
  • Al Rifai - Weak shaking
  • Manama - Very weak shaking
  • Dohuk - 30 seconds of light shake, things moving in the house
  • Baghdad - the fans kept moving left and right
  • Mangaf - Very strong shaking
  • Baghdad - Light shaking
  • missan - The shaking was small to moderate, it last about 30 seconds, no dammage.
  • バスラ - Weak shaking
  • Mangaf - Strong shaking
  • Seef - Weak shaking
  • Kuwait City - It lasted for about 30 seconds. I was doing some work and my table just started vibrating violently a lot. Nothing was damaged though.
  • fahaheel - Weak shaking
  • Dubai - Sport City - it was shaking for 5 seconds
  • Dubai - Light shaking
  • Dubai - We felt the 5 seconds
  • Doha - Very weak shaking
  • Salmiya - Moderate shaking
  • Masafi - Light shaking
  • Jabriya - Was really strong i felt like my apartment was gonna fall,i was so scared when it happened i moved from one place to another. it lasted about 2 seconds but was really strong. People started to call and ask us if your fine.
  • Baghdad - Shacking lasted 3-4 min. No damaged noticed. The shacking was enough to make you feel light headed and lose your balance.
  • Salmiya - We were sitting on the couch and it felt like we were in a yacht on sea waves.
  • kuwait city - 5 secondes
  • Salymia - Sitting in my car at traffic light car was moving back an forth
  • Sulaimaniya - It was a strong earthquake and it took about 5 to 7 minutes. I felt my chair was shaking and glasses in the cupboard rattling. The residents in my apartment went out.
  • Dubai - Weak shaking
  • Kuwait - Very weak shaking
  • Kuwait city - 2 tremors lasting 5-7s about 30s apart
  • salmya - about 45 seconds
  • Abbasiya - Weak shaking
  • Salmiya - Moderate shaking
  • Doha - Weak shaking
  • Dubai - Nothing fell down from shelf. Lights were swinging and really felt the building shaking from 10th floor at around 10:30pm. Lot of people went outside
  • Dammam - 30 min
  • Salmiya - Moderate shaking
  • erbil - Moderate shaking
  • Dubai - Was laying on the bed when it felt like a rocking boat; I looked at the lamps and there swinging indeed. It stayed for up to 30 seconds!
  • Salmiya - Weak shaking
  • Alnajaf - We are out side right now
  • DUBAI MARINA - No damage. Everything in room was shaking. Lasted about 30 seconds
  • Erbil - The ceiling fan was shaking and the doors were moving by self. I felt extremely dizzy.
  • Saar - It was around 21:20 AST I felt the floor shaking and I knew that it was the earthquake after a while I did google search and it confirmed an earthquake near Iran Iraq border
  • Hawalli - The effect is very much felt that lasted about 15-20secs. Sort of back to back shake up. Most tenants of our tower decides to go down and stay down for awhile as precaution.
  • Salmiya - 30 secs
  • Salmiya - it felt like the building itself was swaying side to side
  • salmiya - Moderate shaking
  • Basra - 2 -3minutes
  • Abu Halifa - no damage,was for 25 minutes
  • Baghdad - No damage. Shook for about 30-45 seconds!
  • Manama - Moderate shaking
  • Salmiya - Weak shaking
  • Tehran - Weak shaking
  • kuwait - Light shaking
  • Salwa - Light shaking
  • Salmiya - everything was shaking.
  • Kuwait City - strong and we were in shock
  • Kuwait city - I was sitting on sofa against with head against my wall n it was like a small vibration for about less than a min
  • Doha - The walls made a cracking noise for about 5 minutes. Putting our ear against the wall, we heard the cracking more clearly but it sounded like a swing. The noise was rocking back and forth although we didn’t feel actual rocking nor shaking. It was the noise that made us evacuate the building realizing it was an earthquake.
  • Mahboula - 5 secs shake
  • urmia - Weak shaking
  • Sulaymaniyah - Strong shaking
  • Abu Dhabi - Light shaking
  • Samawah - I was looking through old pictures when I suddenly felt the bed rocking. The shaking lasted about 5 minutes or so. The chandelier was swaying back and forth, looking like it was about to fall. Doors were opening and closing as well.
  • Hawalli - Very strong shaking
  • Khatian - Light shaking
  • Sulaymaniyah - It was just like the end of existence... the EQ was extremely powerful but hopefully, thanks to god it didn\\\'t last much.
  • Maidan Hawally - Light shaking
  • Salmiya - Light shaking
  • mangaf - 15-20 secs time: 9:24
  • Manama - For a few seconds, observed when my aquarium water starter shaking and chandeliers shaking.
  • Tel-Aviv - Light shaking
  • Dohuk - Five seconds, very strong heaves left and right
  • Fahahil - This is Khalid working with SK E&C organization in Kuwait. I was laying on the floor at 6th floor and talking to my relative by mobile, mean while I observe shaking the entire building, immediately I notify my room mate to scape from building and also suggest him not to use lift. Now almost one hours past and my heart is not allowing me to go in my flat.
  • Messila - Light shaking
  • rafha saudi arabia - 5 seconds slight shaking
  • Abu halifa - Strong shaking
  • Abu Dhabi - We were sitting in the sofa and we felt the shaking.
  • abbasiya - Strong shaking
  • Salmiya - Strong shaking
  • Baghdad - I was in the bed when the desk started shaking heavily, followed by the bed strongly rocking side to side, the lights were swaying. It began at around 9:20 Baghdad time and lasted almost a minute.
  • Zakho - Floor was shaking, felt disoriented
  • Hawally - Light shaking
  • GEOFON Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 18:18 7.3 22 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Basra - Lasted approx 2 minutes, made my chair shake
  • Erbil - Very long lasting (circ 75 seconds) of lateral shaking, moderate-strong shaking causing swaying of buildings but no damage.
  • Baghdad - Strong shaking
  • balad - 1 _ 2 minute.
  • Taji - 30-45 seconds
  • Tehran, shemiranat - Light shaking
  • Kuwait City - 7 seconds
  • Tehran - Light shaking
  • Kuwait - Light shaking
  • bagdad - back and forth movement no damage seen
  • Sulaymaniyah - 10 sec.
  • Baghdad - Weak shaking
  • Erbil - First time in a situation like this the floor and the chair shook like its on water
  • dubai - sitting on my 17th floor appartment , working on my desk, when i felt someone rocking my deskchair , it was a strong Movement !!! (arround 10:24 dubai time )
  • Kuwait city - 5 seconds maximum weak shake
  • Salmiyah - Moderate shaking
  • Maysan - Horrible earthquake
  • Bayan - Bed started shaking me and my mom woke up
  • Ballad - It lasted about 20 seconds at peak then 1-2 minutes total. No damage to report but I\'m in the desert nothing around me felt like riding in an airplane!
  • Mezzeh - Chandelier, Art, And Hanging Shaking lightly, Table shaking barely, water in a bottle was shaking but the bottle wasn\'t
  • Sulimaniyah - Lasted for a good minute. House swayed fairly intensely even after the quake subsided. Heard rumbling across the city though have not seen visible damage.
  • Baghdad - Nothing damaged around me but its was huge shak i never feel like this the earth was shaking and i saw trees and every thing was ahaking it was very huge we are still in shock
  • Kuwait - Lights shaking, fish tank overflowed, people evacuated the building, 7-10 seconds light shaking followed by several weak aftershocks
  • Kuwait - Very weak shaking
  • baghdad - it lasted for about 30 to 40 seconds. Not even a slight damage. The ceiling fan started shaking, and felt my chair shaking too.
  • Jabriya - 2 seconds. No damage.
  • Hateen - Short shaking
  • Erbil - Light shaking
  • Salmiya - Moderate shaking
  • Kuwait - A moment of a swift right to left slide. At first it seemed unreal until I noticed the hanging objects were moving to confirm the experience.
  • netanya - Light shaking
  • Baghdad - Watched vehicles rock back and forth, light poles and palm trees sway and felt the ground shake for at least 2 minutes.
  • Sulaimaniya - Moderate shaking
  • GEOFON Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 17:35 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Iran-iraq Border Region Nov 12 17:35 4.3 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran Nov 12 17:35 4.5 22 MAP I Felt It INFO


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    SHARE YOUR EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE WITH US

    I felt the shaking *
    Country where you felt the earthquake *
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake *
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Shaking Strength *
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    Tell us your experience and how many seconds the shaking lasted + let us know if your property has been damaged (even slight damage). (max. 500 characters)
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