Volcano news - Archive Nr. 10

For the latest part of this report - Click here

Avacaha volcano, Kamchatka (Philippa)
Low level cloud and rain are hampering our efforts to bring you some decent webcam shots today. So, instead we shall console ourselves with this image of Avacaha volcano erupting on 25 February in 1945. This was the last highly explosive eruption to occur there.

via Sergey Samoylenko / Artemiy Tvorcov (https://www.facebook.com/artemiytvorcov)

Avacaha 25February1945 Artemi Tvorkov

Katla, Iceland (Philippa)
The (aviation) alert level for Katla volcano has once again been lowered to Green by Veðurstofa Íslands (Icelandic Meteorological Office) following last week's increased seismicity, which was caused by glacial outburst floods in the Múlakvísl River, not by the volcano.

To keep an eye on Katla, click on this link to the webcam:

Live from Iceland - Katla webcam

August 1, 2017

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
Lava fountaining and cone-building activity continues at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. The following image was taken yesterday during an overflight.

via Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) / IPGP


Kizimen, Kamchatka, Russia (Philippa)
Webcam shot taken today of the current steam venting activity at Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka.

via the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Kamchatka


Mount Ruapehu, North Island, New Zealand (Philippa)
Here at Earthquake-Report.com we love it when volcanologists post their fieldwork photos. The following were taken at (from left-right, top-bottom): Mount Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, Cathedral Rocks, and view of the crater lake.

Mount Ruapehu is a popular ski resort. However, the volcano is still active and poses several threats. Although the last major eruption was in 1995-1996, a breach in the wall of Crater Lake in March 2007 caused a lahar which dispersed around 1.4 million cubic metres of mud, rock and water downslope via a river channel, and in September 2007 there was a sudden hydrothermal (steam-driven) eruption. Several warnings have since been issued by (monitoring agencies) GNS and Geonet due to seismic swarms and raised temperatures and volcanic gas levels in the lake.

via Nico Fournier (@NicoVolc) / GNS


Pico Viejo, Canary Islands (Philippa)
The latest group of interns with GeoTenerife (@GeoTenerife) have been posting some stunning images from the Canary Islands over the weekend. We particularly like this one - a view of Pico Viejo from the top of the crater of Mount Teide.

Pico Viejo is the 2nd highest peak of Tenerife and the Canary Islands, and last had a major eruption in 1798.

via Katrina Dorosh (@DoroshKatrina) / GeoTenerife (@GeoTenerife)


Stromboli, Aeolian Islands / Sicily (Philippa)
Eruptive activity continues at Stromboli. Since the webcam has a little bit of ash or dirt obscuring it though, we thought you might instead like to see some video of the volcano in action from this past month.

via Lalligator 1 / YouTube

July 31, 2017

Citizen science, 1883 - Krakatoa, Indonesia (Philippa)
Another fascinating video with The Royal Society, this time looking at the citizen science - non-scientist observations - following the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa volcano in Indonesia. The eruption was so big, that the sound traveled as far as Australia, and the volcanic ash carried by winds in the stratosphere led to amazing and unusually colourful sunset skies for around a year afterwards.

via Objectivity / YouTube

Katla volcano, Iceland - update (Philippa)
The jokulhlaup (glacial outburst flood), which we reported on yesterday, has subsided, and there are no signs of volcanic activity at Katla. The alert level is nevertheless being kept at yellow for the remainder of the weekend as a precaution, but more on account of the bad weather conditions, which tourists in the area need to be aware of, and not due to the volcano.

via Gisli Olafsson (@gislio) and the Icelandic Meteorology Office (vedur.is)

Volcano experiments, New Zealand / World (Philippa)
Not all volcano-related research takes place on actual volcanoes. Some scientists conduct what are known as analogue experiments, that is to say, an experiment in a lab or outdoors which replicates a certain aspect of a volcanic eruption in order to try and better understand the processes that occur in nature. Below are two such experiments.

In New Zealand, and regarding Auckland in particular, which is located directly on a volcanic field, scientists at the University of Canterbury are concerned with how roofs and different building materials would withstand the impact of volcanic ballistics, i.e. rocks hurled out during an eruption. Whilst the experiment that you can see in this news report may seem fun (see link below), this problem has already been an issue for buildings in towns and villages around active volcanoes such as Mount Etna in Sicily and Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat. The cumulative weight of volcanic ash fall on roofs during an eruption can also be a problem.

via Josh Hayes (@Naturehazard) / TVNZ - 1 News Now

TVNZ - 1 News Now - How safe is your house if a volcano erupts nearby?

rsz_TVNZ 1 News feature ballistics

Meanwhile, researchers at Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich, Germany, conducted this fun trash can analogue experiment to demonstrate the pathways that different sized ballistics take in terms of how high and how far they are shot out of a volcano. Ballistics at an actual volcano can range from ash-sized particles up to boulders as big as a bus!

via LMU Volcanology (@LMU_Volc)

Alaskan volcanoes, USA (Philippa)
This article highlights the work that the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) are doing to look at layers of volcanic ash fall inbetween layers of soil and peat in order to investigate historic eruptions of the Alaskan volcanoes. It follows on nicely from the feature we posted yesterday from Kellie Wall.

By digging pits or down through cliffs, where the youngest layers are near the top and the older layers are lower down, AVO look at the colour and size of the ash fall particles, the thickness of the ash fall layers, and try to find vegetation interspersed between the ash layers in order to determine the date (in terms of years or thousands of years) and source of each eruption. Doing so helps AVO to then forecast the potential future activity of each of the Alaskan volcanoes.

Although Alaska is not a densely-populated State, ash from the volcanoes there can pose major problems for aviation.

via US Geological Survey / Alaska Volcano Observatory (@alaska_avo)

Digging up Alaska's volcanic secrets - Alaska Dispatch News article

The image below shows Kristi Wallace and Katie Mulliken from the Alaska Volcano Observatory investigating the layers of ashfall within the peat at the Seldovia slough.

via Erin Mckittrick / Ground Truth Trekking

rsz_Seldovia slough May 2017 Kristi Wallace Katie Mulliken AVO - Erin McKittrick - Ground Truth Trekking

Ambrym volcano, Vanuata
Zooming in on the dark area on Ambrym, red-hot lava lakes can be seen through the clouds. This volcano has two active volcanic cones and we can see smoke drifting out over the ocean to the west. This high resolution image, also featured on the Earth from Space video programme, was captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on 24 June 2016.

Screen Shot 2017-07-30 at 10.09.01

July 30, 2017

Masaya volcano, Nicaragua (Janine)

Katla volcano, Iceland (Philippa)
Following on from previous posts on here this week regarding Iceland, the Icelandic Meteorological Office report that the recent seismic activity in the vicinity of Katla volcano was caused by jokulhlaup - glacial outburst floods - and contrary to sensational news reports, does not indicate imminent eruption of the volcano.

The problem with all geophysical monitoring methods, including seismic monitoring, is that the sources of signals are non-unique, i.e. different sources can produce similar signals, but we cannot necessarily see what the source is**. This is why volcanoes ideally have to monitored over long periods of time using more than one method to confirm that a volcano is the source of the seismic signals observed, e.g. deformation monitoring, web cams, infrasound sensors, etc.

** As an aside to Katla, when I spent time working with the seismic monitoring team at Montserrat Volcano Observatory in the Eastern Caribbean, I learned to distinguish between the seismic signals generated by Soufriere Hills Volcano, such as volcano-tectonic quakes (the ground rock cracking as magma tries to break through at depth), rock falls from the side of the edifice, and small lahars (mud and debris flows), versus seismic signals generated by 'noise' such as heavy rainfall, helicopters landing on the observatory's helipad, pneumatic drills from road works, and even goats unhelpfully chewing on monitoring equipment cabling.

via Veðurstofa Íslands (@Vedurstofan) / Icelandic Meteorological Office


Click on this link for the live webcam of Katla volcano:

Live From Iceland - Katla volcano webcam

Volcan Sabancaya, Peru (Philippa)
Image captured via the webcam at 13:32 UTC today of Volcano Sabancaya in action.



Etna, Sicily (Philippa)
Active degassing continues at the summit area of Etna volcano. The image (below) was taken via the Milo Map webcam less than 2 hours ago.

via INGV Catania


Masaya volcano, Nicaragua
The less attractive part of volcano fieldwork, wearing masks 🙂
@EIlyinskaya and a toxic plume

(Philippa adds) The field work that Evgeniya is currently conducting on and around Masaya volcano with a team of other scientists is part of the UNRESP project (@UNRESPproject). They are investigating volcanic gas emissions at persistently erupting volcanoes and their long-term environmental and health effects on nearby communities. One of the aims of the project is to improve air quality forecasts.

Screen Shot 2017-07-29 at 11.54.22

World - A day in the life of a volcanology researcher (Philippa)
Here at Earthquake-Report.com we are always interested to hear about the different routes that people have taken in order to become volcanologists, and which aspects of a volcano such people are researching.

If you are also interested in this, there is a blog called Rock-Head Sciences which does 'A day in the life...' series, and the latest entry is about volcanologist Ailsa Naismith, who is conducting research into the remote sensing (use of webcams, satellite observations, etc) of Fuego volcano in Guatemala.

Click on the link (below) to see the article:

A Day In the Life Geoscience Series - profile: Ailsa Naismith

via Rock-Head Sciences - photo: Ailsa Naismith during previous fieldwork at Colima volcano, Mexico

rsz_Colima_Mexico Ailsa Naismith

Auckland volcanic field, New Zealand (Philippa)
If any of you reading Earthquake-Report.com happen to live in New Zealand or if you are lucky enough to go there one day, you might be interested in this article and link to a radio broadcast featuring (volcanologist and GNS lead researcher) Dr Graham Leonard talking about the eruptive history of Auckland:

RNZ - Decoding Auckland's Volcanic Past (article + radio broadcast)

By investigating the geology of the volcanic fields that Auckland is built on, the GNS team have been able to determine the eruptive history of the region:

  • at least half of all the eruptions there have occurred within the past 60,000 years, which on geological time scales is a relatively short period of time
  • several large scale eruptions happened within a short time period of just 4,000 years compared to other times when there were thousands of years between eruptions at Auckland's volcanic fields.

The studies have been published this month by the Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland research programme.

There is also an interesting article on Auckland's volcanic fields in New Zealand Geographic at this link, where you can read more about the volcanology research being conducted to try and determine when the next eruption in this region might be, and how much the financial cost would be to society: New Zealand Geographic - The Fire Beneath Us

La Palma, Canary Islands (Philippa)
The Canary Islands are a great place to go check out features from previous volcanic activity and eruptions. I can highly recommend Timanfaya National Park on the island of Lanzarote, for example.

The image below though is from one of the other islands, La Palma, where you can easily see these features on the road side.

The left-hand and bottom right-hand images show dykes (lighter grey colour), i.e. where magma broke through the surrounding bedrock as it rose to the surface. These are underground features, but we are able to see them at the roadsides due to subsequent faulting, uplift and erosion of the bedrock.

In contrast, the top right-hand image shows what is known as an unconformity. This is where we see clear boundaries between different types of rocks and deposits one on top of the other, and at an angle, which tells us about the geological history of this area. It is difficult to tell exactly what the deposits are from this distance, but the darker grey layers could be tephra (ash fall) from explosive, eruptive activity; the orange layer could be a different, more iron-rich eruption layer of ash, then a much thinner layer of pale grey ash, then lava flows on top, and finally faulting and uplift of all the rock layers.

via La Noche de los Volcanes / Volcanoes' Night (@nochedevolcanes)

rsz_La Palma Canary Islands Noche de Volcanes


World - contents of an eruption plume (Philippa)
One aspect of volcanology research involves using microscopes or even more powerful lenses to look at the particles deposited by a volcanic ash plume. Whilst the size and shape of volcanic ash particles themselves can provide us with information about the dynamics of a volcanic eruption, such as how explosive it was, other particles caught in the up-drafts of eruption plumes and then deposited, such as plant pollen (see image below), can provide useful information regarding historic eruptions, such as the location and environmental conditions at the time of the eruption.

via Kellie Wall (@wall_rocks)

rsz_seeds and pollen in volcanic ash Kellie Wall

July 29, 2017

Iceland, Reykjanes ridge Update
We can now say that the swarm is over.

Screen Shot 2017-07-28 at 15.22.24

Chile, volcano lightning
Lightning engulfs a volcanic eruption in Chile Incredible photo by Francisco Negroni
Via @Galka_Max

Screen Shot 2017-07-28 at 15.13.43

Stromboli, volcano, Stromboli, Sicily, Italy
Video capture Francis Worrall and video images Skyline webcams.
This 6 minute video covers 1 hour of action, as I paused after each Lava Bomb!
A walk to the summit and staying there at night is always and "never to forget" experience. Stromboli is almost all the time active although the time in between the explosions varies considerably.

Tristan da Cunha, Mid-Atlantic Ocean (Philippa)
Thank you to Oliver Lamb (@olamb245) and Objectivity (@Objectivity_Vid) for bringing our attention to this pearl of a video about archive footage and documents from a Royal Society expedition to Tristan da Cunha in the 1963. This is a fascinating insight not only into volcano eruption observations and hazard mapping on one of the most remote islands of the world, but also health reports logged by dentists and observations made by biologists and the navy.

Let me know if this volcanic island is of further interest to you, as I have a friend who spent 6 months on Tristan da Cunha a few years ago doing follow-up fieldwork, both in terms of geological mapping and analyzing the volcanic deposits, and in terms of understanding the post-evacuation / return to home effects.

via Objectivity / YouTube

Etna, Sicily (Philippa)
A few images from Etna in the past 24 hours: the first set shows the summit craters - Northeast Crater, Voragine, Bocca Nuova, and the Southeast Crater complex; the second image was taken via the Montagnola visible webcam and shows degassing activity from the summit area in the past hours. The yellow colouring on the rocks in the first few images is sulfur.

via Boris Behncke (@etnaboris)


via INGV Catagna - Montagnola visible webcam


July 28, 2017

Iceland, Reykjanes ridge Update
No more very shallow earthquakes since midnight. The number of earthquakes seels to decrease a bit the last 8 hours but is still high. The strength is also decreasing a little bit.

Update 11:00 UTC: The swarm looks to have stopped.

Screen Shot 2017-07-27 at 09.14.37

July 27, 2017

Iceland, Reykjanes ridge
Shallow earthquake swarm during the last 48 hours
All volcanoes in the area have no change in alert coding and have never erupted the last several centuries.
Ridge means that this an area where 2 plates are moving out of each other. The current hypocenter depths are varying in between 10 km and 400 meter.
The last 24 hours the Icelandic seismological service recorded 288 earthquakes. 12 of them above M3.
Earthquake swarms are occurring on a regular basis in Iceland but this one is certainly to be followed.

Screen Shot 2017-07-27 at 00.27.51

Volcano activity for the week of 19-25 July 2017

Screen Shot 2017-07-27 at 00.07.47

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France)
OVPF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise increased on 10 July and was followed by a seismic crisis that began around 1250 on 13 July. Events were mainly located below the S edge of Dolomieu Crater, between 500 and 1,000 m a.s.l. Inflation was also detected, concurrent with increased seismicity. An eruption began at 0050 on 14 July in an area 750 m E of the Kala-Pélé peak, 850 m W of Château Fort, and 2.2 km NE of Piton de Bert. During a survey at 0930 scientists observed a fissure about 450 m long with seven lava fountains rising as high as 30 m. The fountain on the downhill end had built up a cone and produced two lava flows. A sulfur dioxide plume drifted E. On 15 July only three fountains were active. The intensity of the eruption fluctuated during 15-17 July, and by 17 July activity was concentrated at one eastern cone. During 18-19 July a few vents within the cone were active, ejecting lava no higher than 20 m above the cone’s rim. By 21 July several lava tubes had formed, and fractures within the tubes produced small lava flows. During an overflight on 22 July scientists noted that the lava flow was over 2.8 km long with a maximum width of 0.6 km; the front of the flow had not advanced in the past seven days. Three main vents were active within the main cone and a fourth was just sporadically active. The eruption continued at least through 25 July.

Planchon-Peteroa | Central Chile-Argentina border
Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) - SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Planchón-Peteroa was raised to Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) on 10 July, noting elevated seismicity (above baseline levels) on 8 July.

Sangay | Ecuador
Based on satellite images and information from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 July an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, PVMBG observations, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Information provided by Smithsonian GVP Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Volcan Reventador, Ecaudor (Philippa)
The video footage below shows the latest eruptive activity from the past 24 hours at Volcan Reventador. It was reported that there has been a slight increase in eruptive activity at the volcano this past month.

via Jovenes Producciones TV / YouTube

July 26, 2017

Masaya volcano, Nicaragua (Philippa)
A research team from the UNRESP ('building resilience to persistent volcanic emissions') project are currently on fieldwork in Nicaragua to test water samples and take weather measurements from the vicinity of Masaya volcano. As well as affecting the air quality, volcanic gases and ash from eruptions make rain water acidic, which then affects the local environment.

The first image below shows how using a simple funnel and drinks bottle set up in an area under Masaya's eruptive plume, the team were able to collect rain water, which was shown to have a pH of 3-4, i.e. acidic.

The team will be using the data that is collected during this time to help improve air quality forecasting in Nicaragua and therefore the even longer-term monitoring of the health effects and environmental effects in an actively volcanic region.

via UNRESP project (@UNRESPproject)

Masaya Nicaragua rain sampling

Below is an image of the persistently erupting lava lake within the crater of Masaya volcano

Masaya Nicaragua UNRESP project

Sabancaya volcano, Peru (Philippa)
When the weather is good enough to use the webcams, Sabancaya volcano always provides us with some great eruption images. We were even more excited though when one of yesterday's eruptions were captured on video.


Surtsey, Iceland (Philippa)
A group of research teams will next month start drilling two deep holes into Surtsey, an island which came into being after a series of explosive volcanic eruptions between 1963 and 1967, much in the same way as Nishinoshima in Japan and Bogoslof in Alaska now. One team will be investigating the microbial life which feeds off the rock; the other team will be investigating the rock itself, as the hydrothermal ('hot water') interaction between lava and sea water produced minerals which sealed the cracks and holes within Surtsey's volcanic rock, making it stronger.

The full article, which was published in Nature magazine this week, can be found here: Iceland drilling project aims to unearth how islands form - Alexandra Witze - Nature

The image below was taken in 1963, and shows people investigating Surtsey shortly after the island came into being.

via Nature / Sigurdur Thorarinsson / Arctic-Images.com

Surtsey 1963 Sigurdur Thorarinsson

July 25, 2017

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Fantastic video footage captured earlier this week by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the lava lake within Halema`uma` Crater at the summit of Kilauea volcano.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey

Meanwhile, the ocean entry at Kamokuna remains active. In the image below we can see the large crack (from bottom left to mid-right of photo) in the lava delta running parallel to the coastline, which means that the lava delta at this time is still unstable and could collapse at any moment.


Nishinoshima island, Japan (Philippa)
This news feature from tv-asahi (see link below) shows the latest eruptive activity from Nishinoshima island, which lies around 1000 km south of Tokyo. The volcanic island first emerged above sea level around October 2013.

I have, unfortunately, forgotten all the Japanese that I learned around 10 years ago, so if any of you can tell us what the commentary says, that would be amazing. In terms of features though, Nishinoshima's eruptions are explosive and ash-laden, also shooting out large rocks from its vent.

via F.IKGM (@geoign) / ANN

News - TV-Asahi - Nishinoshima Island eruptions

The image below was taken yesterday, and shows Nishinoshima blowing 'smoke' rings, which are volcanic gas and steam emitted from a circular vent at just the right velocity (speed).

via @Hyuga_Navy_jp

Nishinoshima taken by Japanese Navy


Sinabung volcano, Indonesia (Philippa)
Explosive, ash-laden eruptions continue at Sinabung volcano in Indonesia. The image (below) was taken earlier today and shows pyroclastic density currents (avalanches of hot rocks and ash, which have fallen out of the eruption plume) racing down the slopes. Local residents have been advised to wear surgical face masks to avoid inhaling the volcanic ash as it re-mobilizes.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Meanwhile, the following video of a lahar (mud and debris flow) from a couple of days ago has been posted on social media.

via Severe World Weather / Rodriguo Contreras Lopez


Pavlof volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)
Below is a webcam image captured a few hours ago on a USGS webcam of Pavlof volcano in action. A team from University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Volcano Observatory are currently carrying out fieldwork on the flanks.

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Copahue, Chile (Philippa)
Small scale ash and steam eruptions continue at Copahue volcano in Chile.



Volcano activity for the week of 12-18 July 2017
weekly summary wc 12July2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismis, infrasound, or lightning data.

Fuego | Guatemala
(Monitoring agency) Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanalogia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH) reported that multiple explosions at Fuego during 13-14 July generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km NW and W. Incandescent (glowing) material was ejected 100 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluya (SW) and Trinidad (S) drainages. On 16 July a 30 m wide, 2 m deep, hot lahar descended tributaries of the Pantaleon (W) drainage, carrying blocks more than 2 m in diameter, and tree trunks. The lahars again overtook the road between communities on the SW flank, isolating the village of Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW) and the Palo Verde estate. Vulcanian explosions during 17-18 July produced desnse ash plumes that rose almost 1 km above the crater rim and drifted 15 km W and NW. Ash fell in Panimache (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Sofia (12 km SW).

Sangeang Api | Indonesia
(Monitoring agency) PVMBG reported a small eruption at Sangeang Api at 11:54 on 15 July characterized by Strombolian activity, and an ash plume that rose 100-200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Prior to the event, thermal anomalies had increased beginning in March, and seismicity had increased starting in April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, PVMBG observation, and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 16 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km a.s.l., or 200 m above the crater rim, and drifted NW.

Information provided by Smithsonian GVP Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

July 22 + 23, 2017

Volcan Fuego, Guatemala (Philippa)
Volcan Fuego has been erupting again this week after a month's respite. The night time footage (below) was shot on 10 July from a vantage point in San Pedro de las Huertas.

via Broken Compass

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
The footage (below) was shot on 18 July 2017. Vigorous lava fountaining was still visible on the OVPF / IPGP Piton de Bert webcam last night, but as reported previously, the structures are transitioning from a fissure to discrete cones as more lava erupts and settles.

via Francois Martel Asselin (Clicanoo.re JIR)

July 21, 2017

Sinabung volcano, Indonesia (Philippa)
This photo from today at Sinabung volcano is an example of some of the different processes going on in an eruption plume: buoyant convective currents have lofted the finest-sized ash particles into a mushroom cloud at the top, whilst lower down we observe almost pure water vapour cloud and small pyroclastic flows on the flank of the volcano where the heavier ash and rock particles have fallen out of the plume.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


A round-up of some of the webcam images from the past 24 hours:

Shishaldin volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey

Okmok volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Mt. Bromo, Indonesia (Philippa)



Sileri Crater Lake, Dieng Volcanic Complex, Indonesia (Philippa)
This area was the site of a phreatic (steam-driven) eruption, which occurred on 2nd July, which injured 11 tourists. The fact that this webcam image taken in the past 24 hours clearly shows steam emissions indicates that it is still not safe to visit this crater lake at the moment.



Volcan Turrialba, Costa Rica (Philippa)
This surprisingly clear webcam shot of Turrialba is showing separate white (steam) and grey-brown (ash) plumes from the main crater, and surface features around the two neighbouring craters, including rills (water channels).

via OVSICORI-UNA (@volcanturrialba)


Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
Strong fissure eruption activity was visible via the webcams last night, particularly via the Piton de Bert webcam (see first image below). The second image shows how the lava fountains are now starting to form cones.



Piton de la Fournaise 19July2017 IPGP

July 20, 2017

Sinabung, Indonesia (Philippa)
The image below may not be as exciting for some of you as action shots of red hot lava spouting out of a vent, but for those of us interested in volcano monitoring this zoomed-in shot of a steaming, growing lava dome at Sinabung volcano provides vital insight into the conditions just prior to eruption, in particular regarding: 1) the extrusion rate of the (grey) lava forming the dome, 2) the stability / instability of the lava dome, and 3) whether or not the volcano was degassing. In this particular case, Sinabung had a small-scale explosive eruption less than 2 hours later.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu, Japan (Philippa)
On this day exactly 4 years ago I had this volcano as my 'office' view: Sakurajima. A group of us had gone there prior to a volcanology conference to set up arrays (groups) of acoustic sensors in order to study the infrasound emissions from the volcano.

When a volcano or geyser erupts, as well as seismic waves (little earthquakes) they produce sound waves (pressure waves) in the air at frequencies below our human limit of hearing, i.e. less than 20 Hz**, which is known as infrasound. Sound waves at such frequencies have a long wave length and can travel far - think of the boom of Krakatau volcano in Indonesia, which was heard in Australia - and so aero-acoustic sensors can be placed at a further, safer distance away from a volcano than other types of monitoring equipment.

Volcano infrasound monitoring is particularly useful for detecting eruptions during low visibility conditions, such as at night time or at volcanoes in remote locations where it is difficult to install webcams. It is vital towards the service which provides timely Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAA) for busy aviation routes, including over Alaska and Indonesia / Singapore / Malaysia.

In the case of Sakurajima volcano, our infrasound data together with the seismic and deformation data monitored by the local volcano observatory helped determine that this particular volcano goes seismically and aero-acoustically very quiet during the 1-2 hours prior to each eruption, with deformation sensors showing slight inflation. Our Japanese colleagues interpreted this as the minerals at the top of the lava dome becoming chemically altered, which seals the vent, causes a built up of pressure, then dome failure and eruption.

** You may have heard stories before of animals behaving strangely prior to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This is because they can either hear frequencies below our human level of hearing, or because they can feel the ground and/or air vibrations, e.g. through their bellies if they are snakes, through the whiskers on their face if they are dogs, etc.

July 19, 2017

Klyuchevskoy and Koryaksky, Kamchatka, Russia (Philippa)
Conditions in Kamchatka have been a little cloudy for the past few days, but we managed to catch a break in the weather to capture these webcam images of Klyuchevskoy volcano's ongoing eruptive activity and Koryaksky volcano. Although the latter is not currently erupting, this was a good opportunity to show the location of Kamchatka's capital - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - between several volcanoes. I have been there before and can tell you that the views from the city are stunning!

via the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology / KVERT



Sabancaya volcano, Peru (Philippa)
There was some great viewing to be had of the ongoing eruption at Sabancaya volcano via the webcams* a few hours ago. * Front view and (from a greater distance) side view.




Stromboli, Aeolian Islands, Sicily (Philippa)
Even at night time it is possible to capture imagery and useful information about a volcano using thermal infra red cameras. Hotter areas show as orange, yellow, and almost white colours, whilst cooler areas show as greens, blues, and purples. The two thermal images below are from Stromboli volcano during the past few nights, and show eruptions (volcano burps) from two different vents.

via INGV Catania webcam


Stromboli 15July2017 1227UTC INGV

July 18, 2017

Sinabung, Indonesia (Philippa)
Night time shot of Sinabung volcano taken with a long shutter setting to also capture the stars.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Yasur, Vanuatu (Philippa)
I am guessing that (photographer) Chris Horsley kept this on a long shutter setting in order to capture this impressive pyroclastic ('hot rocks') display at Yasur volcano during the night! Geoff Mackley and George Kourounis used for scale!

via George Kourounis / Chris Horsley

Yasur Vanuatu 17 July 2017 Chris Horsley

Volcan Turrialba, Costa Rica (Philippa)
Image of Volcano Turrialba taken at sunset at 01:17 GMT 17 July / 18:17 local time 16 July.

via OVSICORI UNA webcam (@volcanturrialba)


Mount Baker, Cascades range, USA (Philippa)
As volcanologists / scientists, in order to forecast future eruptions we have to: 1) monitor and take constant measurements of a volcano's vital signs (seismicity, deformation, gas levels, etc) beforehand in order to establish baseline levels against which any increases in activity can be compared against, and 2) investigate and map the geology of both a volcano and its surrounding areas in order to determine its eruptive history and potential future hazards. However, at snow-covered volcanoes, such as Mount Baker in the Cascades range in NW USA, 1) and 2) are not so easy to do.

The article below (written by Jemma Everyhope-Roser) provides a fascinating insight by researchers at Western Washington University, whose efforts to study Mount Baker have involved back country skiing and alpine climbing.

Secrets of the mountain - WWU scientists ski, trek and climb to learn more about the volcano next door

Because Mount Baker is snow covered, future eruptions here would be explosive, due to the interaction of magma with snow melt, generating ash plumes and lahars.

via WWU (@WWU)


Professor Doug Clark on (volcano) Mount Baker. The red and white stakes are for measurements of the glaciers and snowfall.

July 17, 2017

Worldwide - volcanic ash safety (Philippa)
The poster below, which dates back to the 1980s, was found recently in the US Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory archives. It is being used now on social media to raise awareness amongst communities living near explosive volcanoes for preparedness kits, which should include a disposable dust / particulate mask to avoid inhaling volcanic ash, and eye protection such as goggles or safety glasses.

Volcanic ash particles are very small and very glassy. At the very least the ash is an eye and skin irritant; at worse, inhalation of volcanic ash can lead to a fatal lung condition called silicosis.

Volcanic ash deposits may continue to be remobilised long after an eruption, for example by winds. Even with extensive post-eruption clean-up operations, which often take years, finance, and major efforts, it is impossible to completely eradicate all ash fall.

Several organisations are currently conducting research into both the long-term health effects in volcanic areas and best practices for volcanic ash clean-up.

This online pamphlet meanwhile provides information regarding public health issues in volcanic ash hazard areas:

The Health Hazard of Volcanic Ash - A guide for the public

...whilst this link from USGS Volcanoes provides a much broader overview of the impacts of volcanic ash hazards:

Volcanic Ash Impacts and Mitigation

via US Geological Survey Volcanoes and DEVORA Auckland (@DEVORAProject)

Captain Volcano poster

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
The video footage below shows the lava fountaining that occurred from a fissure eruption along the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano between Kala Pele and Chateau Fort crater. The footage was shot ~5-10 hours after the start of the eruption, which from the seismic data collected by (monitoring agency) OVPF / IPGP, started at around 00:50 a.m. on 14 July. Seven lava fountains were observed during a helicopter overflight later that morning, but by yesterday afternoon this had reduced to just three lava fountains, which were starting to form two small volcanic cones.

via Jeannie Curtis (@VolcanoJeannie) / Ced Northman

July 16, 2017

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
Localized fissure eruptions with lava fountaining resumed again yesterday at Piton de la Fournaise volcano after a recent lull in activity. The image below was taken around 09:30 a.m. local time.



Garni Canyon, Armenia (Philippa)
Earthquake-Report.com's Armand Vervaeck has sent through this image from the Garni Canyon in Armenia, looking from ground level up towards columnar jointing in a voluminous ancient lava flow.


The geological history of the region is complicated, caused by opposing tectonic forces. As a result, the ancient volcanoes in the surrounding areas - Mt. Aragat in Armenia and Mt. Ararat in neighbouring Turkey - erupted several different types of lava and in various eruptive styles. Although the origins of the lava flows at Garni Canyon within Aragat and Ararat's history are not fully understood, we can nevertheless explain how these columnar structures formed using the diagram below.

Image courtesy of Dr Malcolm Reeve, University of Saskatchewan http://homepage.usask.ca/~mjr347/prog/geoe118/geoe118.054.html

Image courtesy of Dr Malcolm Reeve, University of Saskatchewan http://homepage.usask.ca/~mjr347/prog/geoe118/geoe118.054.html

If you imagine fluid and voluminous lava flows, as the eruptive rate declines, heat from within the flows rises and dissipates at the surface. As the flows cool, they contract, and cracks appear parallel to the direction of the heat flow, i.e. vertically, forming pentagonal (5-sided) or hexagonal (6-sided) columns.

Straight columns, such as in Armand's image from Garni Canyon, are described as colonnade. In contrast, irregular, curving columns, which splay in different directions are described as entablature. The latter are thought to be evidence of lava flows being rapidly cooled at the surface by water, such as a river or glacial outburst.

Garni Canyon has been exposed by a river gradually eroding down through the rock.

If you would like to know more about columnar jointing in old lava flows, see these links:

Oregon State University - Columnar Jointing

AGU Blogosphere - Georneys - Evelyn Mervine

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Below is the latest video footage (sped up) of the 61g lava flow breakout on the flanks of Kilauea volcano. Notice how with such pahoehoe lava flow textures, the surface inflates as hotter, newer lava flows underneath.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Eastern Caribbean (Philippa)
Beautiful Moon-lit shot of Soufriere Hills Volcano on the Eastern Caribbean island of Montserrat. The volcano last erupted in 2010, but is still considered to be active.

via Island of Montserrat / Emerald Isle Helicopters

Soufriere Hills Volcano Emerald Isle Helicopter

July 15, 2017

Volcano activity for the week of 5 July - 11 July 2017
Volcano activity we 11July2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
On 5 July AVO reported that no further activity was detected at Bogoslof after the explosions the day before. A nine-minute-long eruption pulse detected in seismic data starting at 10:15 on 8 July was followed by a shorter pulse that began at 10:29 and then a decline in seismicity. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. An eruption began at 23:47 on 9 July, lasted five minutes, and was followed 15 minutes later by another explosion that lasted seven minutes. A small ash cloud visible in satellite images drifting SE may have risen as high as 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption began at 10:00 on 10 July and lasted eight minute. Infrasound data indicated ash emissions, but ash was not confirmed in satellite data. A 15 minutes-long event began at 17:06 on 10 July. No volcanic plume was identified in satellite data, and no volcanic lightning nor infrasound was detected. Seismicity declined after the episode.

Fuego | Guatemala
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-7 explosions per hour at Fuego during 6-7 July generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950m above the crater and drifted 6-10 km SW and W. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Santa Teresa (SW), and Trinidad (S) drainages. Later on 7 July the rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour. During 7-9 July ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15 km W, causing ashfall in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8km WSW), and possibly San Pedro Yepocapa (8km N). A lava flow traveled 1.5km down the Las Lajas (SE) drainage. On 11 July INSIVUMEH declared that the 6th eruption of the year with lava effusion was in progress. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted 35km W, and shock waves rattled nearby structures. Ash fell in areas including Morelia, Panimache, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, and Sangre de Cristo. Two lava flows were fed by lava fountains 150-250m high; one lava flow traveled 2.3 km down the Las Lajas drainage and another traveled 1.7 km down the Santa Teresa (SW) drainage. Later that day INSIVUMEH reported that the 31-hour-long eruption had ended. A few weak-to-moderate explosions continued, generating ash plumes that rose 850m and drifted 6km W.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:49 on 5 July a small phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja ejected material that fell within the crater.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images over Sheveluch during 1-7 July. Explosions on 2 July generated ash plumes that rose 10-11km (32,800-36,100 ft) a.s.l.; one plume drifted 1,050km SW and another drifted 350km NE.

Information provided by Smithsonian GVP Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
July 14, 2017

Crater Glacier, Mount St Helens,USA (Philippa)
The images below are from an interesting article on how Crater Glacier formed at Mount St Helens during the 1980s and 90s due to heavy snowfall combining with rock falls and being shaded from the sun within the crater.

The first image taken in 2005 by Steve Schilling shows how the glacier was squeezed, thickened, and split in two as lava spines within the dome complex emerged through it, causing the flow rate of the glacier to increase.

The second image was taken earlier this week by Andy Barsotti and shows the snout of the glacier near one of Mount St Helens seismic stations.

The full article can be found here: Glaciation at Mount St Helens

via US Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Below are the latest US Geological Survey images from Kilauea volcano on Big Island, Hawaii: lava spatter from the Halema'uma'u Crater lava lake and the lava bench at the ocean entry. The latter is currently showing cracks in a parallel direction to the shoreline, which indicates that the structure is unstable and likely to collapse soon. For safety reasons, boats and tourists on the landside should therefore heed any warnings given by the National Park Services to stay further back from this ocean entry than usual.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey



July 13, 2017

Fuego volcano, Guatemala
Eruption report

The 6th almost identical explosive eruption sending ash approx. 1 km into the air.
The eruption produced 2 lava flows with a length of 2300 and 1700 meters.
INSIVUMEH reiterates that a chance on pyroclastic flows is still very high.

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.37.07

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.36.40

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.36.51

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 17.05.24

July 11, 2017

Jameson Land, Greenland (Philippa)
The images below from Hurry Inlet in Jameson Land, Greenland, tell a story, which involved collaboration between (industry-related) sedimentologists and volcanologists in a chance discovery. The sedimentologists from the University of Bergen and the University of Aberdeen had ventured to Jameson Land to investigate the delta and basin region. They quickly realised that the sandstones which dominate the landscape contain vertical and horizontal intrusions of magma: dykes and sills respectively. They called in some volcanologists, who used special equipment to scan the landscape, and then create a virtual reconstruction of how the sandstones would have looked beforehand. The research groups concluded that the magmatic intrusions had been so voluminous that they had pushed up the surface of the surrounding sandstone by up to 3 km!

The magma intrusions are thought to have occurred during the Eocene, around 150 million years after the original deposition of the sand. The slow rifting apart of a continent formed the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and allowed the upwelling of the magma. This is similar to the activity that we see today at East African Rift Zone, which includes Erte Ale volcano in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

The full story can be found here (in Norwegian): Magmatic intrusions in East Greenland

via Christian Haug Eide



Top image: looking side on to Hurry Inlet. Lower image: scanned image looking straight ahead to Hurry Inlet. The darker areas are the intrusions of magma; the paler areas are the surrounding sandstone.

Popocatepetl, Mexico (Philippa)
A clear shot via the webcam this morning of Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico, which is currently at alert level 'yellow 2'.

via Volcan Popocatepetl (@Popocatepetl_MX) and www.webcamsdemexico.com


Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
A special treat from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: some timelapse footage of the 61g lava flow on the flanks of Kilauea volcano near the coast.

via USGS / Hawaiian Volcano Observatory


Etna, Sicily, Italy
Small ash emissions have resumed at Etna's "Very Very Newest Southeast Crater" (former "saddle vent"), view from south, 9 July 2017
Via Boris Behncke @ etnaboris

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-10 om 20.15.33

Bogoslov volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA
Eruption update
No further ash emissions have occurred at Bogoslof Volcano since the series of explosions that began on Sunday, 09 July at 23:47 AKDT (07:47 UTC July 10) and ended about 02:35 AKDT (10:35 UTC) July 10. A small eruption cloud associated with the first two eruptive pulses was evident in satellite data. This cloud may have reached as high as 20,000 ft. above sea level and was carried to the southeast but dissipated rapidly. No additional volcanic clouds were observed in satellite data. The activity also was detected in seismic and infrasound data. After about 03:00 AKDT (11:00 UTC) seismicity declined and has remained at low levels. We are therefore lowering the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Alert Level to WATCH. Given the ongoing episodic nature of eruptive activity at Bogoslof, additional ash-producing eruptions could occur at any time.

via US Geological Survey


July 10, 2017

Congratulations to our very own Janine Krippner (@janinekrippner), who on Friday successfully defended her PhD thesis re: Shiveluch volcano and Mount St Helens. Janine can now officially be called a Doctor of volcanoes (not a medical doctor; different type), something which she has wanted to be since the age of 13!

Janine is also active (pun intended!) in educational outreach work. Alongside of her PhD research and writing for this volcano section of the Earthquake-Report.com, she instigated the "It's all for you, girl!" campaign featuring messages from women in volcanology to encourage girls to continue with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Maths) subjects at school. It's all for you, girl!

Janine KrippnerWe cannot wait to see which volcano(es) in the world Janine will work on next!

Mount Hood, Oregon, USA (Philippa)
This beautiful image taken at sunset yesterday evening is Mount Hood, a strato volcano in the Cascades Range of NW USA. Although it looks innocent enough and has not erupted since 1907, fumaroles (steam vents) indicate that this volcano is still active, but currently power napping (in geological timescale terms). If it were to re-awaken, the biggest hazard would be from snow and glacial melt on Mount Hood's slopes generating far-reaching flash floods and lahars in the surrounding areas.

via Michael Shainblum (@shainblum)


Poas, Costa Rica (Philippa)
Below is a sped up time-lapse of webcam images from Poas volcano on the night of 8 July 2017. It looks like there are currently two active vents within the crater, one of which is only emitting water vapor and other volcanic gasses (white colour) and one which is also emitting volcanic ash (darker colour), probably due to the erosion of the vent walls.

via (monitoring agency) OVSICORI-UNA (@OVSICORI_UNA_)

Brown Bluff, Antarctica (Philippa)
The image below was taken at Brown Bluff, which is a tuya, a volcano which erupted under a glacier. The exact timing of its eruption is unknown - sometime within the last 1 million years - and its original diameter is estimated to have been between around 12-15 km, but much of it has since been eroded by glacial action. The features that remain include pillow lavas and tuff cliffs (consolidated volcanic ash fall), which are evidence that this volcano erupted both underwater and explosively above the water line respectively. In the background are the remaining red-black tuff cliffs, and in the foreground a piece of the tuff cliff which has broken off, showing a lava bomb within tephra (ash fall).

via Roberto C Lopez (@Bromotengger)


Herðubreið, Iceland (Philippa)
Below is a more recent example of a tuya (volcano, which erupted under a glacier): Herðubreið in northern Iceland. You will notice that instead of being conical in shape, it has steep sides and an almost flat top except for a tiny peak where some lava broke through the ice, which is typical of tuyas.

View from the LAVA (@LavaCentre) via Ben Edwards (@lava_ice)


July 9, 2017

Volcano activity for the week of June 28 until July 4, 2017

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-08 om 09.19.28-compressed

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Dieng Volcanic Complex | Central Java (Indonesia)
BNPB reported that a phreatic eruption at the Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) occurred at 1154 on 2 July, ejecting mud and material 150 m high, and 50 m to the N and S. The event injured 11 of 18 tourists that were near the crater. According to a news article a helicopter on the way to help evacuated people after the event crashed, killing all eight people (four crewmen and four rescuers) on board.
PVMBG scientists visited the next day and observed weak white emissions rising 60 m. The report noted other events during the recent past; an event at 1303 on 30 April ejected material 10 m high and 1 m past the crater edge that formed a 1-2 mm thick deposit, and an emission at 0941 on 24 May consisting of gas and black “smoke” that rose 20 m. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) and PVMBG warned the public not to approach Sileri Crater within a 100-m radius.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 23-24 and 27-28 June. An ash plume drifted 55 km SW on 24 June. Explosions on 26 June generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km SE during 26-27 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-08 om 09.28.54

KVERT image - Copyright A. Galyamova - Photo from the July 21th, 2016

Reventador | Ecuador
During 28 June-4 July IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. During 28 June-1 July plumes of water vapor and ash rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. A 2-km-long lava flow continued to slowly advance down the NW flank. Incandescent blocks from the crater rolled at most 300 m down the W, SW, and S flanks. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations during 2-4 July.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images over Sheveluch during 23-30 June. Explosions on 27 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,400 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 June ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Information provided by the Smithsonian Institute

July 8, 2017