Devastating deadly earthquake in Rieti, Italy - at least 291 dead, 300+ likely

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UPDATE 14:00 GMT 27/08 :

The death toll is unfortunately up to 291. 230 in Amatrice, 50 in Arquata del Tronto and 11 in Accumoli.

Assuming around 7000 in Amatrice instead of the usual 2600 given the tourist season; this would still mean a death rate of over 3%. Very sad stuff.

Unfortunately there is already talk that this is the end of these mountain communes from local residents given the destruction level.

Further afield there is some good news in that damage outside of the epicentral region has been limited.

UPDATE 16:00 GMT 26/08 :

HUGE UPDATE IN 2 PAGE REPORT FROM CEDIM at KIT, EARTHQUAKE REPORT, CATDAT AND WB CDRP.

DOWNLOAD HERE --> CEDIM-WB-CATDAT-SOS-Impact Summary-Amatrice-SituationReport1-26082016-1800GMT-Final

All the facts, figures, losses and up to date summary!

UPDATE 12:00 GMT 26/08 :

267 are dead - 207 victims at Amatrice, 49 at Arquata del Tronto (including Pescara del Tronto), 11 at Accumoli. Given the reduction in speed of reported fatalities - this is good news compared to L'Aquila. 238 people have been pulled from the rubble alive as yet.

UPDATE 06:00 GMT :

The death toll remains at 247 with 190 in Rieti Province. The towns of Amatrice and Accumoli will be write-offs with very few structures being able to be salvaged according to the mayors of the locations. An unknown number of people are left under the rubble.

In L'Aquila in 2009, there was an unexpectedly low percentage of children killed. Unfortunately, in this case we are hearing the opposite.

A best guess of the total number of fatalities using theoretical models cannot be made as using the damage intensities seen, the median estimate of 176 (58-422) is the highest possible for this event based on CATDAT , meaning that the population is likely larger due to the tourist season (as stated by the mayor) or the damageability of these buildings is higher than the average historical fatality ratios seen in Italy previously. Thus we need to use a different method.

If we use the 8.00am death toll of L'Aquila = Around 179 deaths and the final death toll 308; we likely still have a number of fatalities to be registered.

Using the ratio, it is likely that around 425 deaths have occurred with 58% of people accounted for at the same point in 2009 if the response patterns are the same (this may give some indication).

The economic losses using updated intensities in the region have reduced the loss estimates through CATDAT:- median costs ($2.6b with a range from $950m-$6.6b).

UPDATE 05:50 GMT :

The intensities in the epicentral region were around VIII-IX (very damaging to masonry structures), however the shallowness and strength of the earthquake have limited the extent to which the earthquake was felt, and also the level of damage further away from the epicentral region.

Intensity map from felt intensities via the INGV, Italy.

Intensity map from felt intensities via the INGV, Italy.

UPDATE 05:45 GMT :

Norcia and Amatrice are no stranger to damaging earthquakes with over 10 greatly damaging earthquakes (VIII MCS (ca. VII-VIII MMI)) in the last 700 years. (thanks to DBMI of the INGV).

NorciaIT_53053

UPDATE 05:30 GMT :

From INGV: this shows the number of major historic earthquakes in the vicinity from the year 1000 til today (shown left). The region is in the highest seismic zone in the Italian earthquake codes (shown right).

Of these earthquakes, the 1639 and 1703 events

UPDATE 04:30 GMT :

The death toll has unfortunately risen to 247. This is expected to rise again in the coming hours unfortunately given the large populations and destruction.

(190 dead in Rieti Province, 57 in Ascoli Piceno Province).

- 400 people have been injured.

- 1500 people are homeless in Marche (Arquarta and Pescara del Tronto).

- 5000+ are likely homeless in Accumoli, Amatrice and other locations in Rieti Province in Lazio.

UPDATE 04:00 GMT :

As more information comes to light, it is expected that the death toll will rise again. It is up to 163.

Models  underestimated the death toll originally due to a few issues:-

- The population in the towns was a lot higher due to holiday season with many more people there for festivals (many tourists are unfortunately among the dead). The famous festival of the Amatriciana pasta sauce was to be held there this weekend. The mountain top towns were likely to have 3-4 times more people than usual according to local officials meaning that we can expect the death toll to likely rise even further using this in combination with the base models.

- Initial estimates of intensities in the epicentral region were too low, with much more shaking experienced on these mountain top towns than were modelled theoretically - thus increasing the death ratios.

- The night occurrence of the event caused higher losses as most people were unable to escape their buildings.

UPDATE 22:04 GMT :
Italy's civil protection agency says death toll in earthquake rises to 159.

UPDATE 6.30pm GMT: Watching the death toll rise over the day, we are up to 120 people unofficially. With 73 dead officially (53 in Amatrice and Accumoli; 20 in Marche), 358 are injured alone in Amatrice and Accumoli communes. 

The economic loss estimates remain as earlier from CATDAT.

UPDATE 12:45pm GMT: The damage at Amatrice and Accumoli is still being evaluated but from photos 

Amatrice - 35 dead; Accumoli - 11 dead; Pescara del Tronto and Arquata del Tronto - 17 dead.

UPDATE 12:30pm GMT: Just to clear up something we are reading in the press. This earthquake was not of the same ground motion levels or magnitude as L'Aquila. The magnitude of Mw6.0 is less than that of L'Aqulia by about 2-3 times the energy output.

It could be however that some structures due to the spectral response of the earthquake, have experienced larger motions at a certain distance than were seen in the 2009 event. Earthquakes although having the same magnitude and perhaps depth; can have very different seismic signals and impacts.

Screen Shot 2016-08-24 at 22.24.37

UPDATE 11:45am GMT: Unfortunately 14 bodies are at the morgue consisting of bodies from Pescara del Tronto and Arquata del Tronto.

Updating the death rates in the CATDAT model seen in Amatrice with historical rates, unfortunately shows a death toll in the region of 110, with a range of uncertainty from 41 - 297 if the other locations are factored in.

UPDATE 11:20am GMT: Amatrice has seen 35 deaths unfortunately from a total population of 2650 (over 1% of the town).

Another 10 in Marche, and a number in Accumoli, bring the toll to over 50. Over 20 injuries have also been seen in Marche.

2 are dead at Pescara del Tronto.

1 dead at Arquata del Tronto (18 months old)

UPDATE 10:20am GMT: Our hearts go out to those who have lost loved ones, and who are homeless. The damage, although not as great as the 2009 and 2012 earthquakes, will still have a large impact on the region. Intensities further away from the epicenter are still contributing significantly to the damage so we hope that the attenuation of the ground motion was greater, sparing a lot of the financial losses further from the epicenter. Closer to the epicenter, damage ratios in the order of 25% or higher have been seen in a couple of the small towns.

UPDATE 10:15am GMT: Adjusting the intensities in the theoretical model of CATDAT to the damage seen:-

Median estimate of deaths: 59 (range from 18-163)

Median estimate of damage: 4.1 billion USD (range from 1.8 billion USD to 8.3 billion USD) - reconstruction costs

UPDATE 10:00am GMT: At least 37 dead are being reported with around 2500 homeless. We do not have the locations of the deaths apart from the original 21. We hope that the toll will hopefully not reach the upper bounds of the models. People are still trapped in certain towns close to the epicenter.

UPDATE 8:07am GMT: Good news from Norcia near the epicenter where they report damage to be not as significant as it could have been due to the strong use of earthquake resistant codes in their buildings. 

UPDATE 8:05am GMT: In past events like L'Aquila the final death toll was 308, and at 12 hours, the death toll was reported to be around 92. 

It is likely therefore, although being of a lesser impact than the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, that the death toll will rise to at least 50 with the significant number of trapped people.

UPDATE 8:00am GMT: 11 of these 21 are in Lazio (5 in Amatrice); and 10 in Marche at Pescara del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno).

UPDATE 7:51am GMT: At least 21 people have been killed and many more are trapped under the rubble.

The theoretical models of CATDAT show a median of 38 deaths with a range between 9 and 126 deaths; and an average $4.3 billion USD damage with a range from $1.6-8.5 billion.

There is a significant amount of improvement in some towns with better building practices therefore it is hoped this will be reduced.

Theoretical models from USGS show the highest percentage chance between 100-1000 deaths (33%) and 10-100 deaths (31%). They also believe losses will be over $1 billion.

INGV Shake Map:-

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 6.2

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2016-08-24 03:36:33

GMT/UTC Time : 2016-08-24 01:36:33

Depth (Hypocenter) : 4 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

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Refresh this list
SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:36 2.2 14 MAP
  • Ascoli Piceno - My house hasn't been damaged, but some other buildings, specially the older ones, had slight to moderate damage (some cracks in the wall).
  • EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:32 2.8 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:30 2.5 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:28 2.5 16 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:24 3.4 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 23:22 4.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Maltignano, Italy Aug 24 23:22 4.1 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:22 3.8 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:07 2.0 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:04 2.1 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 23:03 2.0 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 22:57 2.7 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 22:56 2.2 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 22:23 2.2 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 22:22 2.1 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 22:20 2.5 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 21:45 3.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 21:27 2.9 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 21:13 2.2 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 21:05 2.8 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 20:21 3.6 1 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 20:17 2.0 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 20:16 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 20:14 2.7 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 19:44 2.3 6 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 19:38 2.7 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 19:26 2.8 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 19:22 2.5 12 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 19:10 2.8 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:58 2.8 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:42 3.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:39 2.1 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:37 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:36 3.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:12 2.1 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:08 2.7 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 18:06 2.2 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:54 2.9 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:49 2.5 8 MAP
    USGS Arquata Del Tronto, Italy Aug 24 17:46 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:46 4.4 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 17:46 4.8 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:37 3.0 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:29 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:27 2.2 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:16 2.5 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 17:03 2.0 6 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 16:57 2.6 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 16:54 2.6 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 16:39 2.7 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 16:37 2.5 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 16:34 3.1 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 15:39 3.1 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 15:20 2.1 12 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 15:08 2.3 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 15:02 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 14:45 3.2 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 14:39 2.6 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 14:28 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 14:03 3.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 14:02 4.0 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 14:02 4.3 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:57 2.5 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:55 2.5 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:49 2.6 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:33 3.1 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:23 2.6 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:20 2.8 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:12 2.9 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 13:00 2.8 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:43 2.3 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:42 2.7 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:18 3.4 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:13 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:06 3.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 12:01 3.0 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:59 3.5 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Visso, Italy Aug 24 11:50 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 11:50 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:50 4.9 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:40 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:37 2.7 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:36 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:31 3.1 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:28 2.5 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:23 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 11:05 2.8 2 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:52 2.8 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:44 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:32 3.0 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:28 2.7 6 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:22 2.8 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:19 2.5 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:15 3.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:09 3.1 16 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 10:06 3.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:43 3.1 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:41 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:33 2.5 11 MAP
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 09:31 3.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:31 3.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:28 2.8 12 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:15 2.5 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:04 2.6 12 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 09:02 3.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:58 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:56 2.8 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:55 3.1 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:39 2.7 15 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:30 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:19 2.5 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:02 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 08:00 2.9 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:55 2.8 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:52 3.3 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:48 3.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:45 2.7 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:28 2.5 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:26 2.4 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:25 3.1 4 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:10 3.3 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:10 3.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 07:07 2.9 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:59 2.7 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:54 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:45 2.6 4 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:39 2.7 7 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:36 2.6 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:35 2.6 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:27 3.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:21 2.7 9 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:19 2.6 4 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:07 2.5 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 06:00 2.8 11 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:45 2.8 12 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:37 3.0 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:36 3.4 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:31 3.5 5 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:28 2.8 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:24 3.2 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:08 2.4 8 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:04 2.5 6 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 05:02 3.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:59 2.9 10 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:57 3.7 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Central Italy Aug 24 04:57 3.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:55 3.0 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:52 3.0 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:47 2.5 5 MAP
    EMSC Central Italy Aug 24 04:44 3.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO


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    I felt the shaking *
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    City/Village where you felt the earthquake *
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Shaking Strength *
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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