Deadly earthquake Kyushu, Japan - Violent M7.3 aftershock - at least 65 people killed and up to 1 trillion yen losses

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Damage report in cooperation with the 2015 Earthquake Impact Database
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Update 28/04 UTC : So far 23.6 billion JPY ($216 million USD) in forestry and agricultural damage has been given by the government.

In addition, $2.931 billion (USD) has been estimated for the civil infrastructure losses. Reconstruction was initially estimated around 5-6 billion USD, but looks set to be larger than this figure.

There are new casualty numbers in addition from FDMA Report #43: 65 people killed (49 direct, 16 indirect) and 331 with severe injuries, and 1161 with slight injuries.

2102 houses have been destroyed, 2303 houses partially destroyed and 8145 houses partially damaged. Counting is ongoing with around 27000 houses still being assessed for damage.  94 public buildings were destroyed and 351 damaged. Fire destroyed 16 houses.

A reminder of our estimate from the event (CATDAT, James Daniell) (16.04.2016)

* Updated cost estimate:-- $12 billion with a range from $5-23 billion currently
* 110 fatalities expected with a range from 12 to around 900

Update 15:33 UTC : New updated casualty numbers : 47 people killed and 2243 people injured

Update April 19 09:06 UTC : M5.5 aftershock
The M5.5 aftershock had an intensity of 5+ on the JMA scale seen by ER as potentially damaging.
The JMA5+ intensity was observed in Kamamoto-ken Kumamato

Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 11.08.28


Update 12:12 UTC : M5.8 aftershock
A M5.8 aftershock occurred at 20:51 JST. The max. intensity was JMA5+ in Kumamoto-ken Aso and Oita-ken Seibu.
JMA5+ is considred by us as potentially dangerous for (mostly) slight damage. In this case already damaged structures can be the trigger to the collapse of buildings and are life-threatening dangerous for rescue workers.

Screen Shot 2016-04-18 at 14.12.17

Update 10:52 UTC : Shelter for foreigners opens in Kumamoto
The quake-stricken city of Kumamoto in southwestern Japan has opened a shelter for foreigners to provide support. The city opened up its International Center building for non-Japanese evacuees on Sunday. About 40 residents from 9 countries including China, South Korea, Canada, and Bangladesh are currently staying there. More than 20 staff members from the Center are taking turns distributing food and blankets, and translating disaster-related information into English and Chinese.
Read the full article  and watch VIDEO here

Update 10:48 UTC : Magnitude 7.3 quake moves fault by 2 meters
A seismology expert says horizontal shifts by up to nearly 2 meters along a 50-kilometer fault caused Saturday's magnitude-7.3 quake in southwestern Japan.
Associate Professor Yuji Yagi of the University of Tsukuba assessed the movements of the fault, using data observed at various locations around the globe.
The professor says the horizontal shifts by up to 1.8 meters occurred along the fault about 50 kilometers long and about 20 kilometers wide.
Read the full article and watch VIDEO here

Screen Shot 2016-04-18 at 12.54.33

Update 10:47 UTC : Rescuers race to find missing
Rescue crews in southwestern Japan are racing against the clock to find people missing after two powerful earthquakes. They are up against a critical 72-hour mark, since the most recent. They have been combing through mud and rubble and bracing against more tremors. ((Source: NHK news)

Update 09:20 UTC : The CCTV (Chinese station) from a village in Kamamoto prefecture gives a perfect idea what an earthquake is able to do.

Update 09:11 UTC : A social media campaign Pray for Kumamoto gathers donations to help the people in need

Screen Shot 2016-04-18 at 11.11.08

Update April 18 09:07 UTC : The number of killed people increased slightly to 42. We truly hope that this will be the final number but we fear that some missing people will be added to this number later.


Update 14:04 UTC : The death toll has further increased to 41 (both major quakes together).

Destroyed temple complex

Update 14:01 UTC : Another example of the propagation of the shaking waves of a M4.5 aftershock. Max. shaking intensity: JMA4

Update 10:27 UTC : The damage toll in Nishihara (Kumamoto prefecture) is extremely high after the M7.3 aftershock. At least 344 buildings have collapsed and 1087 have been partially destroyed. The village of Nishihara (hardest hit during the M7.3 aftershock) is located just North-West of the village of Mishiko, hardest hit during the mainshock.

Screen Shot 2016-04-16 at 12.29.51

Update 10:22 UTC : To show you the wave propagation of an aftershoch in Kumamoto, we recorded a couple of minutes of shaking values. In a matter of 5 minutes the video shows 2 aftershocks. The first one (shortly after the start) has a max. shaking value of approx. MMI5 (JMA3) or light to moderate shaking.

Update 08:55 UTC : Since the mainshock on Thursday a total of 137 M3+ aftershocks have been recorded.

Update 08:39 UTC : A total of 34 people have been killed since the mainshock.
Torrential rains are predicted in the greater earthquake area and loose ground may start to slide. People are warned to go to the shelters as the combination

Update 07:53 UTC : Sorry to report a new increase in numbers:
The toll of the earthquake at this moment is at least 20 fatalities and 2000 people injured.
Together with the mainschok : 29 fatalities and 3129 injured.

Important Update 06:35 UTC : The toll of the earthquake at this moment is at least 18 fatalities and 1600 people injured.
Together with the mainschok : 27 fatalities and 2729 injured.
This is an intermediate status as people are still buried under the rubble
Below the best recent video we could find so far showing the extend of the damage

Update 00:04 UTC : Heavy rain and strong winds are expected today. Strong aftershocks combined with heavy rain may make the ground unstable and inflict landslides.


Update 23:55 UTC : Since the violent M7.3 aftershock at least 70 aftershocks of M3 or more occurred in Kumamoto prefecture. 1 of them, a M5.8 Magnitude aftershock measured JMA6+ on the shaking intensity schale. ER considers already JMA5+ as potentially dangerous for damage.

Update 23:35 UTC : Minamiaso looks to be very hard hit in the 7.3 Magnitude earthquake. Many houses are badly damaged and rescue operations are continuing

Update 23:28 UTC : At least 9 people have been killed and 760 have or are being treated in hospitals for injuries.

Screen Shot 2016-04-16 at 01.42.28

Update 21:42 UTC : JMA scientists are warning the Kyushu citizens to be extremely cautious as very strong aftershocks may happen within a week

Update 21:41 UTC : At least 3 people have reportedly been killed and 470 have or are being treated in hospitals for injuries.

Update 21:28 UTC :  A lot of buildings have structural damage like this one. They will have to be demolished completely.

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 23.25.44

Update 21:20 UTC : The number of injured people from the lastest quake has increased to 470. The death toll still stands at 1

Update 20:47 UTC : This person was really lucky to have survived the earthquake

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 22.46.33

Update 20:38 UTC : Many houses and buildings have sustained structural damage like this one.

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 22.38.05

Update 20:20 UTC :
* one dead in a fire in Kumamoto
* all hospitals count 363 injuries so far

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 22.24.20

Update 20:15 UTC :  an impression of what to expect tomorrow

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 22.15.39

Update 19:57 UTC : 200 injuries in one hospital of Kumamoto

Update 19:38 UTC : A glimpse of fires currently raging in Kumamato

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 21.37.41

Update 19:30 UTC : A dam near Nishihara is severely damaged. The village is evacuated right now but several people are trapped in their houses. Kumamoto is completely without water.

Update 19:25 UTC : In addition to the violent aftershock earlier today, the area gets continuous powerful aftershocks strong enough on their own to inflict damage.

Update 19:20 UTC : Jens Skapski (EID database) with a first roundup of the damage after the 7.1 aftershock :
Hundreds of injuries in Kumamoto
Many houses collapsed
66 people trapped in a nursery home in Mishake
At least one person killed and several injured in Aso.
Fires in many places
Liquefaction
Landslides

Update 18:42 UTC : USGS has updated their intensities upwards. It is becoming closer to the JMA shaking values (USGS calculated lower shaking values before)

Update 18:38 UTC : Shaking map of today's M7.1 earthquake Max. JMA scale is 7 is was not reached today. Just below JMA 7 are JMA6+ and JMA6- (colors on the map)

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 20.37.34

Update 18:32 UTC : NHK reports that it is feared that Kumamoto Shimin Hospital may collapse after a new series of quakes. An evacuation is being considered.

Update 18:25 UTC : People fear the weather outlook tomorrow. Heavy rain is expected. Strong aftershocks combined with heavy rain may make the ground unstable and inflect landslides.

Update 18:24 UTC : People in amany areas in Kumamoto are summoned to go to the shelters

Important Update 18:14 UTC : First information we could find after the violent aftershock is very bad :
Building collapses
Bridges have fallen
People are buried under the rubble
Some tunnels apparently collapsed

Update 17:42 UTC : As it is the middle of the night in Japan, new information from Kumamoto is very minimal

Update 17:39 UTC : Great News - All Tsunami advisories lifted

Courtesy and copyright JMA

Courtesy and copyright JMA

Update 17:23 UTC : The max. expected Tsunami waves are 0,2 to 1 meter

Update 17:16 UTC : For people who are used to look at shaking values in MMI we can tell that the current aftershock has an MMI value of VIII to IX

Important Update 17:09 UTC : Damage specialist Dr James Daniell (CEDIM Karlsruhe) projects the following numbers (after this aftershock)  :
* Updated loss estimate:-- $12 billion with a range from $5-23 billion currently
* 110 fatalities expected with a range from 12 to around 900

Important Update 16:50 UTC : Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects :
Injuries - 700 to 8,000
Fatalities - 200 to 2,000
ER estimates and hopes that it will be less than the minimum numbers of Max Wyss mainly because a lot of people are residing in shelters, especially those people living in houses with structural damage. We think however that the cost of this earthquake will be running in the billions of dollars.

Update 16:47 UTC : Although the shaking impact is slightly less than yesterday, the strongest JMA6+ impact area is rather wide.
Meaning of JMA6+:
JMA6+ means :
* It is impossible to move without crawling. People may be thrown through the air
* Most unsecured furniture moves, and is more likely to topple over
* Wooden houses with low earthquake resistance are more likely to lean or collapse
* Large cracks may form, and large landslides and massif collapses may be seen

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 18.46.33 Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 18.46.52

Update 16:42 UTC : A TSUNAMI advisory is ineffect at some coastlines in Kyushu (see JMA map)

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 18.42.20

IMPORTANT Update 16:33 UTC : NEW VERY STRONG earthquake in the same area. Shaking values go to 6+ and a lot more damage may be expected.

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 18.31.31

Important Update April 15 07:32 UTC : So far EID counted at least 9 people killed and 1,108 injuries!

Update April 15 07:30 UTC :

Screen Shot 2016-04-15 at 09.28.57

Update 19:20 UTC :
** About 13,000 people are at evacuation sites in the southwestern prefecture of Kumamoto after Thursday's major earthquake.
** Japan's transport ministry and a railway operator say an out-of-service Shinkansen was derailed due to Thursday's major earthquake. No one was injured.

Important Update 19:13 UTC : So far EID counted at least 4 people killed and 741 injuries!

Update 16:22 UTC : Sadly enough we have to report that at least 3 people have been killed in the earthquake(s). Scientists warn for strong to very strong aftershocks (something that happened already). 12 people have been injured and 1 person was unconscious. 600 people had to be evacuated from their houses.

Update 16:08 UTC : Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects : 10 to 200 injuries and 0 to 30 fatalities

Update 15:15 UTC :  A new very powerful aftershock (almost as strong as the mainshock) occurred a few minutes ago. Preliminary Magnitude M6.4 at a depth of 6 km. Maximum JMA shaking 6+ (mainshock was more powerful at JMA7)

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 17.14.48

Update 15:06 UTC : Masahiro Taniguchi: The jolts are continuing, some are strong and more are expected. The military (Self defense forces) has been mobilized for assessment, life-saving supports and other related activities.

Update 15:04 UTC : Inter-municipalty/prefecture fire and police rescue teams (some 200 personnel for each) as well as 350 soldiers are en route to the earthquake zone

Update 15:01 UTC : There was NEVER a risk for a tsunami as a) the Magnitude was not strong enough b) the earthquake's epicenter was below land and c) the earthquake type is not tsunamigenic

Update 14:58 UTC :
* Cracks are appearing in some roads
* 1 person is reportedly killed (to be confirmed)
* at least 50 people have been injured

Update 14:55 UTC : 1 building caught fire during the earthquake shaking. No news of eventual casualties.

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 16.55.02

Update 14:52 UTC : 6 people believed to be trapped under homes in Mashiki. Mashiki is the strongest hit area

Update 14:44 UTC : The video below shows the strength of the shaking at the NHK headquarters in the earthquake area.

Update 14:28 UTC : The only still working nuclear plant is in the same region as the earthquake but management has confirmed that are NO problems at the plant. Nuclear plants are designed to withstand even more serious shaking than wat was measured today.

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 16.27.28

Update 14:23 UTC : Areas at risk for serious damage = 7 and 6-
Slight damage with occasional serious damage for not earthquake reinforced houses : 5+

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 16.22.49

Update 14:17 UTC : JMA Japan is mentioning a max. shaking value of 7, this means EXTREMELY DANGEROUS!.
Description of JMA 7:
JMA7 means :
* Wooden houses with low earthquake resistance are even more likely to lean or collapse
* Wooden houses with high earthquake resistance may lean in some cases
* Reinforced-concrete buildings with low earthquake resistance are more likely to collapse
The most vulnerable damage area is limited to a radius of about 30 km.

Image courtesy JMA Japan

Image courtesy JMA Japan

Update 14:13 UTC : We call this earthquake very dangerous because of the shallow depth in combination with the earthquake type. The earthquake happened in a very populated area

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 16.15.48

7.0 km (4.3 mi) SW of Ueki, Japan
9.0 km (5.6 mi) SE of Tamana, Japan
12.0 km (7.5 mi) WNW of Kumamoto-shi, Japan
18.0 km (11.2 mi) N of Uto, Japan
620.0 km (385.3 mi) SSE of Seoul, South Korea

Screen Shot 2016-04-14 at 16.14.23

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 6.1

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2016-04-14 21:26:36

GMT/UTC Time : 2016-04-14 12:26:36

Depth (Hypocenter) : 21 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the "I Felt It" button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 22:46 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 22:46 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 22:29 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Ueki, Japan Apr 14 22:29 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 20:10 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 20:10 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 20:10 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 17:14 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 17:14 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 16:53 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 16:53 5.0 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 16:53 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:50 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:50 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:34 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:34 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:34 4.7 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:06 5.3 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:06 5.3 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:03 6.0 2 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 15:03 6.0 21 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 15:03 6.0 5 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 14:43 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 14:43 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 14:43 5.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 14:29 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 14:29 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 14:28 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 14:28 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Uto, Japan Apr 14 13:43 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:43 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:38 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:38 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:38 4.8 28 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:22 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:22 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kumamoto-shi, Japan Apr 14 13:07 5.4 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:07 5.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 13:07 5.4 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 12:42 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 12:42 5.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Matsubase, Japan Apr 14 12:42 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 12:26 6.1 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Geoje-si, Gyeonsangnam-do - Slight movement felt while resting on the sofa in 8th floor of 9 floor apartment building.
  • Sasebo, Nagasaki - Main shock moderate and prolonged, at least two after shocks within the first 20 minutes. No immediate damage noted other than loss of Cable TV signal.
  • Beppu - Cannot see any damage
  • Sasebo - Short, maybe a few seconds, but strong enough to scare us!
  • yanaka - little rumble
  • Sasebo - It was slightly alarming, but it took a while to notice higher up
  • Tsunashima - No damage
  • yufuin - the bed was shaking and we got scared and rushed to an open area
  • Yawatahama - It shook for about 20-30 seconds. It wasn't a sharp jolt, but more of a long side to side "rolling" feeling.
  • Kagoshima City - It shaked a lot, as it's a beach city, everybody started to message to know if there was a tsunami alert.
  • Iwakuni - I awoke to my bed gently shaking on the third floor of the building. The water was moving in the bottle on my night stand, but was not sloshing, only slightly moving back and forth. It was small tremors that didn't last very long.
  • USGS Tamana, Japan Apr 14 12:26 6.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Kyushu, Japan Apr 14 12:26 6.1 21 MAP I Felt It INFO


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    Country where you felt the earthquake *
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake *
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Shaking Strength *
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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