Volcano news by volcanologist Janine Krippner and Armand Vervaeck (Archive Nr. 2)

For the latest part of Janine's and Armand's report - Click here


 

Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, 14 October 19:15 UTC
On October 11 Tungurahua volcano produced strombolian activity, sending incandescent rocks a few hundred meters above the crater and down the northwest flank. The activity and seismicity has since diminished to sporadic moderate explosions on October 12.

Strombolian eruption at Tungurahua volcano on October 11. Courtesy of IGEPN.

Strombolian eruption at Tungurahua volcano on October 11. Courtesy of IGEPN.


Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, 2 October 22:20 UTC
IGEPN released an update on the situation at Cotopaxi volcano on September 29 with the following information an images. Thermal and visual observations show evidence of glacier melting due to heat rising through the volcano and ash fall on the ice increasing heat absorption. Evidence in shown in fissures and cracks are appearing in the glacier. New fumaroles have been detected. NO magma has been reported at the surface.

Thermal image of the Cotopaxi crater. Courtesy of IGEPN.

Thermal image of the Cotopaxi crater. Courtesy of IGEPN.

Gas emission at the Cotopaxi crater. Courtesy of IGEPN.

Gas emission at the Cotopaxi crater. Courtesy of IGEPN.

East flank glacier at the summit of Cotopaxi volcano showing evidence of melting. Landslides have deposited the dark material onto the lower glacier. Courtesy of S. Vallejo, IGEPN

East flank glacier at the summit of Cotopaxi volcano showing evidence of melting. Landslides have deposited the dark material onto the lower glacier. Courtesy of S. Vallejo, IGEPN

Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 18 September, 02:20 UTC
The USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory has issued a Volcanic Activity Notice for Mauna Loa Volcano increasing the Volcanic Alert Level from Normal to Advisory, and the Current Aviation Color Code from Green to Yellow. This is due to continued elevation in the rates of shallow small-magnitude earthquakes beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and west flank. Ground deformation has been consistent with shallow magma recharge. This does not mean an eruption is imminent, and this activity may continue for months or years without eruption.


Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, 17 September 14:22 UTC
Cotopaxi volcano can be seen producing a white vapor plume on the webcams here.

Cotopaxi webcam GIF taken today by the Instituto Geofisico.

Cotopaxi webcam GIF taken today by the Instituto Geofisico.


Aso volcano, Japan, 14 September, 18:10 UTC
Aso volcano erupted this morning and prompted an increase in Alert Level from 2 to 3. The eruption occurred at 9:43 am local time, with ash plumes rising to 2000 m above the crater. No injuries have been reported and there is now a 4 km no entry zone around the volcano.


Klyuchevskoy, Kamchatka, 29 August, 10:40 UTC
Klyuchevskoy volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, has had the Aviation Color Code raised from Green to Yellow (elevated unrest above background levels) due to incandescence at the crater that began on 1544 UTC on the 27th of August, indicating strombolian activity. An increase in gas/steam activity occurred on the 26-27th of August. (KVERT)


Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, 28 August, 15:35 UTC
Ash emission is still occurring at Cotopaxi volcano and is visible on the webcams.

Ash emission at Cotopaxi volcano as seen on the webcam from 1400 onwards today (local time). Courtesy of IGEPN, link to webcam above.

Ash emission at Cotopaxi volcano as seen on the webcam today from 1426 onwards today (local time). Courtesy of IGEPN, link to webcam above.

Colima volcano, Mexico, 28 August, 15:30 UTC
Carlos Navarro Ochoa of the University of Colima conducted a flyby over Colima volcano on the 25th of August (see photos below). The diameter of the active crater is now just over 270 m, and the depth is 60 m having grown from 40 m just over two weeks ago.

Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

The active crater of Colima volcano, image taken on 25th of August. Photo by Carlos Navarro Ocha, courtesy of the University of Colima.

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 28 August, 15:20 UTC
A new outbreak is producing a lava flow from Kilauea, heading north from the Pu'u O'o vent. No communities are in danger at this point. The video below was taken yesterday (27th August).


Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, 26 August, 16:55 UTC
The eruption continues at Piton de la Fournaise. The volcano observatory reports that the seismic tremor has decreased since the start of the eruption and the lava effusion rate has been rapidly decreasing, from 30-60 m³ per second last night down to around 10 m³ per second today. The active fissure is now 100 m long and a small cone has been built in the upper portion.

Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, 26 August, 14:35 UTC
IGEPN reports an increase in seismic activity at Tungurahua volcano with associated fine, black ashfall in Chontapamba Pillate, Bilbao, and Juive Grande. Five explosions were reported from 0557 (local time) with a progressive increase in intensity, the strongest occurring at 0805 (local time).

Seismograph of Tungurahua volcano on the 25th August, courtesy of IGEPN.

Seismograph of Tungurahua volcano on the 25th August, courtesy of IGEPN.


Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, 25 August, 20:35 UTC
The Instituto Geofisico reported that near-continuous ash emission began on the night of August 22nd with an increase in seismicity, and continued through the 23rd. Over 18 hours ~2 mm of brown ash had accumulated. Yesterday a gradual increase in seismicity indicated higher levels of internal disturbance within the volcano. Ash emission on the 24th did not exceed 1 km above the crater (seen below) and the ash was dispersed to the west.

The below images were taken by volcanologist P. Mothes of IGEPN on the 23rd of August.

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Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, 24 August, 18:55 UTC
CONRED has reported an increase in activity at Santiaguito volcano over the past few days with strong explosions accompanied by shock waves.

Sakurajima volcano, Japan, 24 August, 16:35 UTC
The evacuation advisory was lifted for the area around Sakurajima volcano on Saturday 22nd of August, with the Kagoshima city authorities citing a lower risk of a major eruption after the Japan Meteorological Agency stated that the possibility of a large eruption occurring is decreasing. Sakurajima island residents were taken home from shelters on Saturday afternoon.

Nishinoshima volcano, Japan, 24 August, 16:20 UTC
The Japan Coast Guard has released the following images of the growing Nishinoshima volcano taken on August 19th. Nishinoshima volcano emerged on November 20th, 2013.
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Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, 24 August, 16:00 UTC
The Piton de la Fournaise volcano observatory reported an eruption that began today at 18:50 local time after an increase in seismic activity. The eruption can be seen on the webcams here.

Webcam image of the activity at Piton de la Fournaise. Courtesy of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano observatory (link to webcams given above).

Webcam image of the activity at Piton de la Fournaise. Courtesy of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano observatory (link to webcams given above).

Villarica, Chile

Cotopaxi, Ecuador 18 August, 22:30 UTC

No serious explosions or eruptions expected by the VAAC in Washington (see image)
Time is in UTC - Advisories up to 13:30 UTC on August 19. Based on this data the volcano will get calm again.

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Cotopaxi, Ecuador 18 August, 14:20 UTC

Sakurajima, Japan August 18, 11:06 UTC
Evacuation of 30 people in Sakurajima shelter
In Kagoshima Prefecture, Sakurajima, evacuation advisory to 51 households 77 people were issued, all of whom have been evacuated. The shelter, which is provided on the island has been evacuated 30 people at the time of the 17:00 pm 9.
The video is from a couple of days ago.
Read the full article here

Kamchatka, Russia
What an incredible window on active volcanoes!

Cotopaxi, Ecuador 17 August, 23:32 UTC

Today 1 moderate ash emission until a height of 1 km above the volcano. The current activity poses no threat tot the population.

Cotopaxi, Ecuador 17 August, 1:05 UTC
Cotopaxi remains on Yellow Alert with the current activity. Today the Instituto Geofisico reported that the activity remains moderate to high. Ash emissions have reached 3 km above the summit and ashfall was reported in Manzano and Chontapamba, no lahars have occurred although rain could mobilize material. The below seismogram is from August 14-15th.

Seismograms for the might of August 14th to 15th, courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

Seismograms for the might of August 14th to 15th, courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

Cotopaxi, Ecuador 16 August, 10:57 UTC

 

Sakurajima, Japan 15 August, 08:01 UTC

The alert level of the Sakurajima volcano in Japan has been raised to 4 (prepare for a possible evacuation). The highly explosive volcano has been silent (or lets say @ very low activity) for several weeks now and the authorities do suspect a water (vapor) accumulation inside the volcano edifice.
Below a picture of one of the regular pattern explosions at Sakurajima.
Please check Culture Volcan for the latest in-depth information (the page is in French but using your Google Translator will help you out)

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Cotopaxi, Ecuador 15 August, 08:00 UTC

So far 4 explosions have been counted.

Cotopaxi, Ecuador 14 August, 17:23 UTC

https://twitter.com/Chavicamr/status/632238552055726080

Waimangu-Rotomahana, New Zealand, 11 August, 14:35
GNS reported yesterday that an earthquake swarm was recorded below the Waimangu-Rotomahana area, shown below. Over 60 events were recorded, with 20 large enough for locations to be determined with depths between 5-7.5 km. Magnitudes ranged 1.2-2.6 and there were no reports of anyone feeling the quakes. Swarms are common in this area and this swarm is no indication of any impending volcanic activity.

The Waimangu-Rotomahana earthquake swarm recorded on the Highlands station, ~5 km away. Courtesy of GNS.

The Waimangu-Rotomahana earthquake swarm recorded on the Highlands station, ~5 km away. Courtesy of GNS.


Fuego volcano, Guatemala, 5 August, 21:30 UTC
CONRED and INSIVUMEH report an increase in activity at Fuego volcano over the past few days with an increase in explosion number and energy, accompanied by ash plumes that have deposited ash on nearby villages. Villages within a radius of 13 km have felt shockwaves accompanying explosions that have shaken homes. A lava flow and hot avalanches have been observed as seen in the photo below.

Increased activity at Fuego volcano on the weekend. Photo taken by Jose Ruano.

Increased activity at Fuego volcano on the weekend. Photo taken by Jose Ruano.

 


Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, 3 August 14:35 UTC
The below videos shows the vent activity and lava flows of Piton de la Fournaise on July 31st (last Friday).


Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, 31 July, 17:15 UTC
The OVPF (Observatorie Volcanologique Du Piton de la Fournaise) webcams are showing images of Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupting. Lava flows can be seen heading away from the fissure.

Latest OVPF webcam image of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise captured 17:00:03 local time.

Latest OVPF webcam image of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise captured 17:00:03 local time.

Manam volcano, Papua New Guinea, 31 July, 14:15 UTC
The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory released a report of an eruption at Manam volcano that produced an ash plume to 65,000 ft, traveling to the S/SW. The Himawari-8 satellite captured the below images of the developing ash cloud. Follow link for original GIF posting. Video below is of satellite images referenced to the Regional and MEsoscale Meteorology Branch (RAMMB) of NOAA/NEDIS.

Himawari-8 satellite images acquired today. Images processed by Dan Lindsay.

Himawari-8 satellite images acquired today - original link provided above for GIF of ash cloud development. Images processed by Dan Lindsay.


Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, 28 July, 14:45
KVERT reports that moderate activity continues at Karymsky volcano, with an eruption producing a 35 km ash plume to the east. Karymsky is currently on Orange alert.

Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, 28 July, 14:45
After 3 months of quiescence, a few weeks ago Shiveluch volcano has resumed dome growth activity and associated explosions, dome incandescence and rock avalanches. Shiveluch is currently on Orange alert.

Raung volcano, Indonesia, 28 July, 14:35
The following images were posted today showing fresh lava in the Raung volcano crater first imaged on June 24th. The latest image (bottom right) was acquired yesterday.


Raung volcano, Indonesia, 27 July, 15:30
Activity continues at Raung volcano in eastern Java and is not showing signs of diminishing any time soon. On July 22 BNPB reported that the energy is likely to increase due to fresh magma supply. The following image was taken on the morning of July 25.


 

Message
Janine is now in Russia for a field trip towards the Kamchatka volcanoes.
This page will be active again when she is returning.
Whenever possible (wifi possibilities) she may write a few lines from her position in Russia

Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, 16 June, 13:00 UTC
The Jakarta Post reports that 10,714 people have now been evacuated from the area surrounding Sinabung volcano (report released at 6:09 pm local time). This is out of the 33,000 people living in the danger zone with many refusing to evacuate to government shelters. Today at least 48 pyroclastic density currents traveled down the slopes from the active summit dome with the largest reaching 2.5 km from the volcano (reported at 4:52 pm local time).

Asama volcano, Japan, 16 June, 12:25 UTC
The Japan Meteorological Agency reports a small eruption at Asama volcano after tremor was recorded at 8:12 am local time. The Alert Level was raised to 2 last Thursday and a 2 km exclusion zone was put in place following a sharp increase in sulfur dioxide emission. Volcanic earthquakes have been increasing since late April.

Bulusan volcano, Philippines, 16 June, 12:10 UTC
PHIVOLCS (Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology) reports that two phreatic (steam-driven) eruptions occurred at Bulusan volcano at 11:02 am and 11:20 am today (local time). The first eruption lasted 10 minutes and generated a 1 km high light grey steam plume. The second lasted for approximately 1 minute based on seismicity. The hydrothermal system within Bulusan may produce more phreatic eruptions and there is a permanent 4 km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) in place. Bulusan volcano remains on Alert Level 1 (Normal).


Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, 15 June, 19:20 UTC
The Jakarta Post reports that 1,200 villagers have been evacuated on Monday, increasing the total number to nearly 4,000. There are plans to evacuate a further 2,500 residents over the next few days. Back in 2013 around 10,000 villagers were evacuated and many have not been able to return to their homes due to ongoing activity at Sinabung volcano. The volcano remains on Alert Level IV (Caution).


Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, 14 June 14:35 UTC
Yesterday a portion of the unstable summit dome collapsed to produce pyroclastic density currents. The Alert Level was raised to IV on Tuesday (June 2nd) due to an increase in activity and the concern that the growing dome could collapse, resulting in evacuations within 7 km of the volcano.

Partial dome collapse pyroclastic density current yesterday. Photo by Mbah Lëwå.

Partial dome collapse pyroclastic density current yesterday. Photo by Mbah Lëwå.

Fuego volcano, Guatemala, 5 June, 13:45 UTC
INSIVUMEH reports that an effusive eruption has begun at Fuego volcano. Recent weeks have seen an high level of activity with an increase in energy of the explosions. Two lava flows, 400 to 700 m long, were formed yesterday and continue to be fed today by an eruption that began at 4:25 am (local time). Incandescent material could be seen with the eruption ejecting gas and ash 5,000 m above sea level.
This eruption is currently effusive but may increase in energy to generate pyroclastic flows.
You can see the webcam here.
The below image was posted by INSIVUMEH on twitter this morning showing the incandescent eruption at dawn today.

Eruption of Fuego volcano at dawn today, courtesy of INSIVUMEH - @insivumehgt

Eruption of Fuego volcano at dawn today, courtesy of INSIVUMEH - @insivumehgt

Webcam image taken just prior to posting. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH.

Webcam image taken just prior to posting. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH.

Colima volcano, Mexico, 5 June, 12:10 UTC
Activity continues with vulcanian eruptions at Colima volcano. This time lapse of webcam images was recorded on the 3rd of June at 6:12 am local time.


Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador, 4 June 17:48 UTC
The Instituto Geofisico has released a special report following increased seismic activity and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Seismic activity has been showing changes since mid April, from 628 events recorded in April, increasing to 3000 earthquakes recorded in May - similar to the 2001-2002 crisis. The number of earthquakes, values of seismic amplitude, and seismic energy all increased in May. The dominant earthquake type has been LP (long period) events that indicate fluid movement, and VLP (very long period) events have also been occurring, indicating magma movement within the volcano in the north and north-east areas. Earthquakes are located in two regions: to a depth of 3 km below the summit, and deeper events to 14 km depth - all near the cone.
Baseline SO2 levels at Cotopaxi are less than 500 tons/day. These levels have been increasing since the 20th of May, exceeding 2500 tons/day, sometimes nearing 3000 tons/day. These values have not been recorded in the past.
There is slight deformation on the north and northeastern flanks suggesting slight inflation, but no significant changes.
Since May fumerolic activity has been increasing in the crater, and 'very intense' sulfur smells were noted on the 22nd and 23rd of may.

Seismic activity of Cotopaxi volcano ranging 1996 to June 1st, 2015. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Seismic activity of Cotopaxi volcano ranging 1996 to June 1st, 2015. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Increase in the rate of VLPs (very long period events) that indicate magma movement within the Cotopaxi volcanic system. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Increase in the rate of VLPs (very long period events) that indicate magma movement within the Cotopaxi volcanic system. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Increase in SO2 emission from January 1st to June 1st, 2015. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Increase in SO2 emission from January 1st to June 1st, 2015. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Wolf volcano, Galapagos Islands, 4 June 15:40 UTC
The Instituto Geofisico has released a special report on the Wolf volcano eruption after an overflight on the 29th of May. They observed a 2-3 km high (above the summit) gas and steam plume containing no ash. Incandescent lava flows are visible on the eastern flank and have reached the ocean. SO2 levels peaked above 5000 ppm, with a discharge of 40,600 tons per day.

Photo and oblique images seen from the NE, showing the incandescent lava flows (outlined in orange). Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Photo and oblique images seen from the NE, showing the incandescent lava flows (outlined in orange). Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Thermal infrared images of two lava flows.  Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Thermal infrared images of two lava flows. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Earth Observing-1 Satellite image taken on the 28th of May with lava flows outlined in orange. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Earth Observing-1 Satellite image taken on the 28th of May with lava flows outlined in orange. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

The steam plume (containing no ash) visible 2-3 km above the crater. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

The steam plume (containing no ash) visible 2-3 km above the crater. Courtesy of Instituto Geofísico.

Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, 4 June, 15:15 UTC
On the 2rd of June at 23:00 local time, Badan Geologi has raised the alert level of Sinabung volcano from III (Standby) to IV (Caution). This follows an increase in activity based on visual and instrumental observations of avalanches and seismicity that indicates an ongoing supply of new magma. The summit of Sinabung has been undergoing dome growth and collapse, periodically resulting in pyroclastic density currents due to the instability of the dome. Lahars are also a risk in the river valleys during heavy rainfall.

Hazard zones at Sinabung volcano, courtesy of Badan Geologi.

Hazard zones at Sinabung volcano, courtesy of Badan Geologi.


Mount Shindake, Japan, 29 May 1:05 UTC
The Japan News reports that the eruption at 9:59 am Friday morning (local time) produced an ash plume that reached 9,000 m above the crater. Pyroclastic flows traveled westward and reached the coast 2 km away in the Mukaehama district. An earthquake was detected on May 23 that resulted in the residents being urged to take precautions, but there was no significant developments in recorded data to indicate that an eruption was imminent.

Photo of the steaming crater on Friday taken by photo taken from a Yomiuri Shimbun’s helicopter. courtesy of The Japan News.

Photo of the steaming crater on Friday taken by photo taken from a Yomiuri Shimbun’s helicopter, courtesy of The Japan News.

Map showing the location of Shindake volcano with pyroclastic flow and ash directions. Courtesy of The Japan News.

Map showing the location of Shindake volcano with pyroclastic flow and ash directions. Courtesy of The Japan News.

Calbuco volcano, Chile, 29 May, 12:05 UTC
Calbuco volcano has been lowered to Yellow Altert following low seismicity and volcanic activity, and a reduction in unstable pyroclastic material around the summit that could be remobilized during heavy rains. SERNAGEOMIN released the below updated hazards map with the report detailing the reduced activity.

Updated hazards map of Calbuco Volcano, courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Updated hazards map of Calbuco Volcano, courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Mount Shindake erupts in Japan - Islanders evacuated
CNN reports that :
Residents of the Japanese island of Kuchinoerabu have been urged to evacuate to get out of the path of an erupting volcano.
Mount Shindake, located in the center of the island, erupted shortly before 10 a.m. local time, the Japan Meteorological Agency said.
A few minutes after the volcano erupted, the agency raised its eruption-alert level from three to the highest level of five.
Pyroclastic flows have reached the island's shore and the municipal government has issued an evacuation order to all of the island's 137 residents, officials said.
Kuchinoerabu Island is 130 kilometers southwest of Kagoshima city in the country's south.

Wolf volcano, Galapagos Islands, 26 May, 12:50 UTC
Wolf volcano has begun erupting for the first time in 33 years. The eruption is producing lava flows that are currently no threat to residents, but could be a threat to the critically endangered pink iguanas on the island.

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island, 26 May, 12:30 UTC
The eruption continues at Piton de la Fournaise, adding material to the growing spatter cone. The eruption began on May 17 with increasing tremor intensity (as of 25 May), with strong fluctuations as seen below.

The evolution of tremor intensity from the 17 May (beginning of eruption) to 25 May. Courtesy of OVPF / IPGP.

The evolution of tremor intensity from the 17 May (beginning of eruption) to 25 May. Courtesy of OVPF / IPGP.

The growing spatter cone of Piton de la Fournaise on 25 May. Courtesy of OVPF / IPGP

The growing spatter cone of Piton de la Fournaise on 25 May. Courtesy of OVPF / IPGP


Reventador volcano, Ecuador, 20 May, 12:35 UTC
The Instituto Geofisico reports that a new lava flow has descended 1000 m down the southern flank of Reventador volcano. The distal region of the lava flow has divided into three flow fronts (see thermal image below). An increase in seismic tremor amplitude was observed from May 17th that may be related to the lava flow extrusion.

Thermal infrared image of Reventador volcano showing the new lava flow. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico.

Thermal infrared image of Reventador volcano showing the new lava flow. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico.

Seismograph from 17 May showing the increase in tremor amplitude from 13:50 UTC. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico.

Seismograph from 17 May showing the increase in tremor amplitude from 13:50 UTC. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico.

Chaiten volcano, Chile, 20 May, 12:10 UTC
SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level from Green to Yellow (change in activity, now exceeding the threshold basis, indicating that the volcanic system is unstable and may evolve by increasing or decreasing in activity) yesterday following an increase in seismic activity, exceeding baseline levels. Over the past few months there has been an increase in the occurrence and energy associated with long period (LP) seismic activity that indicates fluid movement, volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic activity indicating rock fracturing below the volcano, and hybrid-type earthquakes that indicate both fluid movement and rock fracturing within the volcanic system.

Chaiten volcano currently has a ~1 km3 dome that was rebuilt after the 2008 rhyolitic eruption. Photo courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Chaiten volcano currently has a ~1 km3 dome that was rebuilt after the 2008 rhyolitic eruption. Photo courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.


Calbuco volcano, Chile, 19 May, 16:00 UTC
SERNAGEOMIN has lowered the Alert Level of Calbuco volcano from Red to Orange. The 20 km danger zone has been reduced from a 20 km to 10 km radius around the crater. The volcano has been declining in activity since the eruption began on the 22nd of April, with a reduction in seismic and surface activity. Calbuco volcano remains unstable.

SERNAGEOMIN image showing the 8 craters at the summit of Calbuco volcano, one main crater and seven smaller craters.

SERNAGEOMIN image showing the 8 craters at the summit of Calbuco volcano, one main crater and seven smaller craters.


Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, 18 May, 13:25 UTC
Turrialba volcano continues to produce ash eruptions. The image below was captured at 6:55 am local time.

Eruption of Turrialba this morning. Image taken from the webcam courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Eruption of Turrialba this morning. Image taken from the webcam courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Mount Saint Helens anniversary, United States, 18 May, 13:00 UTC
Today marks the 35th anniversary of the Mount Saint Helens eruption that occurred on May 18, 1980. The eruption began at 8:32 am (local time) triggered by an earthquake that sent a large portion of the volcano sliding north in a debris avalanche. This depressurized the cryptodome that had been bulging the side of the mountain, resulting in a Plinian eruption.
A collection of resources detailing the eruption and it's effects on the people can be found here.

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island, 18 May, 21:50 UTC
Lava flows are traveling down the flanks of the volcano in the second eruption for 2015. The video below shows the incandescent lava flows and activity at the vent.


Kilauea volcano, United States 16 May, 13:50 UTC
Measurements taken by HVO yesterday show that the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater lava lake level is now down to 62 m (203 ft) below the new crater rim.

The lowering level of the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater lava lake. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

The lowering level of the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater lava lake. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

Etna volcano, Italy, 16 May, 13:50 UTC
The latest thermal infrared webcam image of Etna volcano shows the growth of the lava flow.

Webcam image acquired just before posting, courtesy of INGV.

Webcam image acquired just before posting, courtesy of INGV.


Etna volcano, Italy, 15 May, 19:50 UTC
Strombolian activity continues at Etna volcano at the southwest crater. The video below shows the fresh lava flow and crater activity:


Kilauea, United States, 14 May, 19:05 UTC
There has been a significant drop in the level of the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater lava lake. This has exposed a veneer of lava that partially collapsed yesterday causing a small explosion and agitation of the lava lake surface.

Partial collapse of veneer lava causing a small explosion yesterday. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

Partial collapse of veneer lava causing a small explosion yesterday. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

USGS image showing the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater. Image taken 12 May.

USGS image showing the Halema'uma'u Overlook crater. Image taken 12 May.

Etna volcano, Italy, 14 May, 18:50 UTC
Etna volcano has produced a new lava flow that can be seen in the thermal infrared image below.

Thermal infrared image showing activity at the crater and the lava flow. Courtesy of INGV.

Thermal infrared image showing activity at the crater and the lava flow. Courtesy of INGV.


Calbuco volcano, Chile, 12 May, 00:20 UTC
SERNAGEOMIN reports that Calbuco volcano is still in an unstable phase and remains on Red Alert. Seismic activity related to the movement of fluid inside the volcano continues without significant changes. There is still a danger of lahars with rain that have been forecast for the near future, and other volcanic processes (pyroclastic density currents and ballistics) should activity increase.

Emissions continue at Calbuco volcano. Image courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Emissions continue at Calbuco volcano. Image courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Current hazards map for Calbuco Volcano. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Current hazards map for Calbuco Volcano. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.


Telica volcano, Nicaragua, 11 May, 12:10 UTC
Telica volcano erupted again last night. The video below was taken yesterday (10 May):


Bulusan volcano, Philippines, 8 May, 12:30 UTC
PHIVOLCS reports that Bulusan volcano in the Sorsogon Province produced a steam driven eruption from it's northwest vent on the 6 May. The event lasted 3.5 minutes and produced a 250 m high ash plume that drifted to the west. A similar steam-driven eruption occurred on the 1 May that lasted 5 minutes. PHIVOLCS elevated the Alert Level to 1 (abnormal) on the 7 May. There has been no recorded seismic activity over the past 24 hours but more steam-driven eruptions may still take place.

Kilauea volcano, United States, 8 May, 12:05 UTC
The lava lake in the Overlook crater, within the Halema'uma'u crater of Kilauea, remains high and close to the rim. Several overflow events have occurred that have built up the crater rim by several meters. Spattering is occurring and can be seen in the HVO video (click on the top image below):

Spattering in the Overlook crater, courtesy of USGS. Click on image to see the video.

Spattering in the Overlook crater, courtesy of USGS. Click on image to see the video.

Overlook crater within the Halema'uma'u crater. Recent lava flows can be seen in the foreground. Courtesy of USGS.

Overlook crater within the Halema'uma'u crater. Recent lava flows can be seen in the foreground. Courtesy of USGS.


 

Volcano Activity for the week of 29 April - 5 May 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program.

Screen Shot 2015-05-08 at 10.23.03Axial Seamount | Juan de Fuca Ridge
Geologists reported that starting at 2230 on 23 April thousands of small earthquakes were detected at the Axial Seamount, and then the seafloor dropped by 2.4 m over a three-day period. It was unclear if the earthquakes and deflation meant an eruption or a large intrusion of magma that did not reach the surface.

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines)
PHIVOLCS reported that at 0809 on 1 May a steam-and-ash explosion from Bulusan was detected for five minutes by the seismic network. Dense rain clouds at the summit prevented visual observations at the time, but during a clear period around 1030 gray-white steam plumes were observed rising 200 m above the NW vent and drifting WNW. Minor ashfall affected areas to the W and NW, including Bolos, Cogon, Gulang-Gulang, Sangkayon, Tinampo, and Umagom in Irosin, Sorsogon, and Puting Sapa in Juban, Sorsogon.
Only five volcanic earthquakes had been recorded during the past week prior to the event; after the event the network detected 62 volcanic earthquakes within an eight-hour period. Alert Level 0 and the 4-km restricted zone, the Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), were maintained due to the possibility of sudden and hazardous steam-driven or phreatic eruptions.

Calbuco | Chile
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 29 April a weak ash plume rose as high as 1.5 km above Calbuco and seismicity remained stable. An event that began at 1308 on 30 April produced an ash plume that rose 3-5 km and drifted SE. A small lahar in the Blanco River may have been caused by a pyroclastic flow. Tremor amplitude increased and became sustained after the event. On 2 May the number of earthquakes increased. Seismicity significantly increased on 3 May, characterized by a swarm of volcano-tectonic events, and then decreased afterwards. Seismicity was low and stable on 5 May. A plume rose less than 1 km during 1-3 May; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the volcano during 4-5 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees totaled 6,685 on 5 May. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale).

Dempo | Indonesia
Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit.

Karangetang [Api Siau] | Siau Island (Indonesia)
Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 350 m above Karangetang's main crater and 25 m above Crater II during 22-29 April. Incandescence from the lava dome was observed at night. Lava flows began to appear on 22 April; incandescent avalanches from the fronts of 150-m-long lava flows traveled as far as 2 km towards Batuawang and Kahetang drainages (E) during 22-29 April. On 26 April pyroclastic flows traveled 2.2 km towards Kahetang drainage. On 28 April explosions produced plumes and ejected incandescent material 50 m high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to climb Karangetang any higher than 500 a.s.l.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA)
In a special statement on 29 April, HVO reported that beginning at 2140 the night before the lava lake in Kilauea’s Halema'uma'u Crater overflowed it's rim multiple times, sending lobate sheets of pahoehoe as far as 130 m across the crater floor. The report also noted that a few explosions in the lake triggered by falling wall rock had occurred; one at 1020 on 28 April ejected boulders of molten spatter (2 m in diameter) onto the rim of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the vicinity of the closed visitor overlook fence. Spatter also blanketed an area 100 m along the rim and 50 m back. This area had been closed to the public since 2007.
The accumulating lava had built up a rim around the lake that was a few meters above the crater floor. On 30 April the lava-lake surface was about 4 m below the new rim. During 1-2 May the lake level was near or at the rim, and overflowed onto the floor several times. During 2-3 May the lake surface was 3-5 m above the original, pre-flow crater floor. A collapse of a portion of the crater wall at 1320 on 3 May impacted the lake and triggered a small explosion, ejecting fist-sized clasts onto the crater rim. Lava overflowed the rim several times during 4-5 May.
During 29 April-5 May Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater.

Tungurahua | Ecuador
IG reported moderate activity at Tungurahua on 29 April, and low levels during 30 April-5 May. Minor steam plumes were visible most days even though inclement weather often obscured views of the crater area.

Ubinas | Peru
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 29 April-5 May long-period and tornillo-type earthquakes continued to decrease while volcano-tectonic events increased. Hybrid events were at a low level, however, an increase in the number of events were detected on 29 April. Overall the dominant signal was spasmodic tremor associated with ash-and-steam emissions. Constant steam emissions were visually observed even though cloud cover often prevented observations. Ash emission increased on 1 May, rising as high as 800 m above the crater.

Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, 6 May, 16:14 UTC

Volcano Activity for the week of 22 April-28 April 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program.

Screen Shot 2015-05-01 at 10.09.33

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India)
According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Barren Island that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images.

Calbuco | Chile
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that an eruption from Calbuco began at 1804 on 22 April, prompting the Alert Level to be raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) and causing a 20-km exclusion zone to be declared. The eruption was preceded by an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic events followed by long-period events; no increases in seismicity had been noted since 2009 when real-time seismic monitoring started. After a large seismic event detected at 1735, a 90 minute eruption generated a sub-Plinian, gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater and drifted mainly ENE, although fine ash drifted N and NW. Column collapses occurred locally and radially, affecting the headwaters of major rivers. Residents within the exclusion zone, in Chamiza, Lago Chapo, and Correntoso sectors, and in the town of Puerto Montt, were ordered to evacuate. Several roads and bridges were impassable due to ashfall.
A larger second event on 23 April began at 0100, lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km and drifted N, NE, and E. Incandescent tephra was ejected as far as 5 km; deposits were concentrated to the N and NE, with thicknesses varying from tens of centimeters in the Región de Los Lagos to a few millimeters in the Los Ríos and La Araucanía areas. Pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum distance of 7 km and lahars traveled 15 km. Pumice fell in Región de Los Lagos, and ash fell in Los Ríos and La Araucanía. Tephra also fell in Argentine territory, NE of the volcano. Scientists aboard an overflight observed ash emissions from at least six vents on the W, SW, and S sides of the old lava dome. About 5,000 people had been evacuated and ONEMI warned people not to go within 200 m of drainages due to lahar hazards. At around 2330 a third phase of surficial activity was noted; ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted NE and E. On 24 April the ash plume continued to rise 2 km and explosions were detected. News articles noted that international flights in and out of several major cities were delayed or canceled. According to a news article, ash from the eruption reached southern Brazil on 25 April prompting some airlines to cancel flights using airports in Santiago, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Some houses in areas near the volcano collapsed from the weight of the ash. The ash plume persisted on 25 April, but rose to a lower height of 400 m, and sporadic explosions were detected. Seismicity declined during 26-27 April; the ash plume rose 1.5 km, and drifted NE and SE. ONEMI noted on 27 April that 246 of 4,514 evacuees were in shelters; the number of displaced people had peaked at 6,514 during 24-26 April.
A satellite-based estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions was 0.3-0.4Tg by 28 April, detected as high as 21 km altitude. Although most ash had fallen out of the plume over Chile and Argentina, some may have remained in the stratospheric plume drifting around the globe; the leading edge of the gas plume had reached the Indian Ocean, S of Madagascar.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA)
During 22-28 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater. The thermal webcam recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents in the crater. Lava that sporadically erupted from vents on the SE and S parts of Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor covered the floor.
The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. Abrupt inflation began at 1640 on 21 April; concurrently the lava lake rose and was 20 m below the crater floor on 23 April, the highest level since the eruption began in 2008. A small collapse from the overhanging W wall at about 0520 triggering a small explosive event that ejected spatter out onto the Halema'uma'u crater floor. The lake continued to rise and was 12 m below the floor on 25 April. Two collapses of the W crater wall each triggered explosions that ejected clumps of spatter (some 30 cm in diameter) up onto the rim of Halema'uma'u and dusted the Jaggar Museum area with ash. During 25-26 April the lava lake rose to within about 4 m of the crater floor. During 27-28 April the lava lake fluctuated but was mostly 3-4 m below the rim, and briefly reached the rim on 28 April at a time without spattering.

Sinabung | Indonesia
PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing lava dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Recorded seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.
According to social media sources, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a pyroclastic flow descended the flank. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite observations.

Tungurahua | Ecuador
IG reported moderate-to-high seismic activity at Tungurahua during 22-28 April, characterized by long-period events, tremor, and explosions. Cloud cover often prevented visual observations, and rainfall was recorded almost daily. During 22-23 April gray and red ash fell in Choglontus (13 km WSW), and a landslide in the area of Manto de la Novia was reported in the morning. During 23-24 April gray tephra fell in Bilbao (W), Chontapamba (W), Pillate (8 km W), Baños (8 km N), and Quero (20 km NW). Emissions with minor ash content were visible on 24 April; one emission rose 200 m and drifted NW. Ashfall on 25 April was reported in Chontapamba, Pillate, Romero, and Guambaló. During 25-26 April lahars descended the Quero, Bilbao, Chontapamba, Juive (NW), Mapayacu (SW), Pingullo (NW), Pondoa (N), Vazcún (N), Achupashal (NW), La Pirámide (NW), and Romero drainages. On 27 April ash fell in Pillate, and a vapor emission rose 2 km and drifted W. On 28 April an emission with a minor ash content rose 3 km and drifted W. Roaring was noted and lahars descended the La Pampa (NW) and Rea drainages.


 

Calbuco volcano, Chile, April 30, 16:40 UTC
A third eruptive phase has begun at Calbuco volcano. At the time of publishing the ash plume is not as large as the first two pulses that occurred last week.

SERNAGEOMIN webcam images taken a few minutes before publishing.

SERNAGEOMIN webcam images taken a few minutes before publishing.

https://twitter.com/Sernageomin/status/593811976607965184

Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, April 30, 01:40 UTC
A dome collapse event has occurred that produced pyroclastic density current that traveled 4.5 km, setting fire to homes in a nearby village.

Calbuco volcano, Chile, April 30, 01:35 UTC
SERNAGEOMIN reports that Calbuco volcano remains on Red Alert after slightly elevated levels of seismic tremor.

Kilauea volcano, USA, April 30, 01:30 UTC
The Overlook vent within the Halema'uma'u crater of Kilauea began overflowing this morning. An explosion also occurred on the 28th at 10:20 am (local time) after a rockfall into the crater, landing molten spatter on wooden railing at the Halemau'mau' outlook. The below images were taken from the webcams right before publishing.

HVO thermal webcam image from Halema'uma'u Overlook vent.

HVO thermal webcam image from Halema'uma'u Overlook vent.

HVO webcam image from Halema'uma'u Overlook vent

HVO webcam image from Halema'uma'u Overlook vent

HVO webcam image from the west rim of Halema'uma'u.

HVO webcam image from the west rim of Halema'uma'u.


Kilauea volcano, USA, April 27, 13:30 UTC
The lava lake in Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Overlook crater continues to rise, now only a few meters below the crater rim after rising 8 m over Saturday-Sunday.
See the webcams here.

Spattering on the eastern corner of the lava lake. Image posted yesterday by HVO, USGS.

Spattering on the eastern corner of the lava lake. Image posted yesterday by HVO, USGS.

The lava lake 3 m (10 ft) below the crater rim yesterday morning. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

The lava lake 3 m (10 ft) below the crater rim yesterday morning. Courtesy of HVO, USGS.

Different view of the lava lake taken yesterday morning by HVO, USGS.

Different view of the lava lake taken yesterday morning by HVO, USGS.

HVO webcam image captured this morning from Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook.

HVO webcam image captured this morning from Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook.

Thermal webcam image from Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook taken this morning. Temperature scale in in degrees Celsius. courtesy of HVO, USGS.

Thermal webcam image from Halemaʻumaʻu Overlook taken this morning. Temperature scale in in degrees Celsius. courtesy of HVO, USGS.