Volcano bits and bites - Hawaii, Japan, Indonesia, Alaska, Chile, World...

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This report is compiled out of many information sources and is brought to you by volcanologist Philippa (Demonte). Armand (Vervaeck) is backing her up as Philippa is sometimes too busy professionally to post updates.

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Fantastic video footage captured earlier this week by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the lava lake within Halema`uma` Crater at the summit of Kilauea volcano.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey

Meanwhile, the ocean entry at Kamokuna remains active. In the image below we can see the large crack (from bottom left to mid-right of photo) in the lava delta running parallel to the coastline, which means that the lava delta at this time is still unstable and could collapse at any moment.


Nishinoshima island, Japan (Philippa)
This news feature from tv-asahi (see link below) shows the latest eruptive activity from Nishinoshima island, which lies around 1000 km south of Tokyo. The volcanic island first emerged above sea level around October 2013.

I have, unfortunately, forgotten all the Japanese that I learned around 10 years ago, so if any of you can tell us what the commentary says, that would be amazing. In terms of features though, Nishinoshima's eruptions are explosive and ash-laden, also shooting out large rocks from its vent.

via F.IKGM (@geoign) / ANN

News - TV-Asahi - Nishinoshima Island eruptions

The image below was taken yesterday, and shows Nishinoshima blowing 'smoke' rings, which are volcanic gas and steam emitted from a circular vent at just the right velocity (speed).

via @Hyuga_Navy_jp

Nishinoshima taken by Japanese Navy


Sinabung volcano, Indonesia (Philippa)
Explosive, ash-laden eruptions continue at Sinabung volcano in Indonesia. The image (below) was taken earlier today and shows pyroclastic density currents (avalanches of hot rocks and ash, which have fallen out of the eruption plume) racing down the slopes. Local residents have been advised to wear surgical face masks to avoid inhaling the volcanic ash as it re-mobilizes.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Meanwhile, the following video of a lahar (mud and debris flow) from a couple of days ago has been posted on social media.

via Severe World Weather / Rodriguo Contreras Lopez


Pavlof volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)
Below is a webcam image captured a few hours ago on a USGS webcam of Pavlof volcano in action. A team from University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Volcano Observatory are currently carrying out fieldwork on the flanks.

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Copahue, Chile (Philippa)
Small scale ash and steam eruptions continue at Copahue volcano in Chile.



Volcano activity for the week of 12-18 July 2017
weekly summary wc 12July2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismis, infrasound, or lightning data.

Fuego | Guatemala
(Monitoring agency) Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanalogia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH) reported that multiple explosions at Fuego during 13-14 July generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km NW and W. Incandescent (glowing) material was ejected 100 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluya (SW) and Trinidad (S) drainages. On 16 July a 30 m wide, 2 m deep, hot lahar descended tributaries of the Pantaleon (W) drainage, carrying blocks more than 2 m in diameter, and tree trunks. The lahars again overtook the road between communities on the SW flank, isolating the village of Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW) and the Palo Verde estate. Vulcanian explosions during 17-18 July produced desnse ash plumes that rose almost 1 km above the crater rim and drifted 15 km W and NW. Ash fell in Panimache (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Sofia (12 km SW).

Sangeang Api | Indonesia
(Monitoring agency) PVMBG reported a small eruption at Sangeang Api at 11:54 on 15 July characterized by Strombolian activity, and an ash plume that rose 100-200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Prior to the event, thermal anomalies had increased beginning in March, and seismicity had increased starting in April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, PVMBG observation, and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 16 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km a.s.l., or 200 m above the crater rim, and drifted NW.

Information provided by Smithsonian GVP Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

July 22 + 23, 2017

Volcan Fuego, Guatemala (Philippa)
Volcan Fuego has been erupting again this week after a month's respite. The night time footage (below) was shot on 10 July from a vantage point in San Pedro de las Huertas.

via Broken Compass

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
The footage (below) was shot on 18 July 2017. Vigorous lava fountaining was still visible on the OVPF / IPGP Piton de Bert webcam last night, but as reported previously, the structures are transitioning from a fissure to discrete cones as more lava erupts and settles.

via Francois Martel Asselin (Clicanoo.re JIR)

July 21, 2017

Sinabung volcano, Indonesia (Philippa)
This photo from today at Sinabung volcano is an example of some of the different processes going on in an eruption plume: buoyant convective currents have lofted the finest-sized ash particles into a mushroom cloud at the top, whilst lower down we observe almost pure water vapour cloud and small pyroclastic flows on the flank of the volcano where the heavier ash and rock particles have fallen out of the plume.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


A round-up of some of the webcam images from the past 24 hours:

Shishaldin volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey

Okmok volcano, Alaska, USA (Philippa)

via Alaska Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Mt. Bromo, Indonesia (Philippa)



Sileri Crater Lake, Dieng Volcanic Complex, Indonesia (Philippa)
This area was the site of a phreatic (steam-driven) eruption, which occurred on 2nd July, which injured 11 tourists. The fact that this webcam image taken in the past 24 hours clearly shows steam emissions indicates that it is still not safe to visit this crater lake at the moment.



Volcan Turrialba, Costa Rica (Philippa)
This surprisingly clear webcam shot of Turrialba is showing separate white (steam) and grey-brown (ash) plumes from the main crater, and surface features around the two neighbouring craters, including rills (water channels).

via OVSICORI-UNA (@volcanturrialba)


Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
Strong fissure eruption activity was visible via the webcams last night, particularly via the Piton de Bert webcam (see first image below). The second image shows how the lava fountains are now starting to form cones.



Piton de la Fournaise 19July2017 IPGP

July 20, 2017

Sinabung, Indonesia (Philippa)
The image below may not be as exciting for some of you as action shots of red hot lava spouting out of a vent, but for those of us interested in volcano monitoring this zoomed-in shot of a steaming, growing lava dome at Sinabung volcano provides vital insight into the conditions just prior to eruption, in particular regarding: 1) the extrusion rate of the (grey) lava forming the dome, 2) the stability / instability of the lava dome, and 3) whether or not the volcano was degassing. In this particular case, Sinabung had a small-scale explosive eruption less than 2 hours later.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu, Japan (Philippa)
On this day exactly 4 years ago I had this volcano as my 'office' view: Sakurajima. A group of us had gone there prior to a volcanology conference to set up arrays (groups) of acoustic sensors in order to study the infrasound emissions from the volcano.

When a volcano or geyser erupts, as well as seismic waves (little earthquakes) they produce sound waves (pressure waves) in the air at frequencies below our human limit of hearing, i.e. less than 20 Hz**, which is known as infrasound. Sound waves at such frequencies have a long wave length and can travel far - think of the boom of Krakatau volcano in Indonesia, which was heard in Australia - and so aero-acoustic sensors can be placed at a further, safer distance away from a volcano than other types of monitoring equipment.

Volcano infrasound monitoring is particularly useful for detecting eruptions during low visibility conditions, such as at night time or at volcanoes in remote locations where it is difficult to install webcams. It is vital towards the service which provides timely Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAA) for  busy aviation routes, including over Alaska and Indonesia / Singapore / Malaysia.

In the case of Sakurajima volcano, our infrasound data together with the seismic and deformation data monitored by the local volcano observatory helped determine that this particular volcano goes seismically and aero-acoustically very quiet during the 1-2 hours prior to each eruption, with deformation sensors showing slight inflation. Our Japanese colleagues interpreted this as the minerals at the top of the lava dome becoming chemically altered, which seals the vent, causes a built up of pressure, then dome failure and eruption.

** You may have heard stories before of animals behaving strangely prior to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This is because they can either hear frequencies below our human level of hearing, or because they can feel the ground and/or air vibrations, e.g. through their bellies if they are snakes, through the whiskers on their face if they are dogs, etc.

July 19, 2017

Klyuchevskoy and Koryaksky, Kamchatka, Russia (Philippa)
Conditions in Kamchatka have been a little cloudy for the past few days, but we managed to catch a break in the weather to capture these webcam images of Klyuchevskoy volcano's ongoing eruptive activity and Koryaksky volcano. Although the latter is not currently erupting, this was a good opportunity to show the location of Kamchatka's capital - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky - between several volcanoes. I have been there before and can tell you that the views from the city are stunning!

via the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology / KVERT



Sabancaya volcano, Peru (Philippa)
There was some great viewing to be had of the ongoing eruption at Sabancaya volcano via the webcams* a few hours ago. * Front view and (from a greater distance) side view.




Stromboli, Aeolian Islands, Sicily (Philippa)
Even at night time it is possible to capture imagery and useful information about a volcano using thermal infra red cameras. Hotter areas show as orange, yellow, and almost white colours, whilst cooler areas show as greens, blues, and purples. The two thermal images below are from Stromboli volcano during the past few nights, and show eruptions (volcano burps) from two different vents.

via INGV Catania webcam


Stromboli 15July2017 1227UTC INGV

July 18, 2017

Sinabung, Indonesia (Philippa)
Night time shot of Sinabung volcano taken with a long shutter setting to also capture the stars.

via Endro Lewa (https://www.facebook.com/endrolewa)


Yasur, Vanuatu (Philippa)
I am guessing that (photographer) Chris Horsley kept this on a long shutter setting in order to capture this impressive pyroclastic ('hot rocks') display at Yasur volcano during the night! Geoff Mackley and George Kourounis used for scale!

via George Kourounis / Chris Horsley

Yasur Vanuatu 17 July 2017 Chris Horsley

Volcan Turrialba, Costa Rica (Philippa)
Image of Volcano Turrialba taken at sunset at 01:17 GMT 17 July / 18:17 local time 16 July.

via OVSICORI UNA webcam (@volcanturrialba)


Mount Baker, Cascades range, USA (Philippa)
As volcanologists / scientists, in order to forecast future eruptions we have to: 1) monitor and take constant measurements of a volcano's vital signs (seismicity, deformation, gas levels, etc) beforehand in order to establish baseline levels against which any increases in activity can be compared against, and 2) investigate and map the geology of both a volcano and its surrounding areas in order to determine its eruptive history and potential future hazards. However, at snow-covered volcanoes, such as Mount Baker in the Cascades range in NW USA, 1) and 2) are not so easy to do.

The article below (written by Jemma Everyhope-Roser) provides a fascinating insight by researchers at Western Washington University, whose efforts to study Mount Baker have involved back country skiing and alpine climbing.

Secrets of the mountain - WWU scientists ski, trek and climb to learn more about the volcano next door

Because Mount Baker is snow covered, future eruptions here would be explosive, due to the interaction of magma with snow melt, generating ash plumes and lahars.

via WWU (@WWU)


Professor Doug Clark on (volcano) Mount Baker. The red and white stakes are for measurements of the glaciers and snowfall.

July 17, 2017

Worldwide - volcanic ash safety (Philippa)
The poster below, which dates back to the 1980s, was found recently in the US Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory archives. It is being used now on social media to raise awareness amongst communities living near explosive volcanoes for preparedness kits, which should include a disposable dust / particulate mask to avoid inhaling volcanic ash, and eye protection such as goggles or safety glasses.

Volcanic ash particles are very small and very glassy. At the very least the ash is an eye and skin irritant; at worse, inhalation of volcanic ash can lead to a fatal lung condition called silicosis.

Volcanic ash deposits may continue to be remobilised long after an eruption, for example by winds. Even with extensive post-eruption clean-up operations, which often take years, finance, and major efforts, it is impossible to completely eradicate all ash fall.

Several organisations are currently conducting research into both the long-term health effects in volcanic areas and best practices for volcanic ash clean-up.

This online pamphlet meanwhile provides information regarding public health issues in volcanic ash hazard areas:

The Health Hazard of Volcanic Ash - A guide for the public

...whilst this link from USGS Volcanoes provides a much broader overview of the impacts of volcanic ash hazards:

Volcanic Ash Impacts and Mitigation

via US Geological Survey Volcanoes and DEVORA Auckland (@DEVORAProject)

Captain Volcano poster

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
The video footage below shows the lava fountaining that occurred from a fissure eruption along the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano between Kala Pele and Chateau Fort crater. The footage was shot ~5-10 hours after the start of the eruption, which from the seismic data collected by (monitoring agency) OVPF / IPGP, started at around 00:50 a.m. on 14 July. Seven lava fountains were observed during a helicopter overflight later that morning, but by yesterday afternoon this had reduced to just three lava fountains, which were starting to form two small volcanic cones.

via Jeannie Curtis (@VolcanoJeannie) / Ced Northman

July 16, 2017

Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island (Philippa)
Localized fissure eruptions with lava fountaining resumed again yesterday at Piton de la Fournaise volcano after a recent lull in activity. The image below was taken around 09:30 a.m. local time.



Garni Canyon, Armenia (Philippa)
Earthquake-Report.com's Armand Vervaeck has sent through this image from the Garni Canyon in Armenia, looking from ground level up towards columnar jointing in a voluminous ancient lava flow.


The geological history of the region is complicated, caused by opposing tectonic forces. As a result, the ancient volcanoes in the surrounding areas - Mt. Aragat in Armenia and Mt. Ararat in neighbouring Turkey - erupted several different types of lava and in various eruptive styles. Although the origins of the lava flows at Garni Canyon within Aragat and Ararat's history are not fully understood, we can nevertheless explain how these columnar structures formed using the diagram below.

Image courtesy of Dr Malcolm Reeve, University of Saskatchewan http://homepage.usask.ca/~mjr347/prog/geoe118/geoe118.054.html

Image courtesy of Dr Malcolm Reeve, University of Saskatchewan http://homepage.usask.ca/~mjr347/prog/geoe118/geoe118.054.html

If you imagine fluid and voluminous lava flows, as the eruptive rate declines, heat from within the flows rises and dissipates at the surface. As the flows cool, they contract, and cracks appear parallel to the direction of the heat flow, i.e. vertically, forming pentagonal (5-sided) or hexagonal (6-sided) columns.

Straight columns, such as in Armand's image from Garni Canyon, are described as colonnade. In contrast, irregular, curving columns, which splay in different directions are described as entablature. The latter are thought to be evidence of lava flows being rapidly cooled at the surface by water, such as a river or glacial outburst.

Garni Canyon has been exposed by a river gradually eroding down through the rock.

If you would like to know more about columnar jointing in old lava flows, see these links:

Oregon State University - Columnar Jointing

AGU Blogosphere - Georneys - Evelyn Mervine

Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Below is the latest video footage (sped up) of the 61g lava flow breakout on the flanks of Kilauea volcano. Notice how with such pahoehoe lava flow textures, the surface inflates as hotter, newer lava flows underneath.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey


Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Eastern Caribbean (Philippa)
Beautiful Moon-lit shot of Soufriere Hills Volcano on the Eastern Caribbean island of Montserrat. The volcano last erupted in 2010, but is still considered to be active.

via Island of Montserrat / Emerald Isle Helicopters

Soufriere Hills Volcano Emerald Isle Helicopter

July 15, 2017

Volcano activity for the week of 5 July - 11 July 2017
Volcano activity we 11July2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
On 5 July AVO reported that no further activity was detected at Bogoslof after the explosions the day before. A nine-minute-long eruption pulse detected in seismic data starting at 10:15 on 8 July was followed by a shorter pulse that began at 10:29 and then a decline in seismicity. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. An eruption began at 23:47 on 9 July, lasted five minutes, and was followed 15 minutes later by another explosion that lasted seven minutes. A small ash cloud visible in satellite images drifting SE may have risen as high as 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. An eruption began at 10:00 on 10 July and lasted eight minute. Infrasound data indicated ash emissions, but ash was not confirmed in satellite data. A 15 minutes-long event began at 17:06 on 10 July. No volcanic plume was identified in satellite data, and no volcanic lightning nor infrasound was detected. Seismicity declined after the episode.

Fuego | Guatemala
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-7 explosions per hour at Fuego during 6-7 July generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950m above the crater and drifted 6-10 km SW and W. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Santa Teresa (SW), and Trinidad (S) drainages. Later on 7 July the rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour. During 7-9 July ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15 km W, causing ashfall in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8km WSW), and possibly San Pedro Yepocapa (8km N). A lava flow traveled 1.5km down the Las Lajas (SE) drainage. On 11 July INSIVUMEH declared that the 6th eruption of the year with lava effusion was in progress. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted 35km W, and shock waves rattled nearby structures. Ash fell in areas including Morelia, Panimache, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, and Sangre de Cristo. Two lava flows were fed by lava fountains 150-250m high; one lava flow traveled 2.3 km down the Las Lajas drainage and another traveled 1.7 km down the Santa Teresa (SW) drainage. Later that day INSIVUMEH reported that the 31-hour-long eruption had ended. A few weak-to-moderate explosions continued, generating ash plumes that rose 850m and drifted 6km W.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:49 on 5 July a small phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja ejected material that fell within the crater.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images over Sheveluch during 1-7 July. Explosions on 2 July generated ash plumes that rose 10-11km (32,800-36,100 ft) a.s.l.; one plume drifted 1,050km SW and another drifted 350km NE.

Information provided by Smithsonian GVP Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
July 14, 2017

Crater Glacier, Mount St Helens,USA (Philippa)
The images below are from an interesting article on how Crater Glacier formed at Mount St Helens during the 1980s and 90s due to heavy snowfall combining with rock falls and being shaded from the sun within the crater.

The first image taken in 2005 by Steve Schilling shows how the glacier was squeezed, thickened, and split in two as lava spines within the dome complex emerged through it, causing the flow rate of the glacier to increase.

The second image was taken earlier this week by Andy Barsotti and shows the snout of the glacier near one of Mount St Helens seismic stations.

The full article can be found here: Glaciation at Mount St Helens

via US Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
Below are the latest US Geological Survey images from Kilauea volcano on Big Island, Hawaii: lava spatter from the Halema'uma'u Crater lava lake and the lava bench at the ocean entry. The latter is currently showing cracks in a parallel direction to the shoreline, which indicates that the structure is unstable and likely to collapse soon. For safety reasons, boats and tourists on the landside should therefore heed any warnings given by the National Park Services to stay further back from this ocean entry than usual.

via Hawaiian Volcano Observatory / US Geological Survey



July 13, 2017

Fuego volcano, Guatemala
Eruption report

The 6th almost identical explosive eruption sending ash approx. 1 km into the air.
The eruption produced 2 lava flows with a length of 2300 and 1700 meters.
INSIVUMEH reiterates that a chance on pyroclastic flows is still very high.

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.37.07

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.36.40

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 14.36.51

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-11 om 17.05.24

July 11, 2017

Jameson Land, Greenland (Philippa)
The images below from Hurry Inlet in Jameson Land, Greenland, tell a story, which involved collaboration between (industry-related) sedimentologists and volcanologists in a chance discovery. The sedimentologists from the University of Bergen and the University of Aberdeen had ventured to Jameson Land to investigate the delta and basin region. They quickly realised that the sandstones which dominate the landscape contain vertical and horizontal intrusions of magma: dykes and sills respectively. They called in some volcanologists, who used special equipment to scan the landscape, and then create a virtual reconstruction of how the sandstones would have looked beforehand. The research groups concluded that the magmatic intrusions had been so voluminous that they had pushed up the surface of the surrounding sandstone by up to 3 km!

The magma intrusions are thought to have occurred during the Eocene, around 150 million years after the original deposition of the sand. The slow rifting apart of a continent formed the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and allowed the upwelling of the magma. This is similar to the activity that we see today at East African Rift Zone, which includes Erte Ale volcano in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

The full story can be found here (in Norwegian): Magmatic intrusions in East Greenland

via Christian Haug Eide



Top image: looking side on to Hurry Inlet. Lower image: scanned image looking straight ahead to Hurry Inlet. The darker areas are the intrusions of magma; the paler areas are the surrounding sandstone.

Popocatepetl, Mexico (Philippa)
A clear shot via the webcam this morning of Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico, which is currently at alert level 'yellow 2'.

via Volcan Popocatepetl (@Popocatepetl_MX) and www.webcamsdemexico.com


Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA (Philippa)
A special treat from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: some timelapse footage of the 61g lava flow on the flanks of Kilauea volcano near the coast.

via USGS / Hawaiian Volcano Observatory


Etna, Sicily, Italy
Small ash emissions have resumed at Etna's "Very Very Newest Southeast Crater" (former "saddle vent"), view from south, 9 July 2017
Via Boris Behncke @ etnaboris

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-10 om 20.15.33

Bogoslov volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA
Eruption update
No further ash emissions have occurred at Bogoslof Volcano since the series of explosions that began on Sunday, 09 July at 23:47 AKDT (07:47 UTC July 10) and ended about 02:35 AKDT (10:35 UTC) July 10. A small eruption cloud associated with the first two eruptive pulses was evident in satellite data. This cloud may have reached as high as 20,000 ft. above sea level and was carried to the southeast but dissipated rapidly. No additional volcanic clouds were observed in satellite data. The activity also was detected in seismic and infrasound data. After about 03:00 AKDT (11:00 UTC) seismicity declined and has remained at low levels. We are therefore lowering the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Alert Level to WATCH. Given the ongoing episodic nature of eruptive activity at Bogoslof, additional ash-producing eruptions could occur at any time.

via US Geological Survey


July 10, 2017

Congratulations to our very own Janine Krippner (@janinekrippner), who on Friday successfully defended her PhD thesis re: Shiveluch volcano and Mount St Helens. Janine can now officially be called a Doctor of volcanoes (not a medical doctor; different type), something which she has wanted to be since the age of 13!

Janine is also active (pun intended!) in educational outreach work. Alongside of her PhD research and writing for this volcano section of the Earthquake-Report.com, she instigated the "It's all for you, girl!" campaign featuring messages from women in volcanology to encourage girls to continue with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Maths) subjects at school. It's all for you, girl!

Janine KrippnerWe cannot wait to see which volcano(es) in the world Janine will work on next!

Mount Hood, Oregon, USA (Philippa)
This beautiful image taken at sunset yesterday evening is Mount Hood, a strato volcano in the Cascades Range of NW USA. Although it looks innocent enough and has not erupted since 1907, fumaroles (steam vents) indicate that this volcano is still active, but currently power napping (in geological timescale terms). If it were to re-awaken, the biggest hazard would be from snow and glacial melt on Mount Hood's slopes generating far-reaching flash floods and lahars in the surrounding areas.

via Michael Shainblum (@shainblum)


Poas, Costa Rica (Philippa)
Below is a sped up time-lapse of webcam images from Poas volcano on the night of 8 July 2017. It looks like there are currently two active vents within the crater, one of which is only emitting water vapor and other volcanic gasses (white colour) and one which is also emitting volcanic ash (darker colour), probably due to the erosion of the vent walls.

via (monitoring agency) OVSICORI-UNA (@OVSICORI_UNA_)

Brown Bluff, Antarctica (Philippa)
The image below was taken at Brown Bluff, which is a tuya, a volcano which erupted under a glacier. The exact timing of its eruption is unknown - sometime within the last 1 million years - and its original diameter is estimated to have been between around 12-15 km, but much of it has since been eroded by glacial action. The features that remain include pillow lavas and tuff cliffs (consolidated volcanic ash fall), which are evidence that this volcano erupted both underwater and explosively above the water line respectively. In the background are the remaining red-black tuff cliffs, and in the foreground a piece of the tuff cliff which has broken off, showing a lava bomb within tephra (ash fall).

via Roberto C Lopez (@Bromotengger)


Herðubreið, Iceland (Philippa)
Below is a more recent example of a tuya (volcano, which erupted under a glacier): Herðubreið in northern Iceland. You will notice that instead of being conical in shape, it has steep sides and an almost  flat top except for a tiny peak where some lava broke through the ice, which is typical of tuyas.

View from the LAVA (@LavaCentre) via Ben Edwards (@lava_ice)


July 9, 2017

Volcano activity for the week of June 28 until July 4, 2017

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-08 om 09.19.28-compressed

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA)
AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Dieng Volcanic Complex | Central Java (Indonesia)
BNPB reported that a phreatic eruption at the Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) occurred at 1154 on 2 July, ejecting mud and material 150 m high, and 50 m to the N and S. The event injured 11 of 18 tourists that were near the crater. According to a news article a helicopter on the way to help evacuated people after the event crashed, killing all eight people (four crewmen and four rescuers) on board.
PVMBG scientists visited the next day and observed weak white emissions rising 60 m. The report noted other events during the recent past; an event at 1303 on 30 April ejected material 10 m high and 1 m past the crater edge that formed a 1-2 mm thick deposit, and an emission at 0941 on 24 May consisting of gas and black “smoke” that rose 20 m. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) and PVMBG warned the public not to approach Sileri Crater within a 100-m radius.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 23-24 and 27-28 June. An ash plume drifted 55 km SW on 24 June. Explosions on 26 June generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km SE during 26-27 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Schermafbeelding 2017-07-08 om 09.28.54

KVERT image - Copyright A. Galyamova - Photo from the July 21th, 2016

Reventador | Ecuador
During 28 June-4 July IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. During 28 June-1 July plumes of water vapor and ash rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. A 2-km-long lava flow continued to slowly advance down the NW flank. Incandescent blocks from the crater rolled at most 300 m down the W, SW, and S flanks. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations during 2-4 July.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images over Sheveluch during 23-30 June. Explosions on 27 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,400 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 June ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Information provided by the Smithsonian Institute

July 8, 2017


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