Wordwide volcano and earthquake news – Archive September 19 - October 6, 2014

On this page :  Sinabung (Indonesia)Bardarbunga (Iceland), Kilauea (Hawaii), Mayon (Philippines), Long Valley (California), Mount Ontakesan (Japan)

This is an archived part of our Daily Volcano Activity report.
Click here to read the latest part of our report
This report is compiled out of many information sources.

For our El Hierro volcano report : Click here


Bárðarbunga update October 6 16:24 UTC

The eruption continues at a similar intensity as previous days. The lava production is steady and running to the southeast from the grader into Jökulsá á Fjöllum.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with similar rate although the size of the largest earthquakes have subsided slightly.
- Seven earthquakes greater than M3.0 were recorded since noon yesterday in or around the caldera. The largest was M5.0 at 16:58 yesterday.
- Very little seismic activity is now detected in the northern part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- GPS measurements show minor movements.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained by changing weather.
- Earthquakes have been recorded near Kópasker over the last few days. Six earthquakes greater the M2,0 were recorded over the last 48 hours. The largest was M3,4 at 9:34 yesterday.
*** Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
- Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
*** From the Icelandic Met Office: The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.
- From today, the Scientific Advisory Board will meet on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The next meeting will be held on Wednesday 8 October

Santiaguito Volcano Guatemala October 6 13:44 UTC
ER remark: A great "must read" article in earthmagazine.org (link below). If you do not have time to watch the full video, please forward to 10 minutes and watch only the last part. Impressive the way this volcano behaves!
Article
If Earth breathes, Santiaguito Volcano in the Western Highlands of Guatemala could be its mouth. Roughly every half hour, like volcanic clockwork, Santiaguito’s active Caliente lava dome expands, filling with gas from depressurizing magma below. Then it exhales, often explosively, and deflates. Over the course of a day, you could almost keep time by it.
At Santiaguito, regular explosions take center stage, sending thundering clouds of ash and gas a kilometer high, which sometimes collapse and send searing-hot, billowing pyroclastic flows careening several kilometers down the mountainside. High-silica dacitic lava steadily oozes out of the Caliente vent, feeding flows up to a few kilometers long. The flows raft bus-sized blocks of solidified lava, which fall over the edge of the steep edifice before violently dancing down the volcano’s flank.
Read the full article here

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Kilauea (Hawaii) update October 6 09:33 UTC
The Kilauea volcano lava flow advanced about 100 yards since yesterday, according to Hawaii County Civil Defense officials.
No public vehicles, persons, or activity is allowed within the Railroad Emergency Route until the route is opened.
Read the full article here

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The advancing lava stream is currently burning off every tree on his path down the slope

Ontakesan volcano (Japan) update - October 6 09:222 UTC
51 people have now been found dead near the summit of the volcano. 12 more are still missing (ER:with NO chance of survival). We can now conclude that 63 people have lost their lives because of the sudden phreatic eruption
The typhoon who currently rages over Japan is making rescue work impossible.

Bárðarbunga update October 6 08:43 UTC
From the geoscientist on duty this morning
- Since 19:00 UTC yesterday almost 20 earthquakes have been located at Bárðarbunga (ca 10 since midnight).
- Little activity has been in the dike.
- Some small earthquakes have been located southwest of Kópasker.
The largest earthquakes:
22:50 M4,3 (5. Oct.)
00:09 M3,7
03:00 M3,8
05:32 M4,2
- Volcanic activity in Holuhraun appears to be stable according to webcam observations.

Below a MODIS satellite image at 13:04, 5 October 2014. The gas cloud from Holuhraun is easily visible over the ocean but harder to detect above ground. Firth Eyjafjörður lies N-S towards open sea. The blue tinge seems to follow that trail and then be carried westwards

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Columns of steam from Holuhraun lava field yesterday. Credit: Uni. of Iceland/Morten Riishuus


Sinabung volcano, Indonesia October 5 12:50 UTC
Sinabung volcano located in the north of the Indonesian island of Sumatra erupted Sunday, sending volcanic ash 3,000 meters (9,840 feet) high into the sky, Indonesian news portal, VIVANews reported. "Eruptions extended over a distance to 4.5 kilometers [2.1 miles] to the South [from a crater],” the head of BNPB information center Sutopo Purwo Nugroho told VIVANews. But according to Nugroho, no evacuation had to be carried out yet, while those living on volcano's slopes are on alert.
During this year, Sinabung repeatedly threw columns of volcanic ash. In February, 16 people who could not escape the fast-moving current, died.

Kilauea (Hawaii) update October 5 12:48 UTC


Kilauea (Hawaii) update October 4 14:03 UTC
Hawaiian Kilauea lava threatens village
The June 27th flow remains active, with a narrow flow about 70 m (230 ft) wide moving about 270 m (300 yards) downslope over the past 2 days. The leading edge is 2.0 km (1.2 mi) upslope from Apa`a St. and 3.0 km (1.9 mi) from Pāhoa Village Road, and it is approximately 16.7 km (10.4 miles) straight-line distance from the vent. Our next overflight is scheduled for Monday. Pāhoa town is in the Puna District of the County of Hawai`i.
Recent Observations:
[Lava flow] The narrow flow that overtook the stalled flow front earlier this week has moved about 270 m (300 yards) downslope over the past two days. The leading edge is now about 2 km (1.2 mi) from Apa`a St.
On June 27, 2014, new vents opened on the northeast flank of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone and fed a narrow lava flow to the east-northeast. On August 18, the flow entered a ground crack, traveled underground for several days, then resurfaced to form a small lava pad. This sequence was repeated three more times over the following days with lava entering and filling other cracks before reappearing at the surface, in two of the cases farther downslope. Lava emerged from the last crack on September 6, forming a surface flow that initially moved to the north, then to the northeast, at a rate of 400 m/day (1,300 ft/day). The flow slowed thereafter and, between September 12 and 19, the rate of advancement varied, averaging 225 m/day (740 ft/day). The flow front stalled by September 22, but new breakouts behind the flow front began to push forward, overtaking the stalled front on September 29 and advancing 270 m (300 yards) between October 1 and 3.

Situation of the lava on October 1

Situation of the lava on October 1

Bárðarbunga update October 4 09:28 UTC
From geoscientist on duty this morning
- Seismic activity around Bárðarbunga within the last 12 hours has been comparable to recent days.
- Around 40 earthquakes have been detected around the Bárðarbunga caldera rim since 19:00 last night (of these ~25 since midnight) and around 15 in the dyke intrusion since 19:00 (~10 since midnight).
- Earthquakes in the dyke were all smaller than magnitude 2.
The strongest events on the caldera rim were:
M4.2 22:02 (3.10.)
M3.8 00:44 (4.10.)
M4.6 02:24
M4.6 05:57
M4.2 06:03
- Volcanic activity appears to be stable according to webcam observations. No obvious changes observed.

Webcam screenshot at the time of writing this update - thick steam/smoke is still rising at the eruption fissure

Webcam screenshot at the time of writing this update - thick steam/smoke is still rising at the eruption fissure


 

16 climbers of Mount Ontakesan volcano (Japan) still missing - October 3 09:29 UTC
Rain forced searchers to call off operations for a second consecutive day on Oct. 3 as 16 people reportedly remain missing near the summit of Mount Ontakesan, which erupted Sept. 27 and killed at least 47 climbers. Nagano prefectural authorities plan to continue the search, but called off the search-and-rescue efforts due to rain in the summit area of the 3,067-meter mountain, which straddles Nagano and Gifu prefectures in central Japan. The updated number of missing, as of 9 a.m. on Oct. 3, was based on accounts by climbing companions, climbing registrations, cars left in parking lots and reports sent to Otaki village in the prefecture, police and fire departments, said Hideo Obayashi, head of prefectural police security department and a member of the prefecture’s disaster management headquarters.
The figure included reports from climbers on the Gifu side of the mountain, which had been provided by Gifu prefectural police.
Read the full article here

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Update 16:10 UTC
We have cut a serious piece of this page in order to make the page load and refresh time somewhat faster. Link to the cut-off part here and at the bottom of this page

Bárðarbunga update October 2 15:45 UTC
Below the seismicity at the time of writing this update. Almost all seismicity (including 4 M+4 earthquakes) below the Bardarbunga volcano caldera !
Caldera subsidence follows the same gradient as the last couple of weeks

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Volcano Activity for the week of 24 September-30 September 2014

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Bardarbunga Iceland
See our own updates on this page

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border
On 26 September a special volcanic activity report issued by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN noted a seismic swarm at Copahue; between 1600 and 1900 the seismic network recorded 140 long-period events. Cameras near the volcano recorded increased emissions; mostly white plumes with some ash rose 200-500 m and drifted SE. The report also noted that swarms had been recorded in late July and during 1-16 September. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines)
PHIVOLCS reported that during 24-30 September the seismic network at Mayon recorded 0-9 volcanic earthquakes and 1-6 rockfall events per day. White steam plumes drifted SW and NW. According to a news article, the Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office noted that more than 54,000 people were in evacuation shelters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).

Ontakesan | Honshu (Japan)
See our own updates on this page +
According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, an unexpected phreatic eruption at Ontakesan occurred at 1152 on 27 September after an 11-minute period of tremor and uplift detected just minutes beforehand. The eruption produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled more than 3 km down the S flank and an ash plume that rose 7-10 km and drifted E. Ashfall was extensive in the area and up to 50 cm thick near the craters. The Alert Level was raised to 3.
Earthquakes near the summit had temporarily increased during 10-11 September, and low-frequency signals were detected on 14 September.
News articles on 1 October noted that 47 people had died, most of them found at the summit area while others were at a slightly lower elevation. Almost 70 more people were injured. Survivors described falling ash and boulders, and being in total darkness for several minutes as they made their way down the flanks. The volcano is popular to climb and nearly 300 people were hiking on the mountain that day.
Seismicity fluctuated but remained elevated during 28 September-1 October. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 300-400 m above the craters and drifted E and SE.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that during 19-26 September lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 18 and 22-25 September. Strong explosions that began at 1238 on 24 September generated ash plumes that rose 11-11.5 km (36,000-37,700 ft) a.s.l. A large ash cloud, 250 by 207 km, drifted NNE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red and then lowered back to Orange that same day as the explosive activity subsided.

Bárðarbunga update October 2 08:42 UTC
Seismicity almost stopped in the dyke area.
We counted only 10 earthquakes since midnight UTC (yesterday 23). As can be seen on the map below, now all earthquakes are occurring in the direct vicinity of the Bardarbunga rim. This has so far no visible impact on the subsidence of the caldera.
Based on this decrease in seismicity, we expect soon some changes in the current patterns. The following 24 hours might see an increase in the strength of the earthquakes below the caldera rim and a serious change in fissure flow is also possible. The eruption may come to an end completely too. We will follow the events at Bardarbunga today more closely than the preceding days as we expect a drastic change in pattern. Keep this tab open as we expect to regularly write updates later today.

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Drone video of the lava fountains


 

Bárðarbunga update October 1 19:01 UTC
- New Holuhraun lava field was ~48.2 km2 yesterday. Quick back of envelope calc: 48.2 x 14m (approximate average thickness) = 0.67 km3 volume / 32 days = 242 m3/second average. Effusion rate (~3.7x river Thames) + Yes, that's impressive!
- No signs of any decrease in activity.
- Bardarbunga still shaking

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Image courtesy uni of Iceland

Mount Ontakesan (Japan) deadly eruption October 1 10:10 UTC
More bodies recovered as Japanese volcano spews lethal gas, rocks
(including a good video explaining why it happened)
Efforts to recover bodies from an erupting volcano in central Japan resumed Wednesday, after search teams had been hampered by gas and hot ash shooting into the air.
Police said 12 more bodies were discovered on Mount Ontake, bringing the total number of known victims from the weekend eruption to 48.
Thirty bodies have now been taken down from the mountain, with 25 people identified and confirmed dead so far, according to the Nagano prefectural police.
Ontake unleashed a huge cloud of ash late Saturday morning that billowed down the mountainside and engulfed hikers in its path. Witnesses described hearing a sound like thunder when the eruption began.
Read the full article here

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Bárðarbunga update September 29 17:59 UTC
Field Dispatch: Up Close and Personal With a Volcanic Eruption
Since mid‐August, Iceland’s Bardarbunga volcano has experienced more than a thousand earthquakes and two eruptions, with spectacular arrays of lava spraying and fl owing from
fi ssures around the caldera. Researchers studying the volcano’s seismic activity have been in the fi eld since the beginning, recording the propagation of a dike, which serves as the conduit for the magma that feeds the eruptions.
Thorbjorg Agustsdottir, a Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge, is one of the researchers studying the Bardarbunga volcano’s ongoing seismic activity and eruptions. Her
research group, led by Robert White, spent August servicing seismometers all around the volcano to make sure they work properly; during the eruption, Agustsdottir came within 100 feet of fl owing lava.
Eos was able to speak with Agustsdottir while she was in the fi eld about what it’s like to live and work so close to an erupting volcano.

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Kilauea (Hawaii) update September 30 08:00 UTC
The June 27th flow front remains stalled 2.3 km (1.4 miles) upslope from Apa`a St. and 3.3 km (2.1 mi) from Pāhoa Village Road. Two slow-moving lobes behind the stalled front have advanced northeast 65 and 80 m (215 and 260 ft) since September 26; the nearest lobe is about 125 m (410 ft) behind the stalled front. Lava continues to break out of the tube about 8 km (5 mi) behind the flow front near where lava entered a crack system on August 18. The stalled leading edge of the flow is approximately 16.4 km (10.2 miles) straight-line distance from the vent. Because the flows near the stalled front are moving very slowly, we do not offer a projection of their future movement. Our next overflight is scheduled for Wednesday.
Pāhoa town is in the Puna District of the County of Hawai`i.
Recent Observations: [Lava flow] Leading edge of the lava flow is stalled at the flow front, but fresh lava is being supplied through the tube to breakout points about 5.4 km (3.4 mi) and immediately behind the stalled leading edge.
Hazard Analysis: [Lava flow] Lava flow from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent stalled but remained active with fresh lava being supplied behind the front.


 

Bárðarbunga update September 29 17:59 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
- The new lava field in Holuhraun was 44 square kilometres on last Saturday and still continues to grow. There are no signs of the eruption being in decline.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with slightly slower rate and is now around 40 cm pr. 24 hours.
- Seismic activity in Bardarbunga continues on similar rate as the last few days. Six earthquakes bigger then M3,0
were recorded since noon yesterday. The biggest one was M5,2 at 12:34 yesterday.
- Smaller earthquakes were detected in north part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- GPS measurements show continuing slow movements.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained with changing weather.
3 scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
- The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.
- Next meeting of The Scientific Advisory Board will be held on Tuesday, 30. September.

Bárðarbunga update September 29 10:58 UTC

Mount Ontakesan (Japan) deadly eruption September 29 09:34 UTC
The death toll of the cruel pheatric eruption at Mount Ontake has increased to 36 (from 31). 10 people are already confirmed death and 26 others are also killed, but a doctor has still to write an attestation for them.
69 people were treated for various injuries ( 40 for minor injuries)

Mount Ontakesan (Japan) deadly eruption September 29 08:30 UTC
A (preliminary! attempt to explain the "eruption without notice" and why the world-renowned JMA Japan did not alerted it
This is an excerpt of a very good article who appeared in the Daily Telegraph today
There was some increased seismic activity recorded at Mount Ontake but no indications of a major eruption, according to Japanese officials. Typical signs, such as increased seismic rattling or underground structural movement, were not detected.
David Rothery, professor of planetary geosciences at the Open University, said: “This was a monitored volcano and there was nothing that looked particularly out of the ordinary. There was no measurable ground deformation, for example. It is a surprise.”
Dr Rebecca Williams (@volcanologist), a lecturer in geology at the University of Hull, said: "From the reports, and images, it seems that the eruption was phreaticthis means that water, such as groundwater, seeped into the volcano and got superheated by magma and flashed to steam.
"This caused a small (ER: ....) eruption of ash; phreatic eruptions do not involve the eruption of fresh magma from within the volcano. The last time Mount Ontake had a volcanic eruption of fresh magma was in 1979-80; it had a phreatic eruption in 2007."
Read the full article here
ER : We can agree on the analysis of Dr. Rebecca Williams as there were a lot of survivors running down the mountain or hiding in the mountain huts who get caught by the ash cloud. If this cloud would have been pyroclastic (extremely hot ash), they all would have been burned to death. Nobody of the deadly victims showed symptoms of burns, only suffocation.

Click on this image to watch the RT video

Click on this image to watch the RT video


Bárðarbunga update September 28 17:58 UTC
Joint overview from IMO and IES
- Earthquakes: Seismic activity continues at a similar rate at Bárðarbunga and the nothern part of the dyke intrusion. For the last 24 hours, seven earthquakes exceeding magnitude M3 have occurred at the northern rim of Bárðarbunga. The largest was of magnitude 5.2 at 19:31 yesterday evening.
- Volcanic activity: The volcanic activity continues with similar intensity as in previous days.
- Displacement: The rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera is similar to that of previous days. GPS measurements show continuing slow movements.
- Water: No change was detected in water monitoring.
Forecast for gas dispersion
Sunday: Westerly winds. Gas pollution from the volcanic eruption is expected east of the eruption site, over the southern East Fjords. This evening, the pollution will reach north to Hérað and over the northern East Fjords.
Monday: A strong gale (more than 20 m/s) is expected in a wide area tomorrow and heavy rain in the southeast. Gas pollution can be expected north and northwest of the eruption site.

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Long Valley caldera earthquake swarm (Mammoth Lakes, California) September 28, 17:52 UTC
The Long Valley caldera swarm looks over again. A drastic decrease in the frequency of the earthquakes has been noticed since yesterday.

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Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 28, 08:02 UTC)
The unexpected violent eruption has claimed the lives of 31 people who's bodies were found near the summit. 74 people were treated for various injuries. The volcano is a pilgrimage shrine (like Mount Fuji, another volcano). Mount Ontake is 3067 meter high.
550 rescuers were involved in a major operation to try to save dozens of hikers feared stranded on the volcano since it erupted without warning—spewing ash, rocks and steam into a sunny autumn weekend busy with tourists and hikers. A suffocating blanket of ash up to 20 centimeters deep covered a large area of the volcano, and had forced up to 150 to seek refuge in mountaintop shelters at one point. Hikers who arrived safely at the bottom of the volcano reported scenes of despair, with stones raining down and hot ashes filling the air.
A good article about the rescue operation (with other numbers) can be found here. (The term cardiac arrest means simply that they have been suffocated in the ash cloud)
ER: The number of fatalities can further increase to 45 (the people who were accounted as "missing" yesterday.

Mount Ontekesan fumeroles cloud at the time of writing this update

Mount Ontakesan fumeroles cloud at the time of writing this update

Bárðarbunga update September 27 13:21 UTC
Joint overview from IMO and IES
- Seismic activity: Seismic activity continues at a similar rate at Bárðarbunga and the northern part of the dyke. For the last 24 hours, six events of M>=3 have occurred, the largest ones at northern Bárðarbunga yesterday afternoon M5.2 and at 02:00 this morning M5.1.
- Plume and lava: Visibility in the eruption area is poor due to weather. The plume was observed again on webcam late this morning. Last field observations yesterday indicated that the lava was still flowing northwards, possibly also east according to thermal images but that has not been confirmed by the field team.
- Displacements: The subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera continues with same rate as before. GPS measurements show continuing slow movements.
- Water monitoring: No change was detected in water monitoring.
- Forecast for gas dispersion: For the next few days many low pressure areas will pass Iceland. Wind direction will be changing quite frequently. In such conditions gas dispersion forecasting is difficult. The gas should move quite rapidly with the winds, and not accumulate in one specific area.
After the weekend, south and southeast winds are prevalent. The forecast for the weekend: Saturday: Easterly or variable winds. Pollution mostly expected west of the eruption site.
Sunday: Westerly winds. Pollution mostly expected to southeast and later east of the eruption.

Webcam image taken at the time of this update. Snow cover and apparently a low cloud (eruption cloud?) layer

Webcam image taken at the time of this update. Snow cover and apparently a low cloud (eruption cloud?) layer

Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 13:02 UTC)
Wow, impressive and hair rising video of the eruption ash clouds raging down the slopes of the volcano. Click on the image to be guided to the video page. You wont believe your eyes! The streaming webcam who captured these images was installed on a nearby mountain. It was (unfortunately) cloudy at the time of the eruption.
This eruption shows once again that predicting eruptions is NOT an exact science. JMA Japan is world renowned for his expertise but was unable to predict this blast.

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Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 11:00 UTC)
A survivor recounts his experience "I almost gave up for safe coming back"

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Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 09:27 UTC)
Panic video from a tourist / pilgrim who was surprised / shocked by the sudden burst

Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 08:53 UTC)
Webcams Mt Ontakesan Japan : follow this link (activity looks to have decreased a lot)

Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 08:23 UTC)
Will Tokyo flights be affected by the ash of Mt. Ontekasan? Robert Speta is following it up for us, follow him on Twitter @robertspeta. Robert is also one of the best Pacific Typhoon followers

Unexpected eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan (September 27, 07:23 UTC)
Many tourists were injured (1 seriously) when a calm volcano suddenly erupted. They must have been scared to death!
JMA Japan has raised the alert level to 3 (on a scale of 5). Alert level 3 means "do not approach the volcano"
The first image is one from the volcano crater moments before it erupted (courtesy @setori_)
Why were there so many tourists on this volcano when it erupted. Here is the answer "Ascending this volcano is one of the major objects of religious pilgrimage in central Japan."
More information below the images

Twitter image courtesy @Setori_

Twitter image courtesy @Setori_ This is the photo taken one minute before the eruption by a hiker. He or she haven't post ed any tweet since then ........

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These tourists must have seen the death in the eyes. Hot ash clouds released from a sudden eruption of Mt Ontekasan

Nearby houses have been totally covered with ash (screenshot from the video below)

Nearby houses have been totally covered with ash (screenshot from the video below)

Click on this video still image to be redirected to the video fragment of the ash emitting volcano

Click on this video still image to be redirected to the video fragment of the ash emitting volcano

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Some more information on Mt Ontekasan
The massive Ontakesan stratovolcano, the second highest volcano in Japan, lies at the southern end of the Northern Japan Alps. It is constructed within a largely buried 4 x 5 km caldera and occupies the southern end of the Norikura volcanic zone, which extends northward to Yakedake volcano. The older volcanic complex consisted of at least four major stratovolcanoes constructed from about 680,000 to about 420,000 years ago, after which Ontakesan was inactive for more than 300,000 years. The broad, elongated summit of the younger edifice is cut by a series of small explosion craters along a NNE-trending line. Several phreatic eruptions post-date the roughly 7300-year-old Akahoya tephra from Kikai caldera. Ontakesan's first historical eruption took place in 1979. A non-eruptive landslide in 1984 produced a debris avalanche and lahar that swept down valleys south and east of the volcano. Ascending this volcano is one of the major objects of religious pilgrimage in central Japan.

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Long Valley caldera earthquake swarm (Mammoth Lakes, California) September 27, 07:23 UTC
Screenshot from the same graph then below shows that 7 hours later 200 more earthquakes hit the area.
Additionally some earthquakes were now reported at shallower depths!
Rodger Wilson, who is following this area for tens of years, hasn't seen this activity since the 1990's!
We have the impression however that the frequency of the earthquakes has seriously declined the last couple of hours.

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Long Valley caldera earthquake swarm (Mammoth Lakes, California) September 26, 23:33 UTC
Below the best graph we could find to give an impression of the ongoing swarm. Pretty impressive not?

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Long Valley caldera earthquake swarm (Mammoth Lakes, California) September 26, 23:12 UTC
The seismicity at Mammoth Lakes California has even increased compared to this morning. Below all earthquake epicenters during the last 24 hours. Depth of the hypocenters still at +10 km. Earthquake swarms are a regular phenomenon at Long Valley but nobody knows where the magma will move next
- Below some more information about Long Valley Caldera you might find interesting to read.

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Bárðarbunga update September 26 22:54 UTC
- About 40 earthquakes have been located at Bárðarbunga today which is a similar number to same time yesterday.
- Two were over three in size; first at 03:42 M4.1 and then at 16:49 M5.2, both at the northern rim.
- About 20 earthquakes (bit less than at the same time yesterday) have been located in the dike intrusion, most of them under northern Dyngjujökull. The largest one was a M2.4 at 03:57
- According to information from the field, the lava margin (dark red line) has crossed the road, where it spreads toward north. Information is still lacking about the south- and eastern margins. Institute of Earth Sciences.

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Long Valley caldera earthquake swarm (Mammoth Lakes, California) September 26, 12:33 UTC
- Below only a partial list of the (merely) micro-seismicity going on today in California (list of 2 hours earthquakes)
- No eruptive danger yet as the earthquakes are still far too deep (11 km) and are remaining at the same depth.

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Bárðarbunga update September 26 12:29 UTC
- A sandstorm in Iceland will probably make webcam watching today difficult
- Infrared pic from last night of Holuhraun eruption. No signs of decreasing activity (Uni Iceland)Screen Shot 2014-09-26 at 14.15.46


 

Popocatepetl explosion earlier today September 25 19:00 UTC
What a nice explosion at Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico) earlier today (Thanks to Ovidiu for telling us)

Bárðarbunga update September 25 16:27 UTC
New webcam positioned towards the eruption fissure at Kverkfjoll. Here is the link (1 picture every 10 minutes)

Screen Shot 2014-09-25 at 17.59.10

Kilauea (Hawaii) update September 25 13:12 UTC
Between September 19 and 24, the June 27th flow stalled 2.3 km (1.4 miles) upslope from Apa`a St. and 3.3 km (2.1 miles)from Pāhoa Village Road, but minor activity continues at several locations behind the flow front. On September 24, the stalled leading edge of the flow was approximately 16.4 km (10.2 miles) straight-line distance from the vent. Small active breakouts were observed along the tube system, and lava was observed in the lava tube near Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone. Because the flow did not advance over the past few days, we do not offer a projection of its future movement. These estimates will be revised after our next overflight, now scheduled for Friday.
FYI : The Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent in the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano began erupting on January 3, 1983, and has continued erupting for more than 31 years, with the majority of lava flows advancing to the south. Over the past two years, lava flows have issued from the vent toward the northeast. The June 27th flow is the most recent of these flows and the first to threaten a residential area since 2010-2011. On June 27, 2014, new vents opened on the northeast flank of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone and fed a narrow lava flow to the east-northeast. On August 18, the flow entered a ground crack, traveled underground for several days, then resurfaced to form a small lava pad. This sequence was repeated three more times over the following days with lava entering and filling other cracks before reappearing at the surface, in two of the cases farther downslope. Lava emerged from the last crack on September 6, forming a surface flow that initially moved to the north, then to the northeast, at a rate of 400 m/day (1,300 ft/day). The flow slowed thereafter and, between September 12 and 19, the rate of advancement varied, averaging 225 m/day (740 ft/day), and slowed to a stall over the weekend.

Screen Shot 2014-09-25 at 15.16.15

Update September 25 13:03 UTC
We have cut a chunk from this page and have archived it here

Bárðarbunga update September 25 12:33 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun continues with similar rate as last few days. The eruption does not seem to be declining. The lava field continues to grow and the lava production continues with the same strength.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with same rate as before.
- Seismic activity in Bardarbunga continues on similar rate as the last few days. Ten earthquakes bigger then M3,0 were recorded since noon yesterday. The biggest one was M5,2 at 05:00 this morning.
- Smaller earthquakes were detected in north part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- GPS measurements show continuing slow land depression towards the centre of Bardarbunga as has been the trend over the last two weeks.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained with changing weather.
Air quality:
- Yesterday a high concentration of SO2 was measured around lake Myvatn (2000 microgram pr. cubic meter) and last night in Reydarfjordur (2600 microgram pr. cubic meter). The Environmental Agency of Iceland is waiting for shipment of SO2 meters that will be put up around Iceland.
- Pollution from the eruption is mostly expected northeast of the eruption site today. Tomorrow (Friday) the pollution will move towards east and southeast. A map showing the gas forecast can be found on the web page of the Icelandic Met Office www.vedur.is/vedur/spar/textaspar/oskufok/ An interactive map showing the gas distribution can be seen at www.vedur.is/vedur/spar/gasdreifing
- The Icelandic Met Office has also opened a web page were people can report if they have detected gas pollution. A link to the page can be found on the Icelandic version of the web page under Skrá mengun.
Instructions:
- People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close their windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage www.loftgaedi.is The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and
warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites www.ust.is and www.landlaeknir.is
- The Icelandic Met Office will publish forecasts for sulphuric gases dispersion on the web and in the national radio. It will also be endeavored/seeked to broadcast the forecasts on national television.
- Information and any questions on air pollution can be sent to The Environment Agency through the email gos@ust.is. The Environment Agency is especially looking for information from people who have been in contact with high concentrations of gas; where they were, at what time it happened, how the gas cloud looked (colour and thickness of the cloud) and how they were affected by it.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.

Screen Shot 2014-09-25 at 14.37.49


 

Bárðarbunga update September 24 10:49 UTC

Bárðarbunga update September 24 09:44 UTC

No indication of declining activity. If any change, more activity on the northern flow front

No indication of declining activity. If any change, more activity on the northern flow front

Bárðarbunga update September 24 08:49 UTC
Another M5.2 at the Bardarbunga caldera rim happened a little earlier at a depth of 6.6 km.
246 earthquakes the last 48 hours.

Bárðarbunga update September 24 08:41 UTC
From geoscientist on duty (morning UTC)
- Seismic activity around Bárðarbunga is unchanged compared to recent days.
- Around 20 earthquakes have been automatically detected on the Bárðarbunga caldera rim, the strongest events were magnitude M3.3 at 00:24 and M3.4 at 04:58.
- Around 15 earthquakes of magnitude smaller than 2 have been detected in the dyke intrusion, under Dyngjujökull.
- The volcanic activity at the eruption site appears to be stable, based on webcam observations.

@HTuffen: A last look back at Holuhraun eruption site yesterday night. A perfect day for imaging  lava breakouts advancing to west.

@HTuffen: A last look back at Holuhraun eruption site yesterday night. A perfect day for imaging lava breakouts advancing to west.


 

Bárðarbunga update September 23 19:25 UTC
- A really great video recorded on September 11 and September 13 by Richard Roscoe from Photovolcanica
- Richard also made a Northern Lights video during his stay in Iceland. The result is really astonishing!
He wrote : Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis) with Meteor FILMED IN REAL-TIME at lake Myvatn, Iceland, on 10-12 Sept. 2014. Northern lights are usually presented in time-lapse animations but these lose all the fine details. Using the new Sony A7s and a f1.4 lense it was now possible to actually film the bright Northern Lights at 25 frames per second in HD 1920p resolution.

The best video's and pictures from volcanoes can be found at photovolcanica.com
Both video's courtesy and copyright Richard Roscoe at photovolcanica.com

Bárðarbunga update September 23 16:44 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
- The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun continues with similar rate as last few days. The eruption does not seem to be declining. The lava production continues with the same strength.
- The lava now flows to southeast and northeast 3-5 km from the carders.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with same rate as before. The volume of the depression is now 0,6 cubic kilometres.
- Seismic activity in Bardarbunga continues on similar rate as the last few days. Ten earthquakes bigger then M3,0 were recorded since noon yesterday. The biggest one was M5,2 at 04:00 this morning.
- Smaller earthquakes were detected in north part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained with changing weather.
Air quality:
- A prediction from the Icelandic Met Office: Pollution from the eruption is mostly expected east of the eruption today, but southeast of the eruption tonight. A map showing the gas forecast can be found on the web page of the Icelandic Met Office www.vedur.is/vedur/spar/textaspar/oskufok/ An interactive map showing the gas distribution can be seen at www.vedur.is/vedur/spar/gasdreifing
- The Icelandic Met Office has also opened a web page were people can report if they have detected gas pollution. A link to the page can be found on the Icelandic version of the web page under Skrá mengun.
** Instructions:
- People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close their windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage www.loftgaedi.is The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites www.ust.is and www.landlaeknir.is
- The Icelandic Met Office will publish forecasts for sulphuric gases dispersion on the web and in the national radio. It will also be endeavored/seeked to broadcast the forecasts on national television.
- Information and any questions on air pollution can be sent to The Environment Agency through the email gos@ust.is. The Environment Agency is especially looking for information from people who have been in contact with high concentrations of gas; where they were, at what time it happened, how the gas cloud looked (colour and thickness of the cloud) and how they were affected by it.
** Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
- Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
- The Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.

Bárðarbunga update September 23 12:56 UTC

https://www.facebook.com/video.php?v=950919134922551&set=vb.933177740030024&type=2&theater

Bárðarbunga update September 23 08:52 UTC
Th e University of Iceland geologists forgot a camera close to the Holuhraun lava field which then ate it! (the traces might be found in a million years by archaeologists exploring the area :) )
From geoscientist on duty @ 06:40 UTC
- Seismic activity around Bárðarbunga since midnight is unchanged compared to recent days.
- Around 20 earthquakes have been automatically detected on the Bárðarbunga caldera rim, the strongest events were magnitude M5.2 at 04:33, as well as M3.9 at 01:51 and M3.6 at 01:54, all on the northeastern rim.
- Around 15 earthquakes of magnitude smaller than 2 have been detected in the dyke intrusion.
- The volcanic activity at the eruption site appears to be stable, based on webcam observations.

Screen Shot 2014-09-23 at 09.46.59


Lava outbreak from #Holuhraun eruption. Some dust devils seen too. Credit: Uni. of Iceland

Screen Shot 2014-09-23 at 10.11.41

Columns of steam rising from the hot lava field. Dyngjujökull glacier in the back Holuhraun Credit: Uni of Iceland

Bárðarbunga update September 22 21:52 UTC
From geoscientist on duty @ 19:40 UTC
- Around 60 earthquakes larger than magnitude 1 have been detected since midnight, 24 of them are localized in Bárðarbunga.
- The largest was at 9:50 this morning at the southeastern end of the caldera, magnitude 4.8. The second largest was at 13:36 in the northern part of the caldera; magnitude was 4.7.
- Six more earthquakes magnitude 3.3-3.8 have occurred in the caldera today.
- Micro-earthquake activity is still ongoing under northern part of Dyngjujökull as well as some micro-earthquakes that were detected close to Askja and Herðubreið.
- Below an awesome eruption video clip


 

Bárðarbunga update September 21 13:44 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun continues with similar rate as last few days. The eruption does not seem to be declining. The lava production continues with the same strength. The lava flow is now around the centre of the lava field, which is now around 37 square kilometres.
- Scientists in the filed estimate that around 90% of the SO2 gas coming from the eruption originates in the active craters and only 10% from the lava field. Scientists have also become aware of dead birds around the eruptions site.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with same rate as before.
- Big earthquakes are still detected in the Bardarbunga caldera. Since noon yesterday there have been 18 earthquakes bigger the M3,0. The biggest one was measured M5,0 at 17:11 yesterday afternoon. Smaller earthquakes were detected in north part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained with changing weather.
Air quality:
- SO2 pollution has been reported around Iceland over the weekend but no serious incident has been reported. People are encouraged to familiarise oneself with instructions from health authorities. Further instructions can be found below.
- A prediction from the Icelandic Met Office: Pollution from the eruption is mostly expected north of the eruption today, but can affect a larger area, especially early on before the southerly wind increases. A map showing the gas forecast can be found on the web page of the Icelandic Met Office www.vedur.is/vedur/spar/textaspar/oskufok/
- The Icelandic Met Office has also opened a web page were people can report if they have detected gas pollution. A link to the page can be found on the Icelandic version of the web page under Skrá mengun.
*** Instructions:
- People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close their windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage www.loftgaedi.is The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and
warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites www.ust.is and www.landlaeknir.is
- The Icelandic Met Office will publish forecasts for sulphuric gases dispersion on the web and in the national radio. It will also be endeavored/seeked to broadcast the forecasts on national television.
- The Environment Agency has put up two new SO2 measuring stations in Leirubakki in Landssveit and in Vopnafjörður. Data from these stations can be found on www.loftgæði.is
- The Department of Civil Protection and the Environmental Agency has bought 40 new handheld measuring equipment that will be distributed around Iceland with density in the Eastfjörds.
- Information and any questions on air pollution can be sent to The Environment Agency through the email gos@ust.is. The Environment Agency is especially looking for information from people who have been in contact with high concentrations of gas; where they were, at what time it happened, how the gas cloud
looked (colour and thickness of the cloud) and how they were affected by it. In the near future, there will be a page on the IMO’s webpage for this type of information.
*** Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could
develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.

Map of #Holuhraun lava field on Sept 20. It's ~38 km2 in total. Orange = measured extent, yellow = estimate from air

Map of #Holuhraun lava field on Sept 20. It's ~38 km2 in total. Orange = measured extent, yellow = estimate from air

Mayon volcano, Philippines September 21 05:34 UTC
Lahar (mud-avalanches) flowed in a barangay near restive Mayon Volcano in Albay, Friday, amid heavy rain spawned by Tropical Storm Mario (Fung-Wong). Mudflow reached Barangay Maipon in the town of Guinobatan, which is within the danger zone of Mayon. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) recorded fewer earthquakes and rockfalls around the restive Mayon Volcano in Albay in the past 24 hours. Mayon's seismic network recorded 22 volcanic earthquakes and 70 rockfall events
However, Phivolcs said the volcano’s alert status remained at Alert Level 3, which means that a hazardous explosive eruption is possible within weeks.
"It is recommended that the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the southeastern flank be enforced due to the danger of rock falls, landslides and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows," Phivolcs said.
Residents in the danger zone of the volcano had been evacuated to safer ground early this week.


Bárðarbunga update September 20 12:50 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board:
- The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun continues with similar rate as last few days.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with same rate as before.
- Big earthquakes are still detected in the Bardarbunga caldera. Since noon yesterday there have been 3 earthquakes bigger the M3,0. The biggest one was measured M5,1 at 01:10 tonight. Smaller earthquakes were detected in Dyngjujokull glacier and in north part of the dyke.
- GPS monitoring continue to show subsidence in the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements indicate that the volume of magma in the dyke is still slightly increasing.
No change was detected in water monitoring.
Air quality:
- SO2 pollution has been reported around Iceland this morning but no serious incident has been reported.
- Pollution from the eruption is mostly expected in the east and southeast but haze connected to the eruption is likely in a larger area.