Massive earthquake in the Kaikoura region, New Zealand - At least 2 people killed

Last update: November 14, 2016 at 11:41 am by By

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Update 10:32 UTC : Very interesting explanation of what may have triggered the earthquake. Click on the picture below to be linked to the article.

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Update 10:28 UTC : A couple of very interesting tweets

https://twitter.com/Signsoflife27/status/798012639615950849

Update 09:01 UTC : The strongest aftershocks

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-14 om 10.01.12-compressed

Update 08:54 UTC : Picture from the damage in Picton (known by a lot our readers). Dr. James Daniell, the CEDIM geophysicist was staying in Picton when the earthquake struck. He made this picture on Sunday. Picton is approx. 185 km from the epicenter.

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-14 om 09.54.11

Update 08:33 UTC :

Update 19:37 UTC : An urban SAR team (Search and Rescue) is heading for the Kaikoura region to assist the local people if needed.

IMPORTANT Update 19:33 UTC : The Civil Defense has canceled all the remaining Tsunami warnings

IMPORTANT Update 19:14 UTC : Two people have been confirmed dead after a severe 7.5 earthquake hit North Canterbury early on Monday morning.
One person was killed when a Kaikoura homestead collapsed, while another died at a property at Mt Lyford.
A tsunami alert was earlier issued for all coastal areas of New Zealand but has since been scaled back. A tsunami warning still stands in certain areas.

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 20.18.58

Update 19:11 UTC : Prime Minister gives a statement on how the situation is at this moment

Important Update 15:40 UTC : The small North Canterbury township of Waiau is feared to be worst hit

Screen Shot 2016-11-13 at 17.42.40

Update 15:07 UTC :

Screen Shot 2016-11-13 at 17.03.08

Update 15:00 UTC :

Screen Shot 2016-11-13 at 16.57.58

Update 14:53 UTC :

Update 14:41 UTC : Some injuries have been reported near the epicenter of the earthquake

Update 13:58 UTC :

Update 13:41 UTC : Dr. James Daniell, is currently in Picton, South Island New Zealand and witnesses at first hand the many aftershocks. His comment experiencing the main-shock: "a hell of a shake that lasted 30 seconds"

Update 13:29 UTC : Kaikoura is one of the coastal towns (a very famous and popular one btw) where the tsunami risk was imminent. The town was prepared for a possible tsunami alert and urged the population to move to high ground (green area)

Update 13:26 UTC : Below the new updated epicenter location of today's earthquake based upon Geonet's updated location.

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 14.24.49

Update 13:19 UTC : Dr. James Daniell just reports that it was "a hell of a shake" who lasted 30 seconds. The longer the shaking lasts, the more chance of serious damage.

Update 13:17 UTC :Geonet's revised measurements say the quake was centered 15km northeast of Culverden at a depth of 15km and struck at 12.02am.

IMPORTANT Update 13:11 UTC :

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 14.10.53-compressed

IMPORTANT Update 13:09 UTC : The seismological agency of New Zealand has UPGRADED the Magnitude from M6.6 to M7.5 ! Most international agencies did report M7.4 from the very beginning.

Update 13:01 UTC : Be aware that some pictures are circulating on the internet seemingly from today's earthquake but in reality from one of the other earthquakes. How to recognize them : it was dark today so every daylight picture is false #JustSaying

Update 13:00 UTC : So far NO pictures of collapsed houses and/or infrastructure

Update 12:56 UTC : The sea level gauges in Kaikoura and Wellington

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 13.55.59-compressed Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 13.56.13-compressed

Update 12:51 UTC : If true, this is really alarming as Kaikoura is at sea level and located in the greater epicenter area. As the quake happened inland it is unknown what pattern the tsunami waves will have. As i slept in Kaikoura 7 months ago, i do know the area a bit and truly hope that the first readings are wrong. Kaikoura is also the place where the penguins can be observed. A special penguin center is close to the beach and at risk too.

"Tidal measurements from Geonet now indicate that a tsunami two metres or more has been recorded in Kaikoura, and indications are it will hit other parts of the South Island soon. Civil Defence is warning all residents of the coastal South Island, North Island and the Chatham Islands to move inland or to higher ground as soon as possible."

Update 12:45 UTC : The bridge on Hapuku Rd in Kaikoura Flat is closed due to damage.

Update 12:44 UTC : Tsunami news

Update 12:41 UTC : In Christchurch, hotels and occupied buildings inthe CBD have been evacuated. Many people are standing around in the middle of the street, away from buildings, calling people to let them know they're fine. Some people are venturing back inside, because nobody seems to be enforcing the evacuations. ER: Christchurch is at about 90 km from the epicenter which explains that NO serious damage has been reported there as yet.

Update 12:38 UTC : There are (mostly unconfirmed) reports of collapsed houses and even bridges (more will follow soon)

Update 12:36 UTC : Based on the last massive earthquake in the same greater area, we expect a high number of moderate to very powerful aftershocks (which is confirmed by the many aftershocks so far). These aftershocks can go on for weeks with regular very strong shakes as part of it.

Update 12:34 UTC : Tsunami gauges measured serious waves and the Kaikoura to Wellington coast is at risk.

Update 12:28 UTC : The many fault lines in the area of today's earthquake. The region had also other massive earthquakes in the past.

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Update 12:17 UTC : Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects : Injuries 20 to 200 and fatalities 10 to 100 (very uncertain based on too many different earthquake data)

Update 12:15 UTC : Wellington :
In Wellington, hundreds of people are on the streets as building alarms sound and fire trucks and police cars head around the CBD.
Windows in some high-rise office buildings have smashed, while plaster and masonry appears to have fallen down from some buildings.

Update 12:11 UTC : A tweet showing damage in Wellington (if true), at quite a distance from the epicenter. If the picture is a real one from this earthquake (to be confirmed) this doesn't look well for the morning and for the epicenter region.

Update 12:02 UTC : Updated LIVE "I have Felt It" MAP from New-Zealand Geonet
http://www.geonet.org.nz/quakes/region/newzealand/2016p858000

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 13.02.28

Important UPDATE 11:54 UTC :  Local (to be trusted) GEONET reports the mainshock as a M6.6 earthquake at a depth of 16 km, still very dangerous but way below the originally internationally reported M7.4!

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 12.53.48-compressed

Update 11:45 UTC : Stuff.co.nz writes that according to the local seismological agency, the thermal tourist town "Hanmer Springs" will be nearest to the epicenter. (http://hanmersprings.co.nz/pools)

Update 11:43 UTC : Still NO direct information from the epicenter area

Update 11:43 UTC : USGS shaking maps

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Update 11:39 UTC : A lot of moderate and even strong aftershocks

Update 11:34 UTC : A few remarks from the local New Zealand press :

The quake was strongly felt in Christchurch, Wellington, Taranaki, Hamilton and Auckland.
Power and phones were out in Waikanae on the Kapiti Coast.
In Nelson, resident Jo Davis grabbed her children and sheltered in a doorway as the quake seemed to "go on forever".

Update 11:30 UTC : Based on the I HAVE FELT MAP from local GEONET so far, the shaking looks very strong to strong. Almost no felt reports from the direct epicenter area for 2 reasons Communications may be down in the direct epicenter area but also because the area is very sparsely populated.

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 12.30.00

Update 11:26 UTC : An orange Tsunami alert has been edited by GDACS although most of the agencies are locating the epicenter below inland

Update 11:21 UTC : The shaking was well felt in the North Island too.

Update 11:18 UTC : As it is dark in New Zealand at the moment, information of possible damage will only arrive slowly.

Update 11:16 UTC : As you can see on the map below, the epicenter location is still very unreliable at this point. Depending on the exact location, the level of damage and eventual injuries will differ a lot.

Update 11:14 UTC : The epicenter is located North of Christchurch in a less populated mountainous region, but due to the strength of the eartghquake will be nevertheless very dangerous.

Update 11:13 UTC : ER believes that this earthquake is very dangerous for damage and possible fatalities.

Schermafbeelding 2016-11-13 om 12.15.58

Amberley, New Zealand, 53.8 km (33.5 mi) Population: 1,105
Kaiapoi, New Zealand, 77.6 km (48.2 mi) Population: 10,200
Christchurch, New Zealand, 93.0 km (57.8 mi) Population: 363,926
Blenheim, New Zealand; 155.9 km (96.9 mi) Population: 26,550
Richmond, New Zealand, 160.6 km (99.8 mi) Population: 14,000

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 6.6

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2016-11-14 00:02:56

GMT/UTC Time : 2016-11-13 11:02:56

Depth (Hypocenter) : 16 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the "I Felt It" button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:57 4.2 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Blenheim, New Zealand Nov 13 23:54 4.6 13 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 23:54 4.6 13 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:54 4.9 45 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Wellington Nov 13 23:53 3.4 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Cook Strait, New Zealand Nov 13 23:49 5.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Cook Strait, New Zealand Nov 13 23:49 5.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:49 5.2 13 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Blenheim, New Zealand Nov 13 23:49 5.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 23:48 4.9 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 23:48 4.5 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:47 3.1 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 23:45 4.0 47 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:44 3.8 28 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:40 4.2 41 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:39 4.2 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:37 3.2 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:36 3.4 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:33 3.8 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:32 4.1 24 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:30 3.9 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:30 3.8 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:27 4.0 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:24 3.5 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:23 3.3 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:20 3.9 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON South Island, New Zealand Nov 13 23:17 5.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 23:17 5.0 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kaikoura, New Zealand Nov 13 23:17 5.0 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:17 5.1 28 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:16 5.2 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Cook Strait, New Zealand Nov 13 23:16 4.6 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:16 4.6 18 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:15 2.9 10 MAP I Felt It
GEONET Cheviot Nov 13 23:12 3.4 40 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:09 4.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 23:07 3.9 35 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:04 4.0 38 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 23:00 3.8 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 22:58 4.1 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Cheviot Nov 13 22:58 4.2 49 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:54 4.8 49 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Amberley Nov 13 22:50 3.6 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Amberley Nov 13 22:50 4.5 30 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:50 3.8 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:46 4.1 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:45 4.0 39 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 22:43 4.1 35 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:42 3.5 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:40 4.2 24 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:39 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:38 3.3 22 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:36 3.7 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:34 4.3 16 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:34 4.0 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:32 3.1 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:30 3.5 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:29 3.3 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Wellington Nov 13 22:28 2.6 21 MAP I Felt It
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 22:27 3.4 13 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:25 4.0 5 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:24 4.0 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 22:23 4.2 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Picton Nov 13 22:22 3.7 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 22:21 4.5 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 22:19 5.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kaikoura, New Zealand Nov 13 22:19 5.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 22:19 5.3 45 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON South Island, New Zealand Nov 13 22:19 5.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:17 3.7 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 22:15 4.7 36 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 22:15 4.8 36 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 22:14 4.5 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:13 4.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:10 3.6 64 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:05 4.1 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 22:00 3.3 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 21:57 4.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:57 4.7 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kaikoura, New Zealand Nov 13 21:57 4.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:56 3.7 49 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Cheviot Nov 13 21:52 4.0 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:49 3.8 24 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:47 3.7 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:45 4.5 47 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:44 3.6 16 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:43 3.5 36 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:41 3.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 21:38 4.2 16 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:37 3.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:35 4.0 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 21:32 3.3 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:31 3.2 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:26 4.0 8 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:25 3.7 43 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:21 3.4 25 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 21:20 3.5 7 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:18 4.2 18 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:17 4.1 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET St Arnaud Nov 13 21:16 3.7 72 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:13 4.3 14 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:12 4.2 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:10 3.8 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 21:08 3.7 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 21:04 3.8 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Cheviot Nov 13 21:03 3.6 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 21:00 4.4 31 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 20:59 4.3 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Amberley Nov 13 20:57 3.3 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Picton Nov 13 20:57 2.3 6 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:56 3.0 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:54 3.6 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:51 4.8 70 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET St Arnaud Nov 13 20:51 4.8 70 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:48 4.6 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:47 3.9 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:44 4.4 40 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:44 4.6 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:43 3.8 18 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Hanmer Springs Nov 13 20:39 3.4 23 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:38 3.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET St Arnaud Nov 13 20:37 3.9 25 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:36 4.0 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:35 4.1 14 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:34 3.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:33 4.1 15 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:30 3.8 32 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:27 4.5 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Culverden Nov 13 20:27 4.5 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:26 3.6 11 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:26 4.4 29 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:24 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:22 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:22 5.0 27 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Cook Strait, New Zealand Nov 13 20:21 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:21 5.0 14 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:17 3.8 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:14 4.9 14 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:14 4.8 44 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Kaikoura, New Zealand Nov 13 20:14 4.9 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON South Island, New Zealand Nov 13 20:14 5.0 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:13 4.3 12 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC South Island Of New Zealand Nov 13 20:10 4.8 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:10 4.8 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:07 4.6 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:06 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:03 4.2 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Seddon Nov 13 20:02 3.7 17 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 20:01 3.8 26 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEONET Kaikoura Nov 13 19:58 3.7 30 MAP I Felt It INFO


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Country where you felt the earthquake
City/Village where you felt the earthquake
Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
People :
Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
People :
Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
People :
Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
Fittings :
Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
Structures :
Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
People :
Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
Fittings :
Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
Structures :
Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
Fittings :
Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
Structures :
Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
Environment :
Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
People
General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
Fittings :
Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
Structures :
Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
Environment :
Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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