Deadly earthquake on the Northern coast of Ecuador - at least 655 people killed

Last update: April 25, 2016 at 11:34 pm by By

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Update 22:44 UTC : Number of killed persons increased to 655

Update April 24 - 16:52 UTC : Number of killed persons increased to 642


Update 05:48 UTC : Number of fatalities on April 22
Now, 602 dead, 130 missing, 12492 injured, 25376 people homeless, 113 rescued, 4430 buildings destroyed and 2740 buildings damaged. 
281 schools affected.


Update 05:21 UTC : Number of fatalities on April 21

Screen Shot 2016-04-22 at 07.20.47

Series of very strong to strong aftershocks on April 21/22

These aftershocks will slightly further damage already damaged structures. The strongest one measured M6 17 minutes later followed by an M5.8.
The epicenter of both earthquakes was slightly off the coast (versus on the coast for the mainshock) which translates in a far lesser shaking intensity.

Screen Shot 2016-04-22 at 07.03.41 Screen Shot 2016-04-22 at 07.03.57 Screen Shot 2016-04-22 at 07.06.49


Update 10:45 UTC : Our sincere congratulations to all rescue, aid and management involved personnel in Ecuador. Based on our experience you did a well organised and very good job managing this earthquake. Please make sure that every single house reconstructed after this murderous earthquake will comply with the strongest earthquake-resistance standards to avoid more unnecessary bloodshed in the future.

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Important Update April 21 10:44 UTC : New update following the local press - 570 fatalities, thousands injured and 200 people missing

Screen Shot 2016-04-21 at 12.42.37


Important Update 11:03 UTC : New update following the local press - 525 fatalities, 4000+ injured and 237 people missing
11 foreigners are amongst the fatalities

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Update April 20 08:44 UTC : Very strong M6.2 aftershock in the damaged area. Aftershocks of this Magnitude are very dangerous for further damage to already damaged houses and infrastructure.

25.0 km (15.5 mi) W of Muisne, Ecuador
73.0 km (45.4 mi) WSW of Propicia, Ecuador
93.0 km (57.8 mi) WNW of Rosa Zarate, Ecuador
134.0 km (83.3 mi) N of Bahia de Caraquez, Ecuador
214.0 km (133.0 mi) WNW of Quito, Ecuador
Theoretical max. shaking intensity in Muisne MMI XI (strong shaking)

Screen Shot 2016-04-20 at 12.57.03


Important Update 17:38 UTC : New update following the local press - 443 fatalities, 4027 injured and 231 people missing
International News agency AFP reports 480 fatalities

Update 14:04 UTC : Interesting graphic from the University of Madrid who calculated the risk of massive devastating earthquakes in the different provinces of Ecuador. Besides the current hit coastal area who definitely has the highest risk, also the Riobamba Quito section is believed to have a very high risk of a devastating earthquake. As a regular visitor of Ecuador i can only confirm this scenario (especially some barrios in the hills are at risk for major landslides)

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Update 12:45 UTC : Landslides are an important secondary devastating factor (see picture below). Landslides are also often the reason that rescue workers cannot reach remote villages.

Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 14.45.18

Important Update April 19 06:18 UTC : Death toll has risen to 413

Update 08:26 UTC :

Humanitarian Aid for Ecuador: (Bing translated from our "Terremotos" Spanish Facebook page)
Venezuela: on April 17, arrived in the country the first international aid on a plane from Venezuela with three doctors, two operators of drones, 10 firemen, 12 specialists in civil protection structures in collapsed, paramedics and groceries not Perishable.
Colombia: The Colombian government prepared to send 70 rescuers towards the area of the epicenter. Send to Ecuador 9 tons of humanitarian aid
Chile: the government of Chile had the professionalism of 49 specialists to go to the emergency.
In addition, six tonelaladas shipment of equipment necessary for search and rescue people trapped in the rubble.
Peru: sent a team of 40 rescuers in the general body of volunteer firemen of Peru (Cgbvp), More three canes specialized in search of trapped as well as 1.5 tons of tools and equipment.
Spain: has sent a plane to Ecuador with 50 members of the military unit of the er and with dogs trained to help with the tasks of location of potential victims of the earthquake. On the other hand, the communities of Valencia and galicia came to an agreement with farmaindustria to put at the disposal of Ecuador all the drugs that are needed.
Mexico: They command a contingent comprised of the navy, the army, the federal police, the cenapred, Mexican red cross and civil protection. On the other hand, the government of the capital city installed on Sunday, 17 a collection center of supplies to help the victims of the earthquake, the same one that would work every day of the week in the portals of the building of the city hall in prime time Nine in the morning to eight of the night. The Rescue Squad Moles Tlatelolco, an organization that specializes in urban rescue, sent 25 volunteers and two dogs to help in the work
El Salvador: since this country was sent a group of 25 rescue workers formed by members of the body of firemen, police, National Red Cross and other three institutions of salvadoran relief.
Bolivia: sent a hercules aircraft of the air force with a shipment of humanitarian aid to alleviate the first needs following the earthquake.
Norway: the government of his country allowed an exceptional item of $ 1,8 million to support the victims of the earthquake
UNICEF: the international body assessed the impact of the earthquake and sent personnel, equipment and mosquito nets to the disaster areas; it also has a special page for donations that will go directly to the vulnerable groups of children and families.
European Union: on April 18, the highest body of European integration released € 1,8 million in humanitarian aid for the victims, in addition to having sent experts to assist the authorities and images of advanced satellite system with copernius, In order to facilitate the assessment of the damage.
World Bank: the office of a management team of risk and damage assessment to determine the most critical points to those who shall allocate the fund that the entity will be used for the reconstruction of the affected area, with emphasis on basic services and that Will include the $ 150 million.


Update 14:11 UTC : 120 members of a Mexican SAR group will start working together with their Ecuadorian collegues this afternoon

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Important Update 13:14 UTC : Ecuador security Minister has said that the death toll has risen to 350

Update 09:41 UTC : fascinating pictures of hope

Update 09:16 UTC :  The short video below gives a better idea of the damage in Pedernales

Update 09:00 UTC : Image below (credit https://t.co/PyGa9wGuua) shows a SAR (Search and Rescue) team searching for survivors. They have less than 2 days left to find them.

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Update 08:53 UTC : President Correa did visit first the damaged area of Portoviejo when returning from Rome, Italy. He visited Portoviejo before even going back to Quito, a move very appreciated by Ecuadorians.

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Update 08:15 UTC : New updated casualty numbers : 272 people have been killed and 2527 have been registered as injured
Apart from the fatalities and injured people, a lot of people (no exact number) are still missing
The authorities have set up various shelters in 6 provinces to accommodate people who lost their houses or from houses with structural damage.

Click on the thitter.com link in the below tweet to watch a short video of Pedernales

Update 08:29 UTC : The support of the people from non-damaged provinces in Ecuador is massive. People do not only donate money but are  gathering goods and food who are swiftly transported to the damaged cities and villages. Below a picture from a just arrived truck where volunteers are distributing the goods to the suffering people.


Update 23:12 UTC : New official fatalities number : 246

Update 20:16 UTC : Death toll goes up to 238

Update 20:04 UTC : No change in official casualty numbers but based on our experience with earthquakes we are convinced that the current fatality number will rise the coming hours and days. The main reason are the missing people. Much of the collapsed houses have not been cleared yet and people are still below the rubble. We truly hope that specialised SAR  (Search and Rescue) teams will be able to save as many lives as possible. We are almost 24 hours after the earthquake and there are still 2 extremely important days to get people alive from below the rubble. After 72 hours the chance to recover people alive will decrease considerably.

Update 19:50 UTC : Fatality and damage numbers from a theoretical model od Dr. James Daniell (CEDIM, Karlsruhe, Germany).
The model used a combination of Ecuador and USGS intensities.
Death toll = 252 with lower range 65 and higher range 720 (still some uncertainty as it looks like the death toll may increase given the reported intensities)
In terms of costs = $820 million with a range from $200 million up to $1.8 billion

Update 17:54 UTC : A report from Manabi in English

Update 17:50 UTC : The death toll has further climbed to 235

Update 16:59 UTC : The number of injured people has increased from 588 to 1533

Update 15:58 UTC : A collapsed house in Manta, one of the areas with most damage

Important Update 15:10 UTC : The President of Ecuador has just reported that the number of fatalities increased to 233 !
Other parts in the tweet of the President:
Most affected city is Manta (suburb Tarqui)
Pedernales almost completely destroyed
The President will visit Portoviejo asap

Update 14:50 UTC : The security video below shows the shaking in Portoviejo

Update 14:23 UTC : An emotional Jorge Glas, Vice-President of Ecuador, paid a visit this morning to some severely hit locations along the coast.
Rafael Correa was in Rome at the time of the earthquake

Update 12:47 UTC : The Ecuadorian government has called the State of Emergency in 6 provinces : Esmeraldas, Los Ríos, Manabí, Santa Elena, Guayas and Santo Domingo

Update 12:41 UTC : Twitter picture (link below the image) of a partly collapsed bridge in Manabi. This is no normal ground rupture but an elevated road who is giving entrance to the bridge who has partly collapsed.

Screen Shot 2016-04-17 at 14.40.22

Update 12:26 UTC : RT Spanisg has withdrawn their 142 number of fatalities and shows again the official number of 77. Other Spanash sources crediting an International Rescue Organisation are still citing the number of 142.

Update 12:15 UTC : Image from hard hit Pedernales, a coastal city in Northern Ecuador

Screen Shot 2016-04-17 at 14.14.53

Update 11:50 UTC : Daylight has started and the real extend of the damage will now show up. Since about 6 hours there are no new official numbers of the casualties. Our number of 142 comes from unofficial sources of RT Spanish citing internal sources.

Update 11:30 UTC : Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa told the press that his government has didicated 600 million US$ (official money in Ecuador) to reconstruct the country after the earthquakes

Update 11:29 UTC : At least 90 aftershocks have rattled Ecuador so far

Important Update 10:22 UTC : At least 142 people have been killed and 588 injured. 269 buildings of diffrent sizes have been collapsed.

Update 09:46 UTC : Apart from the destruction in housing, also infrastructure has been dramatically damaged

Screen Shot 2016-04-17 at 11.45.46

Update 09:36 UTC : Aftershocks (some as powerfull ad M6) continue to rattle the earthquake zone and are life-threathening those trying to rescue others

Update 09:28 UTC : Authorities in Padernales and Manta are confirming vast devastations of their cities.

Update 09:22 UTC :  Horrifying pictures are reaching is and do confirm that the death toll will be higher than the current 77.

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Update 09:09 UTC : Venezuela sends an airplane with SAR (Search and Rescue) personnel to help the Ecuadorians.

Update 08:59 UTC : Although the devastation is biggest in the provinces of Esmeraldas and Manabi, damage is considerable in the whole country and in Southern Colombia.

Update 08:58 UTC : NO updated casualty numbers since many hours. We fear that the next official number will be 100+

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Update 08:38 UTC : Huge parts of the northern provinces are still without power

Update 08:26 UTC : Ecuador’s risk management agency says that 10,000 armed forces will be send to the provinces of Esmeraldas and Manabi.

Update 08:18 UTC : Some areas, like Padernales, could not be reached so far. A lot of helicopters will be needed to reach remote areas as some bridges have collapsed. Ecuador is a very mountainuous country.

Update 08:13 UTC : At least 6 multi-storey buildings have collapsed in Guyaquil (hundreds of km's away from the epicenter)

Update 08:11 UTC : Mobile telecommunication companies are offering FREE text messaging to people from the hardest hit provinces (ER: should be mandatory to do so everywhere)

Update 07:59 UTC : Current headline of the Ecuadorian newspaper El Comercio. Death toll still stands at 77 but will rise soon.

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Update 07:55 UTC : 4 bridges have collapsed making the recue work almost impossible to reach the villages beyond that point. 16 buildings have collapsed in Manabi province alone.

Update 07:27 UTC : Strong to very strong aftershocks are occurring in the direct earthquake area. Most of the epicenters of the aftershocks are located in the Province of Manabi. Below, a group of 50 firefighters from Tarea (in Ecuador also specialised in earthquake rescue) are being flown to Manabi to help with the rescue operations

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Update 07:24 UTC : What caused the Esmeraldas / Manabi devastating earthquake?
The April 16, 2016 M 7.8 earthquake, offshore of the west coast of northern Ecuador, occurred as the result of shallow thrust faulting on or near the plate boundary between the Nazca and Pacific plates. At the location of the earthquake, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South America plate at a velocity of 61 mm/yr. The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with slip on the primary plate boundary interface, or megathrust, between these two major plates. Subduction along the Ecuador Trench to the west of Ecuador, and the Peru-Chile Trench further south, has led to uplift of the Andes mountain range and has produced some of the largest earthquakes in the world, including the largest earthquake on record, the 1960 M 9.5 earthquake in southern Chile.

While commonly plotted as points on maps, earthquakes of this size are more appropriately described as slip over a larger fault area. Events of the size of the April 16, 2016 earthquake are typically about 160x60 km in size (length x width).

Ecuador has a history of large subduction zone related earthquakes. Seven magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes have occurred within 250 km of this event since 1900. On May 14th, 1942, a M 7.8 earthquake occurred 43 km south of this April 16th, 2016 event. On January 31st, 1906 a M 8.3 earthquake (reportedly as large as M 8.8 in some sources) nucleated on the subduction zone interface 90 km to the northeast of the April 2016 event, and ruptured over a length of approximately 400-500 km, resulting in a damaging tsunami that caused in the region of 500-1,500 fatalities. The April 2016 earthquake is at the southern end of the approximate rupture area of the 1906 event. A shallow, upper crustal M 7.2 earthquake 240 km east of the April 2016 event on March 6th, 1987 resulted in approximately 1,000 fatalities.

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Update 06:53 UTC : An image of the damage in Manabi. People are searching in a hopeless battle to find friends and relatives in the rubble.

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Update 06:47 UTC : At least 77 people killed and 557 injured and sadly enough we expect it to rise the coming hors

Update 06:37 UTC : The highest number of fatalities is to expect in the Provinces of Esmeralda and Manabi. The number will certainly increase the following hours

Update: The 2 hardest hot provinces have been exposed to SEVERE SHAKING during at least 1 minute, a deadly cocktail.

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Update: At least 41 people killed in Ecuador in Ecuador alone. Collapsed buidlings in Quito and Guayaquil, cracks even in Cali, Colombia. most of the reported deaths are from towns, which are "outside" the dangerous area. (Which has only MMI VI according to USGS)

Image of the damage in Esmeraldas one of the two he hardist hit provinces

Image of the damage in Esmeraldas one of the two he hardist hit provinces

Update: Dr. James Daniell (Cedim, Karlsruhe, Germany) expects the number of fatalities in between 25 and 340 with a median of 120. He also expects damage 250 million damage.

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Update: Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects : 300 to 1500 fatalities and 2000 to 8000 injured people

Update: A tsunami of (only) 14 cm was measured

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27.0 km (16.8 mi) SSE of Muisne, Ecuador
52.0 km (32.3 mi) W of Rosa Zarate, Ecuador
68.0 km (42.3 mi) SSW of Propicia, Ecuador
111.0 km (69.0 mi) NW of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador
170.0 km (105.6 mi) WNW of Quito, Ecuador

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 7.8

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2016-04-16 18:58:36

GMT/UTC Time : 2016-04-16 23:58:36

Depth (Hypocenter) : 20 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the "I Felt It" button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
WCATWC Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:59 7.7 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Guayaquil - Golvende snelle beweging die later samen ging met trillen. Schilderijwn aan de muur bewogen zon 15 cm naar beide kanten. Moeite te blijven staan. Heel beangstigend
  • WCATWC Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:59 7.4 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Pedernales, Ecuador Apr 16 23:58 7.4 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    USGS Muisne, Ecuador Apr 16 23:58 7.8 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:58 7.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:58 7.8 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Los Santos, Santander, Colombia - pril 16/2016, at 13:02:20 local time (18: 02.20) UT. 2.7 magnitude quake was presented, with its epicenter 8.0 kilometers northwest of the municipal head of Santos, Santander, Colombia. Latitude: 6.82 degrees North length: 73.15 degrees West Depth: 142.3 km GAP: 7.1 RMS: 0.5 The nearest capital is 34.10 kilometers Bucaramanga. NO damages
  • Quito Airport - Shook for a good 45 seconds; light damage to ceiling fixtures, lots of people running for cover
  • Vilcabamba, Loja - No damage. Very mild. Went on for a long time, like 6 minutes. Surprisingly long duration.
  • Cuenca - We felt weak shaking for about 30 seconds.
  • Cotacachi - No damage that we know of. Trees were moving next to the house, curtains moving inside the house.
  • Cali - muchas personas en la calle ,movimiento de cable electrónicos,gente en la calle no daños materiales
  • Quito - Possible damage in other rooms in the house. Possibly not
  • Cuenca, Azuay province - i am a retired teacher w a bs in geology. this was the strongest EQ in my 8.5 yrs here in ecuador
  • Quito - Light shaking, I was alarmed and went to a location under a doorway, but no damage. Lasted a couple of minutes.
  • Quito - Stronger than before and lasted quite long (about 19 pm), light fell out a while
  • Cotacachi - Lived here for 5 years and felt numerous earthquakes before. This was the first time I ran outside. No apparent damage, but too dark to see minor cracks if there are any. Lasted longer than any quake I've felt here before.
  • Quito - It was pretty long and some objects fell (portraits and books).
  • Guayaquil - Everyone was going too the streets.
  • Piura - It was a kind of a rolling earthquake, not violent, our hanging lamps were swinging back and forth. We took shelter under the door jamb. We are from San Francisco.
  • Quito - We felt it seriously moving our building on second floor. We went out to the median of the avenue. We heard creaking noises all around, and could see trees and power lines moving.
  • Cuenca - No property damage to my apartment. The apartment shook more than any other earthquake I experienced while living here in Cuenca. Much noise outside caused by this strong shaking. Occurred approx. 7pm and lasted several minutes.
  • South Colombia - HE 16TH APRIL 2016 AT 18:58:25 local time (23:58:25 16/04/2016 TIME UT), PRESENTED A magnitude 7.4 Ml EPICENTRO BORDER WITH ECUADOR to 270.05 km SUROESTEDE HEADER RICAURTE MUNICIPAL Narino LOCATION IS NORTH LATITUDE = -0.35GRADOS DEGREES WEST LONGITUDE = -79.97 DEPTH = SURFACE (LESS THAN 30 KILOMETERS) MAGNITUDE = 7.4 Ml GAP = 308 ---------- RMS = 3.3 NEAREST = PASTOa 345.49km CAPITAL
  • Quito - Whole house moved side to side, sort of a rolling motion, we took shelter with the dog under the dining table, went on for about two minutes. No damage to the house but quite scary nonetheless.
  • Cali - Las puertas de la casa y las materas colgantes se balanceaban bastante. Fue muy largo, creo que duro mas de un minuto.
  • Cuenca - Knocked a picture of the shelf. Furniture was shaking. A little difficult to walk.
  • Ibarra - Kids got very scared so we went outside. First time feeling it here in Eucuador but house is very strong and nothing fell off walls. Hope all is well for everyone at the epicenter
  • cuenca - I am on the second floor. My plants swayed a bit and it seemed rather long and strong. A good 20/25 seconds.
  • Otavalo - We were in our hotel room on the second floor and the building started moving in a rolling motion. My wife and I decided to leave the room after about 10 seconds and headed down the stairs and out into the street. Many other people also headed into the street at the same time from surrounding buildings. The ground continued to move for another 15 seconds or so. The entire event was about one minute in duration. Exciting, but I know it was devastating for the small communities near the epicenter.
  • Dapa, Valle - Rolling motion - lasted for more than a minute
  • quito - 1 minute of very strong shaking
  • Guyaquil - We literally just entered the lobby of our hotel when the ground Started moving. lasted ~15 seconds and felt like a slow, rolling movement. We immediately left the lobby for a large open space in front. The streetlights were off, and we heard what appeared to be glass shattering in the distance, like it fell down. We also overheard that a bridge in guyaquil allegedly collapsed. No major damage in our direct vicinity visible, but for two "earthquake amateurs" still a very unsettling experience.
  • Ambato - Je regardais la télé vers 19h quand tout s'est mis à trembler. Je pensais que le plafond allait s'effondrer. J'ai attrapé mes chaussures et suis descendu dans la rue où d'autres clients et le personnel étaient rassemblés. J'ai l'image d'un réverbère qui tremblait très fort. Ça a duré entre 30 secondes et une minute
  • Riobamba a 160 km sur de Quito - movimiento oscilatorio bastante largo provoco mareo aproximadamente de unos 4 grados escl. R.
  • Riobamba a 160 km sur de Quito - fue un temblor largo y oscilatorio todos nos quedamos mareados por el movimiento se sentía q toda la casa se movía como si estuviese sobre una canoa o una laguna no podiamaos caminar porque no podíamos mantener el equilibrio, ningún daño material y ningún objeto se desprendió
  • Ibarra - Horribly felt the earthwuake. Ran out immediately of the home.
  • Quito - Nessun danno nelle vicinanze di dove abitiamo
  • Vilcabamba - Vilcabamba evening 16 april 2016
  • Cali - The table and chairs were shaking.
  • Cuenca - We are in a 5 story building. It was like living on elvis presley's hips'
  • Otavalo - No damage. Mirror on wall was banging. Whole floor was rolling.Seemed to last a minute or so.
  • Ambato - So far no damages here. The lights went out for a sec.
  • Malacatos - dogs started barking, house was shaking...
  • Cuenca - Lasted about 1 1/2 minutes. Eerie. Felt like vertigo. the movement of the building caused slight dizziness. We were on the ground floor.
  • Bogota D.C - I was just walking with my bro anf then i frlt the floor moving. I got scared and I went out for security
  • Tulcan - Could see the drapes and building swaying
  • Cotopaxi - No damage. But everything was shaking for a few minutes and everyone felt it. Some felt an aftershock when already in bed.
  • Vilcabamba - The weirdest part was that it felt like a rolling motion similar to what man others have reported here rather than the usual shaking and trembling.
  • Tonsupa - Difficult to walk during the shaking in Tonsupa. Several cracks in walls of building. Some buildings worse than others.
  • Santo Domingo de los tsachilas ecuador - un buen sacuden se sintió acá en santo domingo ecuador
  • Quito - la tierra se sigue moviendo quiero mantenerme informada gracias
  • USGS Pedernales, Ecuador Apr 16 23:47 4.8 33 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:47 4.9 20 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Near Coast Of Ecuador Apr 16 23:47 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO


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    Enter Email (not compulsory)
    Country where you felt the earthquake
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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