Earthquake in Ludian county (Yunnan), China – Death toll increases further to 617 and +3143 people injured, just under $10 bn damage

Last update: September 20, 2014 at 8:45 am by By

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Update 19/09/2014: The value of the economic losses due to the event has now been calculated by the Chinese Government: 1.09 million people were affected, with losses totalling 61 billion yuan (610亿元), which equates to 9.91 billion USD. This is as reported in many news services throughout China. This value has been updated in the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database.

Just to answer a few questions for our audience:-

The economic losses (book value) are equivalent to 6.4 billion USD or around 38 billion CNY.

The economic costs (replacement value are equivalent to 9.91 billion USD or 61 billion CNY.

The reconstruction investment and cost by the Chinese government has reported to be 11.37 billion USD or 70 billion CNY. Houses will be of higher quality than before the event, and the additional infrastructure investment will be undertaken to increase the standard of living and quality of building codes vs. earthquakes.

Update 22:17 UTC : The complicated and dangerous works to master the big landslide lake continues. Controlled explosions, new heavy equipment and a lot of mapower are containing the danger and will be gradually decreasing the lake level by controlled drainage. Great work from the Chinese engineers and the people risking their lives in an unstable environment

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Update 08:31 UTC : Below a “more detailed” shaking intensity map. The red lines are the known fault lines.
Violent shaking in the epicenter area, with all consequences involved.
Intensity IX was reached on the Liedu scale – 90 square kilometers
Intensity VIII – 290 square kilometers
Intensity VII – 1580 sq. km
Intensity VI – 8390 sq. km
Over 10000 square kilometers of damage. 100 x 100 sq. km.

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Update 16:26 UTCLudian landslide lake update
The water in the lake did further rise and stands now at a level that the lake will start overflowing. Overflow will not be be a big problem though as this is controlled by Chinese engineers. This is what the Chinese Television had to say about the lake a little earlier today :
Rescuers are still working to defuse the threat of a growing barrier lake in the quake region. Water levels rose to 12 hundred meters on Thursday and the lake was close to overflowing.
A road leading to the barrier lake has been cleared following days of demolition works. Excavating machines are set to arrive at the top of the dam to start digging a flood relief channel on Thursday night.
150 machines and 400 workers are set to work around the clock to finish the channel in 5 days. Earlier, a reservoir was designated to intercept river water to reduce pressure. Two hydropower stations are helping speed up draining water from the lake.

Click on the image to start the video - the embedded video was restarted automatically after each refresh, not a healthy situation :)

Click on the image to start the video – the embedded video was restarted automatically after each refresh, not a healthy situation :)

Update 14:11 UTC :  Death toll increases further to 614, still 114 missing and 3143 people injured

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Update 08:26 UTC : Chinese geologists and seismologists (among the best in the world) are aggressively mapping what really happened when the sky darkened for many people. It looks (based on the maps below) that a violent shaking (MMI 9 right above the hypocenter) occurred in a North-West to South-East direction or reverse. It looks to be a blind fault as the propagation and rupture wave does not resemble known faults on the map.

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Update August 7, 08:25 UTC : The number of injured has further risen to 2993 people


Update 17:58 UTC : Landslide lake threat Update
Near the border of Ludian and Qiaojia, a barrier lake has led to the evacuation of 4,200 residents from the lower reaches of the Niulan River.
Sun Huaikun, who is in charge of the barrier lake response, said a reservoir on the upper reaches is intercepting river water to reduce pressure on the lake, while two hydropower stations on the lower reaches are speeding up the discharge of water.
The barrier lake is no small matter. It has has already flooded about 370 homes and residents have fled, leaving almost all of their belongings behind. Over 15 km long, it covers 49 sq km and the water level continues to rise, said Qiu Guangliang, head of the Huize County Water Authority. The army plans to use about 2 tonnes of dynamite to blow up blockage which formed the lake.
More houses will be submerged and more people will need to be rehoused as the water level rises, said Liang Zhiqiang, head of the Huize county government.
“Our village has been inundated,” said Zhang Guoqiang, 36, from Xintian village. “We only took a few small things and moved to higher ground.”
The water level rose quickly. We had no time to take cash, quilts and grain from our house. Nothing is left. The house, crops and fruit trees were all submerged,” said villager Liu Zongxiu.
Xiao Shuzhi, 72, from Laofangzi village, had never seen such a flood on the Niulan river. In the past few days, she and her family have kept watch on the rising water level to be ready to run to higher mountain areas at any moment. (source Xinhua, a little earlier today)

Update 16:23 UTC : Wonder o Wonder – A 50 year old woman, Liu Teng Chui, has been excavated out of the rubble 67 hours after the earthquake. She has some back and head injuries but is conscious and will survive the earthquake. The chance that more survivors will be found after the 72 hours golden period decreases by the hour. Nevertheless, Chinese government has decided to extend the S&R mission until next Sunday.

Update 16:16 UTC : More than 400 tons of relief goods have now arrived in the quake zone. CCTV reporter Ai Yang has been following one of the teams delivering the supplies.  “We have eight flight helicopter crews, all taking turns to deliver relief materials to the quake areas. This is second trip, which is bound for Cuiping Township,” said Shi Jinsheng, deputy chief of staff, Chengdu Military Area Command. Improved weather conditions allow delivery of more supplies “Right now, we’re still in the 72-hour golden rescue period. We are all committed to saving as many lives as possible and keeping casualties at a minimum,” said commander of Chengdu Military Area Command Li Zuocheng.

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Update 08:58 UTC : Landslide specialist Prof. Dave Petley (UK) has written an article with new information about the landslide lake. Click here to read it (we can advise you to do so)

Update 08:49 UTC : The reason for the steep climb in fatalities this morning was that remote devastated villages were only reached yesterday. Many roads have been destroyed by landslides.

Update 08:48 UTC : Chinese authorities have said that they will continue to search for people alive below the rubble for a total of 7 days (until next Sunday). Normally S&R missions are ending after 4 days.

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Update 08:29 UTC : The number of injured had further increased to 2833

Update 08:25 UTC :
The following report was published about 8 hours ago by CCTV, China regarding the landslide lake in Yunnan. The report reflects very well the situation who gets more dangerous every hour.

Earthquakes in mountainous areas frequently cause barrier lakes, formed by rivers blocked by landslides. As the water level rises, so does the pressure behind the dam until it bursts through the blockage, devastating anything downstream. A barrier lake has formed at a hydraulic construction project in the quake region, threatening the lives of over 800 villagers.
A disaster, waiting to happen. The water is approaching dangerous levels, rising about half a meter every hour. Before the lake was formed, floods had devoured houses at the foot of the mountain. Luckily, all the residents had been evacuated.
“The barrier lake was formed by debris on both sides of the banks of the river. The blockage is 210 meters long, 60 to 70 meters wide, and 116 meters high. We estimate that it is already 67 meters deep,” Jiang Delin with Zhaotong Water Bureau said.
Experts are warning that in three to four days time, the water pressure could be strong enough to break through, with disastrous results.
They say nothing can be done for now because of unstable conditions on the mountain.
“The key problem now is we can’t get through. We are trying everything we can to get downstream,” Wei Zhisheng, deputy general engineer of China Power Engineering Co., Kunming Branch, said.
The priority now is clearing up the road leading to the barrier lake, so that excavators can get in to do their work.
Water Bureau officials are closely monitoring geological conditions, waiting for the best and safest time to enter the area. (source – click here)

Important update August 6, 05:07 UTC
A very steep climb in fatalities this morning (UTC). The death toll increased suddenly by 179 to 589 people. 9 are still missing (Qiaojia county) and 2401 people injured. 200,000 people have been displaced (in other words their houses are OR too badly damaged or are located on unstable ground.

Screen Shot 2014-08-06 at 07.20.36


Update 22:27 UTC : Chinese authorities published a new roundup of the casualties
410 people killed, 12 still missing, 2373 injured

Update 16:46 UTC : Kraal River landslide lake update – water level increased by 30 meter
The dangerous situation at the Kraal river landslide lake continues. Since yesterday the surface of the lake has tripled and the level of he lake rose by 30 meter. Hard to see it on the pictures, but this was the content of a Chinese report published about 5 hours ago.

Screen Shot 2014-08-05 at 18.49.50

Important Update August 5 @ 07:24 UTC – The Chinese authorities published a new report on the impact of the earthquake
Victims
- 407 fatalities ((328 Ludian, 66 Qiaojia, 12 Huize, 1 Zhaotong)
- 2,326 people injured  (1713 Ludian, 243 Qiaojia, 370 Huize)
Devastation
Yunnan : 25,500 collapsed houses, 39,200 severely damaged houses and 151,200 damaged houses
Sichuan : 23 collapsed houses and 2,579 damaged houses
Guizhou : 12 collapsed houses and 2,154 damaged houses

Screen Shot 2014-08-04 at 16.18.57


Update 22:11 UTC Summary :
- Yunnan Province has allocated 33,460 tents, 10,000 quilts, 60,000 cotton coats, 10,000 fold beds, 10,000 sleeping bags, 5,000 sets of folding chairs and 50 portable toilets to the cause.
- The death toll remains at 398 with 3 missing. In Ludian County – 319 people, Qiaojia County – 66 people, Zhaoyang District – 1 person, Huize – 12 people. There are still 3 missing in Qiaojia County.
- In addition, 25500 houses collapsed (79800 rooms) and 39200 houses severely damaged (124,000 rooms), 151,200 slightly damaged (466,100 rooms).
- The economic losses are still being tabulated, after initial loss estimates in the billions of USD.

Update 15:47 UTC : ER reader Gordon Hervey forwarded a link to a Drone Video overflying the hardest hit epicenter area. The video shows the landslides and the flattened areas (not all the areas are flattened though). More analysis is needed to make up the movie of the events. The shaking must have been severe on this location.

Update 14:45 UTC : Kraal river landslide lake creates a dangerous situation
The water is rising 1.1 meter per hour. 56 houses have been flooded by the water. 11 houses did already collapsed. The population of the villages immediately downstream has been evacuated. But unnecessary to tell that the situation gets more dangerous by the hour. The Chinese engineers are doing whatever they can to reinforce the possible weak points.  The location of the landslide is Huize, the orange circle on the map. The red numbers on the map are the number of deaths in that area :(.

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Update 13:03 UTC : China’s central government has allocated 600 million yuan (97.3 million U.S. dollars) to fund rescue and relief in earthquake-hit Yunnan Province, the Ministry of Finance said on Monday.
The funds will be used to search for survivors, relocate local residents, medical treatment, console bereaved families and emergency repairs of public facilities, the ministry said in an online statement.
A 6.5-magnitude earthquake jolted Ludian County of Zhaotong City in Yunnan on Sunday, killing at least 398 people and leaving 1,801 others injured. Nearly 80,000 rooms collapsed and 124,000 others were seriously damaged.
Authorities have sent 11,000 police and firefighters, over 7,000 soldiers and armed police, as well as eight planes to the areas affected, but rescue has been hampered by heavy rain.

Update 10:28 UTC : This is the kind of devastation we are talking about. It looks like GAZA, but this misery has been generated by mother nature!

Screen Shot 2014-08-04 at 12.27.58

Update 10:01 UTC :  Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang is flying to the earthquake area and is coordinating personally, on behalf of the Chinese Government, the rescue and relief efforts. These efforts are enormous and include a wide variety of measures like communication equipment including Mobile base stations to be used free by the population, food, evacuee centers, tents, clothing, S&R personnel, heavy equipment, etc etc. All this happens less than 24 hours after the earthquake happened. As specialized earthquake followers, we congratulate the Chinese rescue and relief personnel and management with their earthquake response.

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Update 09:03 UTC : We did report already yesterday about the dangerous situation of a landslide lake being formed upstream the Kraal river. The only barrier for the lake is the landslide material. The population downstream the lake has been evacuated by the army and rescue personnel.  Due to the torrential rain in the mountains, the lake level could rise strongly. This is not a dam, so a breakthrough of the landslide lake is not imaginary. The picture below is the first we could see from this lake. The landslide forming the lake can also be seen well. Let’s hope that the villages downstream will not suffer more than they suffered already today.

Screen Shot 2014-08-04 at 11.02.23

Update 07:31 UTC : A further increase of the fatalities from 391 to 398

Update 06:50 UTC : The death toll increased further to 391 people, 3 are still missing. 2,226 people have been or are being treated for injuries. 12,000 houses have collapsed and at least 100,000 are damaged to various extend.
Cruel numbers which make this earthquake leading the list as MOST DEADLY 2014 earthquake so far.

Screen Shot 2014-08-04 at 08.57.09

Update 22:52 UTC : 1801 people have been injured. 57,200 people have been relocated because their houses were structurally unsafe to live in

Update 22:38 UTC : Overview of the aftershocks and mainshock until this update

Screen Shot 2014-08-04 at 00.37.34

Update 21:08 UTC : Apart from the (unchanged) number of 367 fatalities and 1784 injured people 5 people are still missing.
Some other data : 2825 special forces, 1500 police agents and 937 firefighters are present in the damaged area to support the rescue and relief efforts.

Update 20:13 UTC : As it is in the middle of the Chinese night, no updates are given by the Chinese authorities. We will keep you updated if new information appears.

Important update 17:31 UTC : Important updates are mostly bad news, so is it now. The death toll increased to 367. 296 people were killed in Ludian county – In Zhaotong city 1 person was killed – In Qiaojia County, 60 people were killed and in Qujing Huize 10 people were killed. In Ludian county alone 1591 people were injured.

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Update 17:10 UTC : The video below shows the extend of the damage as well as the difficult terrain the rescue operations have to occur.

Update 16:08 UTC : 9 additional fatalities are reported from Huize country.

Update 15:54 UTC : Chinese authorities are reporting now that at least 221 people are killed and still an unsure number missing. Sadly enough, the death toll will probably climb further.

Update 15:51 UTC : The Chinese authorities are calling an Earthquake Alert Weather IV for the region. This kind of alert takes into account extreme bad weather and will preparing the rescue response for this additional risk.

Update 15:34 UTC : As said earlier in this article, Chinese people are very generous in helping out their fellow Chinese if in trouble. Only hours after the earthquake donations are pouring in and people are volunteering to help in the rescue. The Chinese media are reporting a direct involvement of the President of the Peoples Republic of China, Xi Jinping. He encourages his people and is telling them that every effort will be made to rescue people and help those needed.

Screen Shot 2014-08-03 at 17.41.36

Update 15:29 UTC : The Rescue and Relief forces have set up a mobile base station in the direct epicenter area. People can use it for free to call relatives and friends. We saw this kind of installation already working in the Sichuan earthquake last year. Congrats to the Chinese respnse team to organise this service. Mobile communications are working normally outside the direct epicenter area, including in Zhaotong.

Update 15:22 UTC : It is currently dark in China which will make the rescue efforts more difficult. Chinese rescue teams are well equipped with mobile power stations (eventually to be flown in by helicopter) but the spotlights can only flood a small portion of the devastated area.

Update 15:17 UTC : A very dangerous situation is currently building up for 800 people living along the riversides of the Kraal (Chinese translation) river . The normal river bed was blocked by the earthquake landslides and a lake has been forming. Earlier earthquakes had the same problems sometimes ending in disastrous events. Let’s hope people will be able to evacuate the area in due time.

Update 15:03 UTC : Rescue personnel has now reached the epicenter area. They are dazzled by the devastation. A lot of houses are flattened to the ground including the Police headquarters and the town hall.

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Important Update 14:06 UTC The following is the Chinese epicenter and intensity distribution with at least VIII intensity being at the epicenter. Unfortunately, this means using theoretical models that at least 10 billion USD losses will be seen.

Important Update 13:58 UTC The weather currently is very wet with the area experiencing much rain and temperatures around 25 degrees. It is likely that many landslides have occurred and will continue to occur with aftershocks as well as with additional rain.

Important Update 13:52 UTC The fault that the earthquake occurred on was not that of the 1996 Lijiang earthquake but of another fault further east. It looks to be known and more characteristics will be made shortly. Click below for the picture of the fault.

china_event

China_earthquake

Important Update 13:50 UTC
The economic losses stemming from this earthquake will be at least 6.4 billion USD (38.48 billion CNY).´
Right now however the focus is still on rescue and emergency care. 175 people are killed, however many more are missing. We expect the total will rise to the order of 400 deaths as 181 are currently missing.

Important Update 13:32 UTC : More bad news : 175 people now reported as killed and already 1402 injured (this is still an intermediate report)

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Update 13:25 UTC : We are happy to report that the Qiaojia LUDIAN road has been cleared of landslides and is open again. Rescue agencies can now rush to the epicenter area to do all kinds of work like setting up temporary mobile phone lines, drinking water, delivering relief supplies, S&R activities, etc etc.

Update 13:15UTC : Coordination of the earthquake response comes now from the Chinese Prime Minister itself. He will work closely together with all the ministers involved in the Rescue and Relief operation. The army (specialized forces) is already activated but will be reinforced by other specialized units.

Update 13:07 UTC ; Luckily no further increase, but unfortunately we expect more to come. The damage on the picture below tells enough! As far as we could see so far, mostly older houses which have been build without the strict building code requirements have flattened. The Chinese media talks from THOUSANDS of COLLAPSED HOUSES

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Update 12:40 UTC : We expected a grim outlook from minute 1 but what is coming in now is even grimmer than what we expected. The death toll increased again to 150 people. The video below is NOT from the earthquake’s epicenter area but from Zhaotong approximately 40 km from the heart of the earthquake.

Update 12:35 UTC : The earthquake toll is getting worser and worser. We have now local reports who mention AT LEAST  120 people killed, 180 missing and 1300 injured.

Update 11:59 UTC : Yunnan seismological bureau says that today’s earthquake is the strongest since 18 years. Yunnan is one of the most earthquake sensitive provinces in China.
So far we can report the following preliminary statistics : Qiaojia County earthquake has caused 26 deaths, 2 missing, 79 injured (seven of them seriously). People in China are lighting candles to pray for the injured and the deceased. Earthquakes are in China a daily risk and people are donating a lot of money to help the victims and displaced.

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Update 11:44 UTC : List of aftershocks so far

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Important update 11:25 UTC : 26 people have been killed in Qiaojia County, most of them children who were buried below a school that collapsed during the shaking of the earthquake. Very sad news! The number of injured stays at 79 at the moment but will be increasing too.

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Update 11:15 UTC : An aftershock of M4.2 has just happened in the epicenter area, extremely dangerous for rescue workers.

Update 10:53 UTC : National Disaster Reduction Committee, Ministry of Civil Affairs disaster emergency response,  started level III and are rushing a lot of rescue workers and army personnel to the disaster area

Update 10:51 UTC : We get reports of collapsed schools, 20 people trapped in a certain location and 3 people killed so far

Update 10:41 UTC : USGS has now released a shaking estimate BUT based on M6.1 MW, which is less than locally reported M6.5. Even this weaker USGS prognosis releases bad numbers.

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Update 10:28 UTC : Communication networks (fixed and mobile) with the epicenter area are down = no reliable information from the epicenter area. The Contingency alert level has been raised to III confirming the extreme impact of this earthquake. Provincial Civil Affairs Department is sending asap   2000 tents, 500 colored cloths, 3,000 sets of folding beds, 3,000 quilts and 3,000 cotton-padded clothes + other relief supplies to Ludian County.

Update 10:22 UTC : At the moment Alert level II has been called by the governor of Yunnan. We expect this to rise to alert level III soon. At least 250 military personnel are being rushed to the direct epicenter area.

Important Update 10:16 UTC : We are sad to report that 1 child was killed. (heartbreaking picture here :((((( )

Update 10:10 UTC : Bad weather is expected (torrential rains and a lot of thunderstorms) in the greater epicenter area. This is additional bad news as people have to stay outside for a number of days and as the risk for landslides is extremely high. Landslides are the second major indirect fatality cause during and after earthquakes

Update 09:50 UTC : The road from Zhaotong leading to the epicenter is blocked by numerous landslides. Government agencies are rushing to the site to make them free but due to the aftershocks, this is an extremely dangerous task. Normally the distance to the epicenter is only 1 hour driving from the County capital Zhaotong. The picture below shows that the outcome will be grim!.

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Update 09:42 UTC : The earthquake response in China is divided into different alert levels. The highest alert means the the Minister of the Interior and the cabinet will lead the response themselves and that the army is called in with all possible means to assist the local rescue helpers. Earthquake-Report.com calls the China Response system among the top 3 in the world. The information is also abundantly present in the Chinese media. China also inspects every single house for damage.

Update 09:42 UTC : In China the earthquake is called Ludian earthquake as the epicenter is located in Ludian county

Update 09:35 UTC : The first pictures are appearing in the Chinese media. These pictures are NOT from the direct epicenter area but from Zhaotong City, approximately 30 km from the epicenter area. Based on our experience, they are the beginning of many more bad news to come!. Expect a lot of collapsed houses (older type houses) and even fatalities. On the positive side the region is lucky that this happened on a Sunday afternoon during daylight.

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Update 09:32 UTC : reports are coming in from China that the shaking lasted for about 30 seconds, which is very bad news. The longer the shaking lasts, the more damage will be inflicted.

Update 09:19 UTC : The Focal Mechanism beach-ball below confirms our Extremely Dangerous estimate. A mainly horizontal movement, the most dangerous type of earthquakes possible.

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Update 09:12 UTC : A M5.1 earthquake in the same area killed 5 people and injured another 29 in 2003, In 2004 a M5.6 earthquake killed 4 and injured 594 people. We have NO DOUBTS at all that the Chinese government will call the HIGHEST ALERT response for this earthquake.

Update 09:00 UTC : The earthquake was also felt in Chongqing!

Update 08:55 UTC : The earthquake was felt in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan too. Yunnan is the location of the world famous rice terraces, a very hilly area in Chine who often gets very dangerous earthquakes.

Update 08:52 UTC : We call a radius of 45 km as extremely dangerous for injuries and damage, thats an area where 1.4 million people are living.

Update 08:50 UTC : CEIC, the Chinese Seismological agency reports now a Magnitude of 6.5 at a depth of 12 km, very cruel numbers in this region of the world.

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253 km N of Kunming, China / pop: 1,023,674 / local time: 16:30:13.3 2014-08-03
35 km W of Zhaotong, China / pop: 109,400 / local time: 16:30:13.3 2014-08-03

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 6.1

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2014-08-03 16:30:14

GMT/UTC Time : 2014-08-03 08:30:14

Depth (Hypocenter) : 10 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the “I Felt It” button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
GEOFON Yunnan, China Aug 03 19:30 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Rg, China Aug 03 19:30 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Wenping, China Aug 03 19:30 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Wenping, China Aug 03 14:28 4.7 30 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Rg, China Aug 03 14:28 4.6 30 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Yunnan, China Aug 03 14:28 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Region, China Aug 03 13:47 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Yunnan, China Aug 03 13:47 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Rg, China Aug 03 13:47 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Zhaotong, China Aug 03 11:07 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Rg, China Aug 03 11:07 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Wenping, China Aug 03 08:30 6.1 10 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Yunnan, China Aug 03 08:30 5.9 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Sichuan-yunnan-guizhou Rg, China Aug 03 08:30 6.1 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • 120km NNW from Epicenter - Was sitting on the sofa when sofa started vibrating and windows made noise (old house)
  • CENC Ludian, Yunnan, China Aug 03 08:30 6.5 12 MAP I Felt It INFO


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    Country where you felt the earthquake
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    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
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    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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