Massive earthquake in Guerrero, Mexico leaves hundreds of damaged homes and 1 person injured.

Last update: April 24, 2014 at 8:21 am by By

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This report was written by Carlos Robles and Armand Vervaeck

Tectonic Summary of the Guerrero, M7.2 earthquake
The April 18, 2014 M 7.2 earthquake near the western coast of Mexico occurred in the state of Guerrero, 265 km southwest of Mexico City. The earthquake occurred as the result of thrust motion at shallow depths. The initial location, depth, and mechanism of the April 18 earthquake are broadly consistent with slip on or near the plate boundary interface between the subducting Cocos oceanic sea plate and the North America plate.
The broad scale tectonics of the west coast of Mexico are controlled by the northeastward subduction of the Cocos plate beneath the North America plate at a rate of approximately 65 mm/yr (ER: Thats a lot of movement which will always generate powerful earthquakes). Earthquakes are a common occurrence along the Middle American subduction zone; the April 2014 earthquake occurred just northwest of the rupture area of the 1957 M 7.8 Guerrero Earthquake. Since 1975, 23 events of M > 6.0 have occurred within 200 km of the April 2014 earthquake, including events of M 8.0 and M 7.6 (September 1985), M 7.2 (October 1981), and M 7.5 (March 1979), all to the northwest. The 1981 and 1979 events caused 9 and 5 shaking-related fatalities, respectively. The 1985 M 8.0 earthquake, 195 km to the northwest of the April 2014 event, led to more than 9,500 fatalities, mostly in Mexico City, and generated small, local tsunamis. That event was influential in initiating efforts to establish earthquake early warning systems in Mexico City.
The April 2014 earthquake occurred within the “Guerrero “Seismic Gap” – an approximately 200 km long segment of the Cocos-North America plate boundary identified to have experienced no significant earthquakes since 1911 (M 7.6). The plate interface in this region is known to be locked, with an earthquake of M 8.1-8.4 thought possible should the entire gap rupture in a single event.Screen Shot 2014-04-24 at 10.14.45

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Update 23:15 UTC:
In
Tlaxcala:
 -The church of Candelaria suffered non-significant cracks on the walls.
-A landslide happened besides the parking lot of the children hospital (HIT).
-Multiple reports of cracks in walls on the city of Acuitlapilco.
-One house suffered cracks on walls, this happened in the city of Panotla.

Hidalgo:
-The earthquake caused blackouts in some areas of Pachuca.
-Some buildings were evacuated in at least 3 cities of Hidalgo, but no damage has been reported.

Below a limited collection of video’s from this earthquake as compiled by Carlos Robles. The videos will play in a sequence

Veracruz:
-One building was damaged on it’s electrical grid and on the doors.

Estado de Mexico:
-Blackouts were reported in areas of Ecatepec, Chimalhuacan, Colonia del Valle,  Nezahualcoyotl and Ixtapaluca.
-A blackout was reported in Azcapotzalco as well as a water leak.
-There are reports of cracks in the church “San Mateo Oxtotitlán” in Toluca.
-Also in Toluca a light post collapsed on a house.
-In Nezahualcoyotl houses presented cracks (one of them has a significant crack) as well as the hospital “Gustavo Baz”.
-A gas leak was reported in Metepec.

Puebla:
-In San Martín Texmelucan one house suffered structural damage, and an undetermined number of houses and the cultural complex of Texmelucan suffered cracks on their walls.  
-One church in Atlixco has cracked walls.
-2 walls of 8 meters collapsed in the city of Puebla.

Distrito Federal:
-
At least 15 walls collapsed.
-Five buildings had to be evacuated due to significant damage done by the quake.
-Minor damage was reported around Mexico City, including collapsed walls, broken windows and cracked walls/roads.
-48 homes were damaged.
-Reports of 4 gas leaks and 3 water leaks.
-There’s no power in the delegation of Gustavo Madero and Venustiano Carranza.
-600 damaged homes due to a hailstorm were even more damaged by today’s quake.
-Reports of collapsed walls and blackouts in Coyoacan.
-Blackouts in Xochimilco, Tlahuac and Cuauhtemoc.
-A wall collapsed in Benito Juarez.
-Fissures reported in buildings of Tlatelolco including a crack in the Bank of Mexico.

Michoacan:
-1 person was injured when a wall collapsed in the city of Lazaro Cardenas.
-The parish of Sagrado Corazon de Jesus in Los Reyes has structural damage.
-Landslide reported in the hill “La Grava”.
-In Morelia users reported minor damage in the Star Medica hospital, 3 damaged houses, a collapsed wall, a fire caused by the quake and a landslide in the road XXI.
-The church of San Agustin in Morelia was affected by this quake.
-30 homes in Morelia sustained minor damage.
-Only light damage was reported in Uruapan.

Morelos:
-A landslide was reported in kilometer 249 Cuernavaca-Acapuclo.
-An hospital in Cuernavaca presented fissures on walls.
-In Huitzilac the earthquake damaged a municipal building.
-A local mall presented minor damage in Cuautla.
-In Jiutepec an arc in the entrance of an ex-convent was damaged.
-Two churches in Tlaquiltenango suffered minor damage.

Guerrero:
-At least 700 buildings have sustained damage around the state
(including churches, municipal buildings, etc.)
-12 homes collapsed in  Los Pitos, Arroyo Frio and Los Hornos.
-9 homes collapsed in Juluchuca, 28 sustained significant damage.
-521 homes in Tecpan de Galeana were damaged.
-32 homes were affected (4 of them severely) in Refugio Cristobal Colon.
-10 houses were damaged in La Barrita.
-13 landslides have been reported.
-5 government buildings, 3 hospitals, 2 clinics and one school suffered damage.
-2 roads have sustained significant damage.
-In Iguala a wall collapsed and a mall presented fissures.
-Blackouts were reported around the state.
-The quake caused a bridge to misaligned from the road.
-In Chilpancingo there were several reports of damaged homes, the church of Santa Maria de la Asuncion was also damaged, a municipal building suffered minor damage and a wall fell on a car without causing injuries.
-An hospital in Acapulco sustained minor damage.

Update 19:46 UTC : No new damage data so far.

Screen Shot 2014-04-18 at 22.50.43

Update 18:30 UTC : The earthquake was felt in at least 14 states, those states are:  Guerrero, Morelos, México, Puebla, Oaxaca, Querétaro, Veracruz, Jalisco, Michoacán, Tlaxcala, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Colima and Distrito Federal.

Update 18:24 UTC : Roofs collapsed in Guerrero.
-Some hotels in the state of Guerrero have sustained minor damage.

Update 18:09 UTC : Proteccion Civil is reporting at least 15 collapsed walls in Mexico City.
-One wall of 8 meters collapsed in Puebla, no injuries reported.
-There have been at least 31 aftershocks.

Update 18:05 UTC :
-Two buildings in Mexico City have sustained structural damage.
-There are several reports of collapsed walls, broken windows and buildings/roads with cracks.
-No word on injuries so far.
-One landslide has been reported in the Cuernavaca-Acapulco road.
-A cracked section has been reported on the ring way of Mexico City.

Update 16:15 UTC : Until now only some reports of broken windows and some collapsed walls.

Important Update 15:55 UTC : USGS has decreased the Magnitude to M7.2 but has also decreased the depth to 24 km – We still believe that this earthquake is extremely dangerous! USGS epicenter remains below land (no tsunami danger).
Below the epicenter  and the seismogram as reported by the Mexican SSN seismological service. SSN report M7.0 at 10 km (10 km is also used as number if the precise depth has not yet been calculated). People should stay away from the shores and should NOT go into the water as strong currents may sweep them into the sea.

Screen Shot 2014-04-18 at 18.58.15 Screen Shot 2014-04-18 at 18.59.00

Update 15:50 UTC : Also the DF Mexico City suffered shortages of power and even the airport in Mexico City was a little while affected. The Mexican seismological agency is putting the epicenter in the ocean, a big difference with USGS below land. Still no news from the epicenter area, but this is NO surprise as telecommunications and power are down in this area.

Update 15:38 UTC : More reports of Power Cuts and loss of telecommunications in a number of provinces. No specific news yet from the epicenter area.

Update 15:35 UTC : Power, communications down in Chilpancingo, Guerrero state, Mexico

Update 15:30 UTC : This region is regularly hit by very strong to massive earthquakes the preceding years without generating massive damage. We hope this will be the case today too. Please take a look at the map below to see the earthquakes in the region since 1900!

Update 15:20 UTC : The theoretical injuries and fatalities engine from Max Wyss expects that this earthquake may cause 0 to 500 people to be injured and 0 – 50 people to be killed. The numbers are based on a Magnitude of M7.5 at a depth of 48 km

Update 15:11 UTC : Based on theoretical data from USGS this earthquake was felt by 130,000 people as severe shaking. Severe shaking is seen by Earthquake Report as a potential damage shaking

Screen Shot 2014-04-18 at 18.08.21 Screen Shot 2014-04-18 at 18.08.42

VERY DANGEROUS earthquake below Guerrero Mexico and the greater Acapulco area.

Update : The intermediate depth of 50 km will weaken the shaking a little bit but this earthquake remains extremely dangerous and serious injuries and collapsed houses will be NO surprise to us. This earthquake happens at the end of the Semana Santa in Mexico!

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37km (23mi) N of Tecpan de Galeana, Mexico
53km (33mi) NW of Atoyac de Alvarez, Mexico
56km (35mi) E of Petatlan, Mexico
81km (50mi) S of Ciudad Altamirano, Mexico
265km (165mi) SW of Mexico City, Mexico

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 7.2

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2014-04-18 09:27:25

GMT/UTC Time : 2014-04-18 14:27:25

Depth (Hypocenter) : 29 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the “I Felt It” button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
USGS Petatlan, Mexico Apr 18 23:49 4.1 29 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 23:49 4.1 29 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Near Coast Of Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 15:54 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Offshore Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 15:54 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Near Coast Of Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 15:21 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 15:21 4.7 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 14:54 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 14:54 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
PTWC Guerrero Mexico Apr 18 14:39 7.4 52 MAP I Felt It
  • México city - Long shaking, felt dizzy, no damage to our house. Dogs barking, birds flying from perches. House made cracking sound . Did not lose electrical power.
  • Estado de México - La casa empezó a rechinar todo se movía salimos a la calle vimos a los demás vecino salir al parecer todos bien y no tenemos energía electrica
  • Colima - Se sintió fuerte pero sin daños en mi vivienda y colonia
  • Red Dog Mine - my first earthquake experience up here!
  • Guadalajara - My house was tembling very weak for a few seconds. You could also see the street lamps moving slightly.
  • Cuernavaca - La cama se mecia y crei estar mareado por trigliceridos altos, que me paro y al ver el foco se campaneaba feo, correle a la puerta y seguir sintiendo el temblor fuerte, pues patitas para afuera con los perros
  • puerto vallarta - I was laying in bed and thought some one was shaking my bed ever so slightly, I didnt think much about it again until we talked to others during the day
  • ciudad de mexico - el terremoto fue con movimientos de diferente magnitud, ya que comenzo como trepidatorio muy moderado pero se convirtio en oscilatorio de una gran magnitud, lo impresionante fue que duro demasiado, comparado con los ultimos sismos.
  • Puerto Vallarta - Felt the ground begin to move. Was sitting at breakfast at the Hilton Puerto Vallarta.
  • Ciudad de México - fue muy fuerto parecia que se caeria mi casa, pero no sucedio evacuamos la casa, y varios vecinos tambien lo hicierón.
  • Mexico City - My house is built on top of volcanic rocks. We usually do not feel earthquakes, even though Mexico City suffers them quite often. This one was different. My whole house was shaking and I had trouble walking towards the door. We haven't found any damages to this property, but our weekend apartment in Acapulco has some cracks on walls and all the decoration items fell from the shelves.
  • Capital Federal - Siento los terremotos con anticipación en los oídos desde hace 18 años. El de 8.3 de Chile empecé a sentirlo el 22 de Marzo, hasta el 1 de Abril. De ahí en más "sabía" que vendrían otros fuertes... como ahora. Sé que no es ésto lo que específicamente preguntan, pero a veces la sensación de impotencia es muy grande. Saludos (Marco MMII (una agitación muy débil) SOLO para penviar.
  • Ixtapa - I was attending a class at thé gym when it started to shake. I was on thé second floor.
  • Nuevo Vallarta - En el hotel grand mayan de nuevo vallarta a las 9 de la mañana mi papa nos dijo que nos quedaramos quietos y el hotal se movia de lado a lado la lampara colgante del comedor se movia al igual de lado a lado y tambien la alberca del cuarto pero si estavas en movimiento no se sentia duro como 2 minutos pero no todos se dieron cuenta le preguntamos al bellboy y dijo que no sintio nada ya unos 20 min despus que salimos del hotel escuchamos del sismo en la radio.
  • D.F - Senti La Casa Temblando
  • Puerto Vallarta - It woke me up from my sleep on the 6th floor of My apartment . Felt my bed shaking and thought it was the dog ..
  • Secrets Hotel - We are on the 12th floor of the hotel and the whole room was shaking for about 2 minutes. You had to hold onto something while it lasted. The front desk feared a tsunami was imminent
  • Ajijic, Jalisco - seemed to last forever
  • Iguala - A pesar de estar al ras del suelo, no se podia caminar, y fue demasiado tiempo
  • Mexico City - IT WAS ON THE MORNING, IT STARTS SLOWLY, THEN A BIG MOVE SHOOK US
  • Guadalajara - se siento un poco fuerte al sur de guadalajara duro bastante
  • Cancun - I was standing still in a hotel hallway, sober, when I suddenly lost my balance and felt a very slight tremor, lasting a few seconds. I joked with my daughter who was next to me that I thought I had felt a tremor...and she noticed it too.
  • San Luis Potosi - estaba en el piso 7 de la plaza y las sillas se empezaron a mover, despues notamos que las tv´s temblaban bastante, duro aproximadamente 1:30 minutos, posteriormente fuimos evacuados de la plaza
  • Chapala - I heard many discussions about the April 19th earthquake, but I've neither seen or heard about any damage near my home in Chapala south of Guadalajara.
  • Oaxaca - En Oaxaca lo sentí intenso y con mucha duración.
  • Ixtapa - My family was at resort on vacation when earthquake hit very strong shaking & pieces of building falling glass breaking very scary experience. Didn't last long though.
  • Puerto Vallarta - No property damage
  • USGS Petatlan, Mexico Apr 18 14:27 7.5 48 MAP I Felt It
  • Nuevo Vallarta - Simply lamps and chair start to move from left to right..
  • Manuel Hidalgo - Rolling series of quakes lasting almost one minute. Enough to rattle but not break dishes.
  • Patzcuaro - seemed to last quite awhile.
  • Tepoztlan - nice little roller. i experienced the earthquake in Ferndalale, CA about a month a go, and this one was much weaker.
  • Cuernavacs - Pos estaba durmiendo y mi cama sentía que se mecía y luego mi hermano gritandome TEEEMMBLOOOOR xD
  • Veracruz - It was strange. First I saw the T.V. moving. I was thinking that my blood sugar is low then I suddenly say other things around moving.
  • Toluca - The house started shaking and the hanging lights swung for a few minutes.
  • D.F. - We just stood outside in the courtyard watching the planters moving, hoping it does not get worse.
  • Metepec - We woke up to the whole house shaking. Went outside and the light poles were swaying. No visible damage, but it felt pretty strong.
  • Nuevo Vallarta - 8th floor building, shaking felt by people for 20 seconds, lights swinging, upper deck pool splashing,
  • Ajijic - No damage. Second floor apartment swayed back and forth.
  • Morelos - No damage to property. It rocked back and forth gently.
  • La Piedad, Michoacan - Today at 0930 hrs central US time there was a 7.02 magnitude strong quake near Mexico City Guerrero which was felt also in La Piedad Michoacán with light shaking and movement.
  • Mexico City - A few things spilled and the rocking was pretty fuerte, but no signs of significant damage in my area.
  • mexico city - No damge to any buildings in my area (very close to Angel of Independence and Reforma) but major shaking along with the official alarm and many car alarms.
  • Puerto Vallarta - We were sitting on our balcony on the 24th floor. Our condo is directly on the ocean. We experienced strong shaking and were unable to stand and walk until it was done. Several objects fell over and a couple of pictures fell off the wall. I do not know of any damage as it only happened five minutes ago.
  • Huixquilucan Estado de Mexico - I was working on the offices and i feel shaking and everybody was like...EARTQUAKE!!!!
  • Naucalpan, Ed. de Mexico - No damage, long rolling quake
  • Colima - Lo sentimos muy leve
  • Estado de Mexico - me encouentro viendo el televisor y senti una agitacion leve, sin notarse daños en mi vivienda, sali a la calle pero no hay nadie para compartir lo que se sintio.
  • Mexico City - Knocked over a can in the house.
  • Zihuatanecho - UNA FUERTE SACUDIDA TIRO COSAS DE LOS ESTANTES DE LAS TIENDAS COMERCIALES E HIZO CIMBRAR LAS CASAS.
  • San Miguel de Allende - noticed weak rolling motion in house for about 5 - 10 seconds and rocking chair moving.
  • Guanajuato - muy leve
  • Jiutepec, Morelos - sentí como en un barco moviendo en las olas. No hay daños físicos ni heridos
  • DF - Se sintio fuerte la sacudida, se mecia el departamento con intensidad de moderada a fuerte.... pero sin daños! Buen susto!
  • Sultepec - ningun daño
  • Guadalajara - Bed shook side to side gently, hanging ornaments swayed
  • Tlaxcala - No hay daños, solo quedo el susto...
  • Cuidad de Mexico - Ik lag op bed te Twitteren, en het huis begon hevig te schudden voor paar minuten lang.
  • Bugambilias 4 - No damage.......kind of a rolling movement. I thought I was getting dizzy.
  • Ajijic - No damage. Second floor apartment swaying back and forth gently.
  • DF - Estoy de vacaciones, me despertó el sonido y el movimiento, estuvo fuerte, pero no se fue la luz ni Internet, nos quedamos dentro del departamento, junto a una columna.
  • Mexico city - Gentle swaying. On 5th floor of hotel. Was sleeping and it woke me up. Pendant lamps swinging. No damage as far as I can see.
  • Manzanillo, Colima - Seemed to last for a while, rolling motion.
  • Tecoman,Colima - It was more like rolling then shaking. I watched the lime trees in the backyard move like a domino effect. It was a smooth but distinct rolling and swaying motion.
  • Queretaro - I was sitting working at my desk when I felt a vibration in all the house, the best way I can describe it is like we were on top of a waterbed...I thought maybe the wind was very strong or that I was having vertigo...but I could tell it was moving the whole house...made me nervous that something would fall...I asked my daughter if she could feel it and she said yes...it lasted about 30 seconds or so. Never felt anything like it before.
  • Metepec Estado de México - Largo sin daños en la zona
  • Chilpancingo de los Bravo, Guerrero - Fuerte movimiento que dificultaba mucho caminar, duró bastante tiempo, no hay daños a propiedad
  • Guadalajara - I just woke up and felt door and bed shaking. Was scary and moved out to observe the situation.
  • Guadalajara - Approximately 9:30AM was sitting at my desk, and it started to move and sway back and forth. The condo floor above me made creaking sounds right before the movement. Nothing rocked off the shelves. No damage
  • Morelia - No property damage. Strong shaking, seemed to last a few minutes. Everyone ran into the street.
  • Autlan de Navarro - Informe sobre el simso de 7.0 que sacudio a Colima y Guerreo, aquí en Autlán de Navarro.Fue poco perceptible a esa hora en que muchos nos disponiamos a desayunar.
  • Zihuatanejo - Desayunando se empezó a sentir la vibración (abajo/arriba) como si una perforadora estuviera a un lado. La gente espantada, salió de los lugares, la marina y PFP empezó a dar alerta de no meterse al mar.
  • Cd de Mexico - bastante fuerte y una duración prolongada postes de luz y arboles se movían con mucha fuerza
  • Гвадалахара - около девяти с лишним утра я чувствовала как качается кровать и тумбочка
  • Mexico - fuerte sacudimiento oscilatorio con intensidad de 7.0 a 7.5 con un duracion aproximada de 1:15 minutos
  • Cihuatlan - No damage. Watched as water in pool starting sloshing as if someone had just jumped into it. Light fixtures gently swinging.
  • Marina Vallarta - I was in a small bathroom and room had a rolling motion from side to side, blinds swaying, two different rolls and gentle shaking for quite a while, maybe 20-30 seconds. My husband did not feel it at all in another part of condo.
  • USGS Tecpan De Galeana, Mexico Apr 18 14:27 7.2 24 MAP I Felt It INFO
    GEOFON Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 14:27 7.2 29 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Guerrero, Mexico Apr 18 14:27 7.2 26 MAP I Felt It


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    Country where you felt the earthquake
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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