Massive earthquake and tsunami at the Tarapaca coast, Northern Chile – The full story from the very beginning

Last update: April 22, 2014 at 2:56 pm by By

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With the great cooperation of Carlos Robles, listening to local radio and other local sources to inform you at best

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Update April 22 : Below a compilation of 11 minutes of YouTube videos as selected by Earthquake-report.com. They show the strong shaking, the tsunami alerts and damage.

Update April 4

- 1147 homes beyond repair
- an additional 8300 with other degrees of damage.
- likely repair bill will be under $100 million USD.
- A mall in Iqueque has had major damage with around 5 mill. USD damage.

Update April 4

DAMAGE, FATALITIES and INJURIES in CHILE

- Sadly enough a 7th victim has succumbed after the earthquake in Alto Hospicio (Iquique), also in this case an indirect fatality. A 6-day old baby died of hypothermia on Friday afternoon. She had been sleeping in a tent in the middle of street with her mother.
- Water service only works in 32% of Iquique.
- Sanitary alert will be declared in Tarapaca
- Damage assessment in AltoHospicio will last one week to be completed, preliminary reports said at least 2,500 homes are damaged.
- More than 400 people are in shelters in AltoHospicio.
- There were at least 200 people under medical care after the 7.6 earthquake (aftershock) in AltoHospicio
- The fire station in La Tirana was badly damaged as well as several homes.
- Unclear number of damaged houses left by the 8.2 quake collapsed during  the 7.6 aftershock in La Huara.
- In Colchame there were 9 homes with collapsed walls, also the Isluga and the Enquelga churches are about to collapse.
- The Zofri mall in Iquique was heavily damaged causing at least 5 million dollars in losses.
- In Cavancha the tsunami damaged fishing equipment causing great losses, luckily boats weren’t affected.
- Classes are still suspended in Tarapaca.

DAMAGE and INJURIES in nearby PERU

Indeci, the Civil Defense authority from the Peruvian government has reported yesterday that a total of 9 people have been injured. 2 houses had collapsed and 81 houses were damaged. The split-out data can be found in the graphic below.

Screen Shot 2014-04-04 at 15.09.16

Screen Shot 2014-04-04 at 15.08.42

This image from INDECI Peru shows the Shaking intensity from the mainshock.


Update 18:46 UTC : We concentrate of course on Chile but the image below shows that authorities in the Pacific do not take any chance and warn their population fir eventual strong waves or strong currents. Japan for example has Tsunami advisory in place for most of its eastern  coastal areas

Image courtesy and copyright JMA Japan

Image courtesy and copyright JMA Japan

Update 17:56 UTC : – Movistar (telecommunications company) gave free text messages to their clients !
- public telephone booths are free at the moment !
- rival telephone company (Claro) unblocked cellphones so they could text and call for free
- there is still a big problem with potable water in all the affected zones
- potable water will be distributed at some locations in Arica
- a lot of people do not like to go back to their houses as they fear structural damage from new very strong aftershocks. They are often found in their cars in safe higher locations and have decided to remain in local shelters.
- 131 of the 293 escaped prisoners have been recaptured or came back voluntarily
- 972,457 people evacuated after the earthquake (merely people living in coastal areas)

Update 17:21 UTC : Impressive security video of the shaking in a supermarket pharmacy in Iquique

Update 17:10 UTC : Our Carlos Robles checked the local reports and came up with the following :
- nearly 2000 houses were damaged during the quake in AltoHospicio
- we expect other damage reports from other locations to be published later today
-  only a couple of buildings were damaged because of the tsunami
- One hospital in Iquique was heavily damaged
- many boats were damaged to different extend in the ports by the Tsunami
- The following roads were damaged : TRuta 5, 11CH, A35, A315, A27, A31, A23, A345

Damage to boats in the port - image courtesy and copyright 24horas.cl - link below the picture

Damage to boats in the port – image courtesy and copyright 24horas.cl – link below the picture

Image courtesy and copyright 24horas.cl

Image courtesy and copyright 24horas.cl

Update 17:06 UTC : A video we found of this earthquake that shows very well the panic when such an earthquake strikes. Also it is dark as the power went down. People are shouting arrangements on what to do next. Can you imagine being yourself in such an earthquake? NO, well you should be prepared as many people are traveling to touristic destinations where such an earthquake can happen too.

Tsunami propagation (in this case more like strong currents propagation) after the M8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile
Look at the color instead of the ripples of the waves. Color explains the possible height of the waves

This massive earthquake occurred after numerous very strong earthquakes over the last couple of weeks. A M6.7 in the same area was the start of all these events and the precursor activity. -

CNN’s sensational title is “the topic” of yesterday’s earthquake
One of the hottest topics at the moment is the TITLE of a CNN article (based on a Caltech seismologist) : “Chile quake: This was big but a bigger one awaits, scientist says” and a little further in the article “But geologists say an even larger quake in the region is lurking.”  This means for many people that this will happen soon. A little further in the article it says that it can also happen tomorrow or in 50 years (but thats not the title of course). Lets make 150 to 200 years from it or 2 seconds. Just to tell you all that NOBODY KNOWS IT AND CANNOT PREDICT IT. The only thing we know is that the Nazca plate subducting the South-America plate is not gliding or creeping very well and that it locks here and there. The accumulated energy will release when its getting too big (thats the earthquake). Does it necessarily will be a M8.8 or M9. No, nobody knows at the present level of science.
But the subject is true for A LOT OF SUBDUCTION ZONES IN THE WORLD (the same goes also for parts of Russia, Japan, Indonesia, Central and North America, Islands in the Pacific, Alaska, etc). One thing is important BE PREPARED AT ALL TIMES!
Has CNN (or the Caltech seismologist) said something wrong : NO, but the emphasis is on the fact that the big one may arrive soon and may be a lot stronger. Massive subduction earthquakes are occurring since millions of years but when the next one will strike, nobody knows. We only know what happened in the recent history and thats not enough to predict a timing for the next one.
I am sure that the Caltech seismologist’s did not want to start up panic. This title is however being picked by many rewriters who are only focusing on the spectacular elements from the article. We think that CNN has to keep some constraint in what they are publishing so shortly after a massive earthquake. This is at least our opinion (mainly based on our experience with rumors elsewhere in the world)

Update 11:17 UTC : A new M5.5 aftershock struck the Tarapaca coast a few minutes ago – NO tsunami danger

Update 10:39 UTC : A 6th person has been killed by the earthquake, Minister of the Interior Rodrigo Peñalillo said to the press a shortwhile ago.

Update : The closest village to the epicenter was Pisagua (see the Tsunami waves graph below). The village is part of Huara who was also badly damaged by an earthquake in 2005. Huara has 2120 inhabitants. Pisagua only 280. As you can see on the pictures the coastline of Northern Chili is running up fast, so tsunami-wise spoken there is not a huge danger like it was before in Indonesia, Thailand etc.

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 11.16.31

Update : For those among you who can read Spanish, this document maybe interesting. It is an in-depth paper about the 1868 M8.8 earthquake in the same area, but it is NOT a seismology document!
Wikipedia info on that earthquake :
The 1868 Arica earthquake occurred on August 13, 1868, near Arica, then part of Peru, now part of Chile, at 21:30 UTC. It had an estimated magnitude between 8.5 and 9.0. A tsunami (or multiple tsunamis) in the Pacific Ocean was produced by the earthquake, which was recorded in Hawaii, Japan and New Zealand.
The earthquake caused the almost complete destruction of Arica, Tacna, Moquegua, Mollendo, Ilo, Iquique, Torata and Arequipa,giving rise to an estimated 25,000 casualties.
The tsunami drove three ships that had been anchored in the port nearly 800 m inland: the 1560-ton Peruvian corvette America, the U.S. gunboat Wateree and the U.S. store ship Fredonia, which was completely destroyed in the process. The English brig Chañarcillo and two Chilean schooners, Rosa Rivera and Regalon were also lost. The tsunami also caused the near complete destruction of the port city of Pisco.
The tsunami caused considerable damage in Hawaii, washing out a bridge along the Waiohi river. In New Zealand, substantial damage occurred on the Chatham Islands and the Banks peninsula with many houses washed away and boats damaged, but only one death was recorded.
Earthquake-report.com comment. 8.8 to 9 Magnitude means that that earthquake was many times stronger than today’s one. Additionally, the epicenter was almost below the shore and extremely close to Arica!. The same condition today and the death toll may have been risen far higher. Luckily for Chile, devastation would not be so big as houses are designed and build following strict earthquake resistance codes. Chile is simply one of the best protected countries in the WHOLE WORLD!

Click on the picture to be linked to the document

Click on the picture to be linked to the document

Update :
-The death toll from this earthquake still remains at 5 – with them all being indirect.
- Aria and Parinacota regions have cancelled classes today.
- There has been slight damage to buildings, and the power network along the coast.
- Checks are being done as to the structural safety of these buildings before people go back in.
- A number of people have been injured (at least 13 across the region).
- The tsunami warning has officially been cancelled.
- Many of those evacuated due to the tsunami have returned home.

Update : From the Peruvian Emergency services : 9 people were slightly injured, 7 households have been affected, 1 temple has collapsed and electricity outages in the affected regions of Tacna, Moquegua and Arequipa occurred, which have been restored in the last hours.

Update 06:10 UTC : The Tsunami warnings have now also been canceled from Antofagasta until Valparaiso. Some other areas are still under alert and people have to remain in the evacuation locations until further instructions are given. Gradually all the country gets cleared, but a few areas are sill under alert.

Update : The aftershocks are continuing the shake the coastal area. This will probably go on for many days and some very strong to even massive aftershocks can be expected.

Update : The power companies are trying to restore power as fast as possible in Arica and Iquique (some city areas have power again but the majority still has still problems)

Update : President Bachelet from Chile addresses the audience in a TV broadcast. She declares the state of emergency in the northern provinces. Nothing we haven’t said before but we want to give you the speech anyway.

Update : THE TSUNAMI WARNING AND/OR WATCH ISSUED BY THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER IS NOW CANCELLED FOR
CHILE / PERU / ECUADOR / COLOMBIA / PANAMA / COSTA RICA /  NICARAGUA / EL SALVADOR / GUATEMALA / MEXICO / HONDURAS /  ANTARCTICA / PITCAIRN / FRENCH POLYNESIA. This is only for the Pacific! Chile and Peru authorities may have still their own warnings and watches in place

Update : Tsunami buoy graph at Pisague, Northern Chile. The sea has not yet completely calmed down.

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 07.04.24

Update 05:06 UTC : 18 shelters are now open in the region of Arica and Parinacota

Update : a new M6.0 earthquake has just happened. An MMI V (moderate shaking) was experienced in Iquique. Based on the aftershock pattern after the M6.7 earthquake, we think that even M7+ aftershocks are still possible the next few hours and days.

Update : The state of emergency (calamity) has been called in the provinces of Arica, Parinacota and  Tarapaca

Update : A lot of fires due to this quake. at least 3 floors are on fire in the Miramar building in Iquique

Update : Below the shaking intensities as reported by ONEMI Chile shortly after the earthquake struck :
VIII is SEVERE shaking, VII very strong shaking, VI strong shaking and V moderate shaking
Región: Arica y Parinacota
Arica : VIII, Codpa: VIII and Cuya: VIII
Región: Tarapaca
Alto Hospicio : VII and Iquique: VII
Región: Antofagasta
Antofagasta: III, Calama: VI, María Elena: V, Mejillones: V, Ollagüe: V, Quillagua: VI, San Pedro de Atacama: VI, Sierra Gorda: IV and Tocopilla: VI

Update : More police and special forces are on their way by plane to the northern Chile to assist the local police in preventing further looting. Shortly after the earthquake looting started in a few cities.

Update : Tsunami agitated currents will arrive at many Pacific coasts the following hours. Luckily inmost of these locations it is night now and people will not be on the beaches. No real tsunami waves are expected but strong currents are certainly a posiibility

Update : Landslides have killed another 3 people (1 woman and 2 men)

Update 04:09 UTC : The Ministry of the Interior in Chile cancels all Tsunami warning from Puerto Chacabuco (southern part of the country) until Antarctica

Update : Power has now been restored in some sectors of Arica

Update : This earthquake is another “lucky escape”. 30 km more to the coast and the damage would have been huge + the tsunamis superfast and probably deadly. A BIG BRAVO for the Chile government who is by means of ONEMI CHILE one of the best institutions in the world to prepare people for earthquakes and tsunamis. Also today ONEMI should receive an OSCAR AWARD for their work.

Update : a Tsunami advisory is now in effect in Hawaii.The official warning report from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center :

BASED ON ALL AVAILABLE DATA A MAJOR TSUNAMI IS NOT EXPECTED TO  STRIKE THE STATE OF HAWAII. HOWEVER…SEA LEVEL CHANGES AND  STRONG CURRENTS MAY OCCUR ALONG ALL COASTS THAT COULD BE A HAZARD  TO SWIMMERS AND BOATERS AS WELL AS TO PERSONS NEAR THE SHORE AT  BEACHES AND IN HARBORS AND MARINAS.  THE THREAT MAY CONTINUE FOR
SEVERAL HOURS AFTER THE INITIAL WAVE ARRIVAL.
THE ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL OF THE INITIAL WAVE IS 0324 AM HST WED 02 APR 2014

Update : below the Geofon seismograph located at Limon Verde in the Atacama desert in Chile – No comment!

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 05.53.56

Update : 80% of the fishing fleet in La Caleta is damaged!

Update : very bad news for some parents is that at least 10 to 15 children are reported as MISSING – Let’s hope they fled in panic and will return soon to their parents

Update :  A couple of buildings have been flooded because of the tsunami in Iquique
The mayor of Iquique said the water entered  3 blocks inland or at least 100 meter! (based on our experience thats a big distance!)

Update : 2 of 3 fires are now controlled, so we can conclude that the worst experience is over, but as the power is out in 95% of Iquique, it will be anxiously waiting for power to be restored + for daylight to assess all damage.

Update : Aftershocks are continuously battering the coast of Northern Chile – A lot of them +M5 or at normal times already serious earthquakes.

Update : 2 children have been reported as missing.
School classes have been suspended at all levels in Northern Chile
Below the GDACS animated tsunami map

outres1

Update : the governor also said that there are reports of several fires, one of them is very big
Tsunami waves reported by SHOA: Arica (2,17 meters), Pisagua (2,26 meters) e Iquique (2,55 meters)
95% of Iquique is currently without power
Both of the deaths were due to heart attacks

Update : Damaged boats in Iquique due to tsunami. The governor of Iquique has just confirmed a second fatality. He also told that 3 people have been seriously injured.

Update : 1 person has been killed by a heart attack in AltoHospicio – no direct earthquake fatalities so far
- Tsunami warnings still in effect for Chile, Peru; all other warnings and watches canceled (this means that the map below in not correct anymore – the orange has gonbe and the red only in Chile and Peru

Update tsunamis : Tsunami watch means : a tsunami is unlikely but a lot of prudence has to be taken into a account. Tsunami ALERT : a tsunami is likely. In all cases people have to stay away from beaches!
It seems like like the tsunami entered 200m into the region of Arica (report from the Red de Emergencia and normally a trusted agency)

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.39.58

Update : 100 special armed forces were deployed

Update : ONLY Minor injuries so far, but we heard that a big TV fell on a little kid causing him serious injuries
- People will stay on the evacuation centers for at least 6 hours

Tectonic Summory of this earthquake
The April 1, 2014 M8.2 earthquake in northern Chile occurred as the result of thrust faulting at shallow depths near the Chilean coast. The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with slip on the primary plate boundary interface, or megathrust, between the Nazca and South America plates. At the latitude of the earthquake, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South America plate at a rate of 65 mm/yr. Subduction along the Peru-Chile Trench to the west of Chile has led to uplift of the Andes mountain range and has produced some of the largest earthquakes in the world, including the 2010 M 8.8 Maule earthquake in central Chile, and the largest earthquake on record, the 1960 M 9.5 earthquake in southern Chile.

Focal mechanism of this earthquake explains also the Tsunami

Focal mechanism of this earthquake explains also the Tsunami

The April 1 earthquake occurred in a region of historic seismic quiescence – termed the northern Chile or Iquique seismic gap.  Geodetic modeling indicates that the subducting and overriding plates are partially to fully-locked, implying that large earthquake are possible along the plate boundary megathrust. Historical records indicate a M 8.8 earthquake occurred within the Iquique gap in 1877, which was preceded immediately to the north by an M 8.8 earthquake in 1868.

A recent increase in seismicity rates has occurred in the vicinity of the April 1 earthquake. An M6.7 earthquake with similar faulting mechanism occurred on March 16, 2014 and was followed by 60+ earthquake of M4+, and 26 earthquakes of M5+. The March 16 earthquake was also followed by three M6.2 events on March 17, March 22, and March 23. The spatial distribution of seismicity following the March 16 event migrated spatially to the north through time, starting near 20oS and moving to ~19.5oS. The initial location of the April 1 earthquake places the event near the northern end of this seismic sequence. Other recent large plate boundary ruptures bound the possible rupture area of the April 1 event, including the 2001 M 8.4 Peru earthquake adjacent to the south coast of Peru to the north, and the 2007 M 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile and 1995 M 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile earthquakes to the south. Other nearby events along the plate boundary interface include an M 7.4 in 1967 as well as an M 7.7 in 2005 in the deeper portion of the subduction zone beneath onland Chile.

Update : Looting has now been confirmed by news media in North Chile

Update : Tsunami theoretical values following GDACS

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.37.21 Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.37.35

At least 4 vehicles are trapped because of a landslide
03:51 Reports of collapsed houses in Arica
03:52 -Control tower of airport in Iquique is damaged
03:52 -Reports of looting
03:53 -Minor injuries and one seriously injured (a big TV felled on a kid)
03:53 No power in ALL Iquique
03:56 -Pichilemu has 85% of it’s people evacuated, Bucalemu y Paredones 100% of them and Navidad 75%
03:56 -Collapsed houses in Huara
03:56 -Damaged houses in Moquegua, Peru
03:58 -Juan Fernandez island is completely evacuated

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.13.50

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.22.12

Screen Shot 2014-04-02 at 04.26.33

95km (59mi) NW of Iquique, Chile
139km (86mi) SSW of Arica, Chile
190km (118mi) SSW of Tacna, Peru
228km (142mi) SSE of Ilo, Peru
447km (278mi) SW of La Paz, Bolivia

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 8

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2014-04-01 20:46:49

GMT/UTC Time : 2014-04-01 23:46:49

Depth (Hypocenter) : 33 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the “I Felt It” button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
USGS Iquique, Chile Apr 01 23:58 6.2 18 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:57 5.9 30 MAP I Felt It INFO
EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 23:57 6.2 33 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Iquique, Chile Apr 01 23:56 5.7 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 23:56 5.7 10 MAP I Felt It
PTWC Near The Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:55 8.0 10 MAP I Felt It
WCATWC Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:47 8.2 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
WCATWC Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:47 8.2 9 MAP I Felt It
WCATWC Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:47 8.2 9 MAP I Felt It INFO
WCATWC Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:47 8.0 9 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 23:46 8.0 33 MAP I Felt It INFO
USGS Iquique, Chile Apr 01 23:46 8.0 10 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Near Coast Of Northern Chile Apr 01 23:46 8.1 34 MAP I Felt It
USGS Iquique, Chile Apr 01 23:46 8.2 20 MAP I Felt It
  • Escondida - very long quake
  • São Paulo - Sentimos como se estivessemos num barco no mar, com uma onda passando.
  • arequipa - We had to run outside the house, because the earthquake was very stronk. everything shakes for a short time. everyone was a little bit confused...
  • Cordoba - Se sacudio fuertemente la cama. Lo extraño es que nadie mas lo sintio. Hay posibilidades que habiendo tantos km de distancia lo haya sentido?
  • Arequipa - We felt light shaking for several minutes. No damage and we weren't scared but it lasted a while and was very noticeable this far away.
  • Paracas - Had arrived from the US via a red-eye flight so everyone was very tired. All of us were awakened by the earthquake but we were all so tired that we all went right back to sleep. No visible damage.
  • Antofagasta, Edificio ParqueMar - Ningún daño físico solo agregar que nos movíamos y en ocasiones era como que íbamos a caer, como que costaba estar de pie ya que no nos podíamos apoyar de las paredes - Gracias!
  • Calama - Soy española, y no estoy acostumbrada a los sismos, pero desde que estoy acá, es el más fuerte que he vivido.
  • iquique - Fue una experiencia terrible, el ruido ensordecedor, todo cayendo al suelo la casa de 2 pisos se movia para todos lados y no nos podíamos sostener en pie, fue muy largo, al final salimos evacuando a zonas mas altas a juntarnos con mis hijas y sus familias. mi casa tiene pequeñas grietas en paredes divisorias pero ningún daño estructural por vivir en zona firme centro de la ciudad. perder el miedo durara mucho tiempo experiencia muy fuerte.
  • EMSC Off Coast Of Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 19:55 2.8 39 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 18:57 3.6 44 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Off Coast Of Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 14:41 3.7 41 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 12:40 2.5 31 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 10:51 3.0 41 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 10:16 3.4 35 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 09:09 3.3 19 MAP I Felt It INFO
    EMSC Offshore Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 02:20 2.7 42 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Off Coast Of Tarapaca, Chile Apr 01 01:06 2.9 39 MAP I Felt It


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    Country where you felt the earthquake
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    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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