Wordwide volcano activity – Archive June 24 until July 7, 2013

Last update: July 9, 2013 at 4:36 pm by By

This is an archived part of our Daily Volcano Activity report.
Click here to read the latest part of our report


This report was compiled out of many information sources by Armand Vervaeck, Jens Skapski, Georges Vitton and Rodger Wilson
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Sheveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia – (Georges Vitton – July 7)
KVERT reports : Explosive-extrusive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 23,800 ft (10 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.
Eruption of the volcano continues. According to visual and satellite data, a viscous lava flow continues to effuse on the northern flank of the lava dome, strong and moderate fumarolic activity and incandescence of the dome summit and hot avalanches accompanies this process. Ash plumes up to 19,700 ft (6 km) were observed on June 27-28 and July 3. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome all week, ash plume extended up to 22 mi (35 km) to the south-east from the volcano on July 3.

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Image courtesy and copyright KVERT, Russia

Plosky Tolbachik, Kamchatka, Russia – (Georges Vitton – July 7)
KVERT reports : Explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 19,700 ft (6 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Activity of the volcano could affect low-flying aircraft.
Effusion of lava flows continues from the Southern fissure at Tolbachinsky Dol. Very fluid lava is moving to the southern, eastern and western slopes of Tolbachinsky Dol. Cinder cones continue to grow on the Southern fissure, a weak gas-steam plumes were observing last week. A thermal anomaly was noting on satellite images at the northern area of Tolbachinsky Dol all week.

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Archive photo – courtesy and copyright Lusika33

Copahue volcano, Chile – alert level decreased but degassing still going on – (Georges Vitton – July 7 – 10:12 UTC)
SERNAGEOMIN decreased the alert level of Copahue to yellow, indicating that the overall activity remained low since the date of their last report on June 13. Since then, however, abundant degassing continued. The degassing is clearly visible on the webcams that monitor the ski areas at the Argentine side of the border.
Judging by the satellite measurements made ​​yesterday by the AIRS instrument on board the Aqua satellite from NASA, the plume contains significant amounts of SO2.
Translated from the original French article at CultureVolcan earlier today (http://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/)

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SO2 detection by the AIRS instrument on board of the Aqua Nasa satellite

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White, mainly steam degassing cloud at Copahue vlcano

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The same webcam image a little later with a degassing cloud clearly containing ash


 

Popocatepetl Overflight video – (Georges Vitton – July 6)
CENAPRED was able to fly over the volcano yesterday noon and could directly observe the activity inside the crater. They noticed a still ongoing activity, marked by the continuous projection of lava bombs. The report prepared by the CENAPRED indicates that some of them reached a height of 1000 m before falling heavily on the upper slopes of the volcano, sometimes more than 1500 m away from the crater.
Translated from the original French article at CultureVolcan earlier today (http://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/)

- Below 2 images courtesy and copyright of Emilio Fernandez showing the ash-fall in the communities at the base of the volcano

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Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador and Chile volcano updates – (Rodger Wilson – July 6 – 17:01 UTC)
The Popocatepetl (Mexico) seismogram shows “loud” bursts of volcanic tremor though inclement weather viewing of any surface activity at the volcano today. OMI satellite images show the volcano pumping-out a prodigious amount of SO2 during the current eruptive period.

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Low level seismicity continues at Momotombo volcano (Nicaragua) (station MOMN) after stronger bursts of earthquakes struck the volcano late last week and again early this week. Volcanic tremor continues at nearby volcanoes Telica (station TELN) and Concepcion (station CONN).

Seismograms from Fuego volcano (Guatemala) (station FG3) and Arenal volcano (Costa Rica) (station VACR) show stronger-than-normal explosive activity during the past 24 hours. OMI satellite data may have “captured” an SO2-enriched eruptive plume drifting from Arenal.

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Volcanic seismicity (note the very low-frequency earthquakes at the top of the 06 July record) has increased since late yesterday at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano (Colombia) (station OLLZ). An earthquake swarm appears underway at Cumbal volcano (station MEVZ) as well.

EPN personnel have “fixed” the battery/solar panel problem at Reventador (Ecuador) (station RETU) just in time to capture strong, apparently internal (judging from the current volcanocam photo) activity at the volcano.

Current volcanocam views of Copahue volcano (Chile) show the volcano quietly steaming.

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OMI satellite images show SO2 plumes wafting from Dukono volcano (Sangihe arc) and both Rabaul and Bagana volcanoes in New Guinea.

10 hours TimeLapse of Lokon Empung activity, Sulawesi – (AV – July 6 – 08:24 UTC)
The movie was made as a time lapse of 10 hours of webcam images with 1 minute interval. Nothing spectacular, but the video shows the strong activity of the Tompaluan active crater.
Special thanks for Badan Geologi, Indonesia for showing the activity on the internet. Webcam here


 

Popocateptl volcano, Mexico – Ongoing ash eruption – (Rodger Wilson – July 5 – 13:01 UTC)
A quick note to inform ER readers that Popocatepetl volcano is in eruption at this time. A large ash cloud hovers over the mountain and volcanic tremor is strong (as it has been the past 48 hours).

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The incandescent activity on July 4

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Lokon Empung volcano eruption, earlier today, Sulawesi, Indonesia – (CultureVolcan – July 5 – 13:00 UTC)

After several months of relative quiet (previous explosion in April) the Tompaluan (name of the active crater of Lokon-Empung), was at 06:43 again the place of explosive activity this morning.
A heavily loaded ash plume rose to about 700 m in height according to witnesses. The webcam images based on the heights of Tomohon rather suggest that the ash cloud exceeded 1000 m in height (see below).

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The ash plume from Lokon-Empung this morning. Image: VSI.

The alert level of Lokon-Empung is kept at orange (alert level 3/4 to the Indonesian volcanic alert level since July 2011. Explosions occur at irregular times since alert level 3 was called).

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The NASA Modis AQUA satellite happened to fly over the volcano at about the time of the explosion (at 4:50 GMT) and spotted a thermal anomaly associated with the current activity building.

Translated from the original French article at CultureVolcan earlier today (http://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/)

Nicaragua, Colombia, Guatemala and Ecuador volcanoes update - (Rodger Wilson – July 5 – 15:00)
Nicaragua appears to be the current volcano lover’s paradise as unusual seismicity currently affects four volcanoes there. Bursts of felt seismicity occurred at Cerro Negro (maximum magnitude M3.1) (station CNGN) and then at Momotombo (maximum magnitude M3.2) (station MOMN) yesterday. Earthquakes occurred at Momotombo first, and then later at Cerro Negro volcano. Seismicity at Cerro Negro has since quieted, but small events continue at Momotombo volcano. Momotombo has experienced a higher level of seismicity for approximately the past two weeks. Volcanic seismicity at Telica volcano (station TELN) has decreased in magnitude but has merged into nearly continuous tremor. Bursts of strong harmonic tremor have occurred at Concepcion volcano (station CONN) since last week and today a magnitude M1.8 volcanic earthquake occurred at the volcano.

Elsewhere, another gas and ash emission occurred at Galeras volcano (Colombia) (station CUVZ), and stronger eruptions have punctuated generally low level eruptive activity at Fuego (twice!) (station FG3) and Santa Maria (station STG3) volcanoes (Guatemala) during the past 24 hours. A cool, moist airmass surrounding Santiaguito today accents condensation over the active vent and new lava flows in today’s volcanocam photo taken there.

Galeras volcano, Colombia

Galeras volcano, Colombia

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Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala

OMI satellite data show possible enhanced SO2 emission occurring at either/both (?) Cerro Negro and Momotombo volcanoes, a very strong SO2 signature from currently erupting Popocatepetl volcano and lesser plume emanating from Nevado Del Ruiz (Colombia), Ambrym (Vanuatu) and Nyiragongo (DRC) volcanoes.
The brief period of seismic unrest at Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) ended last week without incident.

We have added a webcam to our volcano list : Indonesia : Sulawesi : LOKON EMPUNGBaden Geologi


Ongoing strong eruption of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico - (AV – July 4 – 22:32 UTC)
In the last 24 hours the POpocatepetl monitoring system registered 99 exhalations. 12 hours of high and medium frequency tremor and incandescence was observed during the night. The explosions contain ash, steam and gas. Additionally 6 volcano-tectonic 6 events were recorded.
Use one of these webcams to follow the eruption live. The weather is far from perfect but you might see some strong explosions if you watch for some time. AltzomoniTianguismanalcoTlamacasTochimilco
The best webcam at this moment is Tlamacas

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Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador – (Georges Vitton – July 3)
The seismic monitoring network installed in the Tungurahua volcano has seen an increase in the number of earthquakes, with an average of 29 earthquakes in the last five days. Earthquakes are LP type, which are generated by the vibration of fluids inside cracks and volcanic pipes, the same which is caused by an increase in pressure inside the volcano. These earthquakes are small in size so that they are not felt by the population.
Yesterday evening there was a slight fumarolic activity in the crater area. Gas sensors installed around the volcano show no increase in the concentration of SO2. This would favor a concentration of pressure inside the volcano.
In these circumstances it is possible that the pressures are building up and can cause explosions that destroy the crater plug, as has happened on other occasions, such as the December 16, 2012, resulting in a new episode of activity, possibly similar to the that occurred in the months of May and March of this year.

Momotombo and Telica volcanoes, Nicaragua and Santiaguito, Guatemala - (Rodger Wilson – July 3 – 17:00 UTC)
Small earthquakes continue at Momotombo (station MOMN) and Telica volcano (station TELN) today (Nicaragua). Note how earthquake magnitudes have declined at Telica but the rate of event occurrence has increased. This can been best viewed on the Telica spectrogram. We observed similar behavior at Telica this past spring.
Also a photo and seismogram which recorded an explosion at Santiaguito Lava Dome Complex (Guatemala) (station STG3) today.
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Pavlov volcano, Alaska video - (Georges Vitton – July 2 – 22:56 UTC)

Momotombo and Telica volcanoes, Nicaragua - (Rodger Wilson – July 2 – 15:11 UTC)
Momotombo volcano (Nicaragua) (station MOMN) somehow “fell-off” my scan list since last week and,…as usual, I missed the start-up of unrest at the volcano which began late last week! Anyhow, seismicity at the volcano has become quite strong (maximum magnitude M3.4,…a magnitude M3.2 event occurred there early this morning!) and more persistent (a hallmark of possible pre-eruptive seismicity). Some of the earthquakes look like low-frequency (volcanic) events, especially recent ones! This bears watching along with the ongoing strong swarm (maximum magnitudes M2.0 or less) at nearby Telica volcano (station TELN).


 

Nicaragua, Mexico, Colombia and Oregon volcanoes – (Rodger Wilson – July 1 – 15:11 UTC)
A volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm also continues at Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico).

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Gas and ash emissions remain frequent at Galeras volcano (Colombia) (station CUVZ).

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Seismicity at Telica volcano (Nicaragua) (station TELN) continues at a high rate, similar to what occurred at the volcano this past Spring and which did not result in eruptive activity (…but must still must be watched closely!).

Scientifically interesting seismicity continues along the Brothers Fault Zone which stretches across southeastern Oregon state (USA) to the Three Sisters volcanic center in the Oregon Cascades. Two earthquakes occurred yesterday (maximum magnitude M1.0) at the Sisters volcanoes which have been actively inflating since 1997. A more interesting cluster of earthquakes has been ongoing since June southeast of Newberry volcano. I speculate these events may mark the current location of an eastward propagating “strain front”. The “front” was initiated by a slow-slip event along the Oregon section of the Cascadia subduction zone earlier this year and may have triggered earlier seismicity at Newberry Caldera in April.

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Pacaya volcano, Guatemala – (Georges Vitton – June 30 – 10:04 UTC)
insivumeh reports : Low to moderate explosions, which are the cause of falling volcanic rocks on the west side. The explosions generate a roaring sound. Because of explosions at the bottom of the crater material was deposited in the Mackenney Crater. During recent inspection a cone 15 meters high was noticed inside the crater. This is the normal strombolian activity from Pacaya volcano.

Image courtesy globetrottergirls.com

Image courtesy globetrottergirls.com

Fuego volcano, Guatemala – (Georges Vitton – June 30 – 10:04 UTC)
insivumeh reports : Low to moderate explosions and ejection of a column of heavy ash reaching 450-500 m., moving to the west and southwest. These explosions produce moderate ash fall and are accompanied by shock waves that shake the roofs and windows of the houses in villages like Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché, Morelia.

Cleveland volcano, Alaska – (AV – June 30 – 13:26 UTC)
Composite image of Cleveland Volcano from the Landsat-8 satellite on June 8, 2013. Thermal infrared data are overlain onto a visible wavelength image, and show the extent of the lava flow from eruptive activity in early May, 2013. Temperature values are given in degrees Kelvin, and range from 303-312 K (86-102 F), and the flow extends for about 715 m downhill (2350 ft). The summit of Cleveland is covered by dark ash deposits, and is surrounded by a low cloud deck.

Image courtesy Schneider, Dave

Image courtesy Schneider, Dave


 

Nicaragua, Guatemala, Colombia, Costa Rica and Ecuador volcanoes – (Rodger Wilson – June 29 – 22:39 UTC)
Volcano-seismicity increases (simultaneous input of hot fluids?…tectonic activity?) at Cerro Negro (volcanic swarm seismicity) (station CNGN), Telica (increasing numbers and magnitudes) (station TELN), and San Cristobal (appearance of periods of volcanic tremor) (station CRIN).

Seismicity has also increased today at Arenal volcano (Costa Rica) (station VACR) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) (station RETU).

A larger-than_normal explosion occurred yesterday at Fuego volcano (Guatemala) (station FG3) and ash emissions occurred at Galeras volcano (Colombia) (station CUVZ) during the same period.

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Galeras volcano

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Fuego volcano explosion


 

Telica volcano, Nicaragua - (Rodger Wilson – June 28 – 13:34 UTC)
As San Cristobal volcano (Nicaragua) simmers (deflates?), next door volcano Telica (station TELN) invigorates (inflates?).

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Reventador volcano, Ecuador and White Island, New Zealand - (Rodger Wilson – June 28 – 13:34 UTC)
I also included another clear view of activity at Reventador volcano (Ecuador) (station CONE) and a current seismogram. I guess we’d better post them while the weather is cooperating!
Seismicity is also simmering at White Island volcano (New Zeland) today.

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Reventador volcano, Ecuador

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Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico – (Armand Vervaeck – June 28 – 13:34 UTC)
We have been time-lapsing the Popocatepetl volcano for about 14 hours. Only the nightly part was usable as the other parts had or no action at all or a too thick cloud-deck. The result is nothing spectacular but at least you can see the spotlight activity coming from the crater. If you look carefully at the last part of the video, you will see a satellite crossing over.

Something else : Cooking on Azores volcanic steam – (Armand Vervaeck – June 28)
Ming Tsai is the host and executive producer of the public television series Simply Ming. In each episode meet chefs from around the globe who cook with Ming in his Boston-area studio.
This year, the crew from Simply Ming has been on the road, and cooking on the fly, with a special trip to the Azores, a Portuguese island chain in the North Atlantic. Here’s a preview:

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Due to a too long article, we had to cut off the June 8 until June 23 part. The link can be found at the bottom of this page.

Sheveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia – (AV & CultureVolcan – June 27 – 15:37 UTC)
KVERT report of June 26 : According to seismic data, strong ash explosions began from 19:10 UTC on June 26, and continued about 40 min. Probably ash plumes rose up to 33,000-39,400 (10-12 km) a.s.l. Ash plumes are extending to the SOUTH-WEST of the volcano. Ashfalls was in Klyuchi Village – about 02 mm red ash. Density clouds obscure the volcano at now.
Explosive-extrusive-effusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 23,800 ft (10 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.

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Ash falls at Klyuchi Village on June 26, 21:00-23:00 UTC – Courtesy and copyright – Yu. Demyanchuk – Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT

Ashfall in Lazo village - image courtesy and copyright vmdaily.ru - also thanks to http://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/ for pointing us

Ashfall in Lazo village – image courtesy and copyright vmdaily.ru – also thanks to http://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/ for pointing us

Colombia volcanoes – (Rodger Wilson – June 27 – 15:16 UTC)
Another pulse of earthquake activity struck Machin volcano (Colombia) (station CIMA) late yesterday. All the events (again over 100 total) were below the perceptible level for humans. What appear to be volcanic (low-frequency) earthquakes affect the volcano at this time (Since I’m not there, I can’t be sure. The events could also be some sort of cultural “man-caused” noise.). At nearby Galeras volcano (station CUVZ), bursts of gas and ash occurred late yesterday as well.

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San Cristobal volcano, Nicaragua – (Rodger Wilson – June 27 – 15:16 UTC)
Volcano seismicity appears to be declining at San Cristobal volcano (Nicaragua) (station CRIN).

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Mount Hood, Oregon, USA – (Rodger Wilson – June 27 – 15:16 UTC)
A burst of earthquakes also occurred at Mount Hood (Oregon) (station TDH) yesterday afternoon (Local time of course!).

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White Island, New Zealand – (Rodger Wilson – June 27 – 15:16 UTC)
Numerous, small volcano-tectonic earthquakes continue to rattle White Island volcano (New Zealand) as well.

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Pavlov volcano update, Alaska – (Georges Vitton – June 27 – 10:00 UTC)
AVO Alaska reports at noon local time yesterday : Eruptive activity at Pavlof Volcano is continuing, but has declined since yesterday. The level of seismicity over the past 24 hours has gradually declined and now consists of intermittent bursts of tremor and occasional small explosions. Periods of continuous tremor and intermittent small explosions are likely associated with lava fountaining and minor ash production.
Satellite data over the past 24 hours has shown a plume extending to the northwest from the volcano containing a small amount of ash. Strong thermal signals at the summit also have been evident in satellite imagery. Pilot reports this morning have indicated that plumes are rising to lower levels than yesterday and are generally in the range of 20,000 to 25,000 feet above sea level. AVO has received no reports of ash fall on nearby communities today.
At the current level of unrest, some lava fountaining and ash emission are likely occurring. Lava fountaining is likely producing spatter-fed lava flows that are descending the flanks of the volcano and will occasionally interact with snow and ice to produce volcanic mudflows and intermittent steam plumes. It is possible for the character of the eruption to change at any time and more vigorous seismicity and ash emissions may result. AVO is monitoring the eruption closely and will issue further information if or when conditions change.

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Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala – (Georges Vitton – June 27 – 09:47 UTC)
The avalanche that formed on the southern slope of the volcano is being fed by a lava flow. Volcanologists believe that such events can generate pyroclastic flows. INSIVUMEH also indicates that the number of explosions is limited byt these explosions are fairly strong.
The white plumes at right of the picture are fumeroles.

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Reventador volcano, Ecuador - (Rodger Wilson – June 26 – 15:17 UTC)
Below one of the rare images with a eruption cloud at the Reventador volcano. Below the image the seismogram of Reventador showing the tremor of the activity.

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San Cristobal volcano, Nicaragua – (Rodger Wilson – June 26 – 15:17 UTC)
Seismicity at San Cristobal volcano (Nicaragua) has been increasing for the past two weeks. Low level eruptive activity (consisting of ash emissions) began at the volcano last week.


India studying (hoax ?) undersea volcano in the Madras Atomic Power plant region – (JS – June 25 – 12:30 UTC)
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has begun a detailed study to analyze the possible threats of an underwater volcano near the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) in Kalpakkam, about 70km south of Chennai.
Confirming the presence of an underwater volcano five weeks ago, an AERB reply to an RTI query said the Geological Survey of India (GSI) has also recommended an advanced study to figure out the status of the volcano, though initial investigations did not detect any significant geological signs.
AERB said the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and GSI have recommended further analysis in view of an “inferred high density material intrusion of remnant magnetization based on magnetic and gravity anomalies” around the location of the volcano.
Read the full article here
ER : what an incredible story or just a way to spend a lot of money.

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Veniaminof volcano update, Alaska - (GV – June 25 – 10:43 UTC)
AVO June 24 (local time) reporting : Volcanic tremor continues to be detected in seismic data indicating that the eruption of Veniaminof Volcano continues. Satellite images obtained over the past 24 hours show elevated surface temperatures at the intracaldera cone and earlier today a plume was observed extending to the southwest from the cone. The plume was probably generated by the interaction of lava with snow and ice and probably consisted mostly of water vapor and possibly small amounts of ash. Views of the volcano from the web camera in Perryville did not show any obvious ash clouds, although images obtained just before sunrise showed a small area of incandescence on the intracaldera cone consistent with the production of small amounts of lava and or spatter.
It is possible for activity at Veniaminof Volcano to increase above its current level at any time and more vigorous ash emissions may result. Sustained periods of volcanic tremor may correspond with continuous ash emission which may not be detected in satellite data, especially if ash plumes remain below 15,000 to 20,000 feet above sea level. Brief bursts of ash emission and small explosions with ash fall limited to areas on the flanks of the volcano are likely to occur while the volcano is at its current level of unrest. A larger explosive episode and associated ash emission is not expected at the current level of unrest; however, this remains possible and would be evident in seismic data.

The (distant) volcano at the time of writing this update

The (distant) volcano at the time of writing this update

Popocatepetl volcano update, Mexico – (GV – June 25 – 10:53 UTC)
During the last 24 hours, the monitoring system of Popocatepetl recorded 64 low intensity exhalations. Due to weather conditions in the region, it was not possible to see if emissions were accompanied by ash, steam and gas. Around 1900 (7 PM) pm the day yesterday, there was an issue of constant steam, gas and ash to the north-west at a height of about 800 m above the crater, the issue was observed continuously until the early hours of today. At the time of this report, heavy cloud cover in the region can not afford to continuously observe the volcano.
The Civil Protection in Mexico state (DGPCEM) reported falling ash in Amecameca, Tlalmanalco, Temamatla, Cocotitlan, Ozumba, Atlautla, Ecatzingo and Chalco. Civil Protection State and municipalities visited the closest Popocatepetl volcano areas to ensure that no risk exists close to the volcano.

 


 

Ambrym, Vanuatu : letter from a friend - (Georges Vitton – June 24)
I returned from Vanuatu last night and after an additional week at base camp, I’m not sorry to return to the comfort zone.
It was a tough week. We survived with eating taro and wild cat, the remaining moisture provided by some cava! Scientific curiosity never left me, I took the opportunity to continue our volcanic investigations. I measured the temperature in a fumarole near the summit of North Benbow (see image).

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We walked casually with Joses on the sharp edges when we smell the fresh lava accompanied by his characteristic sound. Taking advantage of a tight niche of oxygen between the spirals of deadly gases, we went down at the north side of the crater and to my great surprise saw a lava lake (video).

On the Marum, the explosions we heard came clearly from Niri Mbwelesu. Indeed the way Marum was on the edge of the crater, filled with shreds of fresh black lava … As I said at the beginning of my mail, it was bad weather and we did not see the lava of the Marum lake.

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The Craig Cove airfield captured with a GoPro camera installed on a kite

 

Etna has been classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO - (GV – June 24)
“Several volcanic sites are already inscribed on the World Heritage List and the national tentative list: Etna has been compared in particular with the Aeolian Islands and Mount Teide (Teide National Park), and Fujisan ..
However, Etna is unique for the following reasons: Compared to Mount Teide and Fujisan, Etna is much older and geologically active. Compared to the Aeolian Islands, Etna is similar in intensity of the activity, but it is higher, with a large shield, and it provides several vents including a wider range of volcanic features with easy access to visitors and researchers. In addition Etna has been known and studied longer, since ancient times, from the Mount Teide and Fujisan. From the point of view of the spectacular beauty, Mount Teide and Fujisan not show, as Etna, and spectacular landscape continues a still active volcano. Finally, given the ecological value of all active volcanic sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, there are no comparable examples of continuous process of natural colonization and evolutionary endémiste in areas of land in the volcanic mountains both European biogeographic region and the Mediterranean as Etna.
Conclusion:
- Etna is the most active, the highest volcano in Europe, one of the largest and most active in the world and it has more vents with a wide range of easy to be found by visitors and researchers volcanic features.
- Etna has erupted many times in human history, an intense and persistent volcanic activity is the basis of myths, legends and naturalistic observation since classical times. Therefore Etna was known, studied and visited by countless tourists and scientists from around the world.
- Etna is recognized worldwide based on its reputation, its scientific, cultural and educational value, natural phenomena and is of outstanding aesthetic importance as emblematic volcanic site.
- Etna was, and still is, an important international research center with a long history of influence on volcanology, geology and geomorphology.
- Etna is a unique example of natural science laboratory volcanic land areas for the study of the process of colonization of new surfaces of plants and animals in both the European and Mediterranean biogeographical region. ”

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OLDER ARCHIVED PARTS OF THIS REPORT :
2013 : May 26 – June 7
2013 : June 8 – June 23
2013 : June 24 – July 7

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