Bardarbunga (Iceland) update(s) – Volcano Activity for the week of October 8 to 14

Last update: October 16, 2014 at 4:07 pm by By

After Rodger Wilson was obliged to discontinue his daily participation at this site, we have decided to start up an El Hierro type article. The newest additions will always be on top and if the article gets too long, we will cut off a part of it and archive it. This url will always be the one to follow and if you leave our page open in your browser, the page will refresh every 15 minutes automatically.
Please be a little patient with this new format.
This report is compiled out of many information sources.

Earthquake-report.com can only survive with PRIVATE DONATIONS

Your gift will be highly appreciated, Thank You

For our El Hierro volcano report : Click here


-

Volcano Activity for the week of 8 October – 14 October 2014

Screen Shot 2014-10-16 at 23.44.18

Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border
SERNAGEOMIN reported that two explosions from Copahue’s El Agrio Crater occurred at 0752 and 1349 on 11 October, and generated dark gray ash plumes that rose at most 3.6 km above the crater. Some minor explosions were detected after the second explosion. Incandescence in the vicinity of the crater was observed at night. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. Cameras near the volcano recorded dark gray ash plumes rising to a maximum height of 1.9 km and drifting 35 km NE on 12 October, 2.2 km and drifting E on 13 October, and 0.4 km and drifting E on 14 October. Minor explosions continued to be detected.

Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)
PHIVOLCS reported that during 8-12 October white plumes rose from Mayon’s crater and drifted NW, NE, ESE, SE, and SSW. During an overflight of Mayon on 12 October volcanologists observed a 350-m-long lava flow traveling down the SE flank, on the E side of Bonga Gully. The report noted that the small number of volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals recorded during the previous few days indicated slow lava extrusion from the crater and a slow-moving lava flow. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).

Ontakesan  | Honshu (Japan)
JMA reported that during 8-9 October ash emissions from Ontakesan continued. The plume turned white on 10 October, but during 10-14 October the emissions may have contained small amounts of ash. Tremor was below detection limits during 8-14 October. A news article from 12 October noted that the number of people killed in the 27 September eruption had reached 56; seven more were still missing. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Poas  | Costa Rica
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poás was recorded at 1745 on 8 October. The event lasted one minute and ejected material over 250 m above the crater lake’s surface. The seismic record indicated that it was the most energetic event so far in 2014.

Sinabung  | Indonesia
The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Bárðarbunga update October 16 17:30 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
- During the last 24 hours, about 70 earthquakes have been detected at Bárðarbunga and a dozen in the northern part of the dike. This is somewhat less activity than 24 hours earlier.
- Two quakes over five in magnitude occurred at the northern caldera rim; an M5.4 at 11:16 yesterday and an M5.0 in the early hours of the morning, at 03:14 today. One earthquake M4.2 occurred later this morning, at 09:25, in a similar location.
- Observations of deep thudding sounds were received yesterday while the large earthquake occurred, possibly as a consequence thereof.
- Scientist went to Askja yesterday but found no signs of a rockfall, which could have caused the noises. Possibly the sounds were from jet aircrafts, passing at the same time.

Screen Shot 2014-10-16 at 23.33.47

Today’s excellent LANDSAT 8 infrared image of the Holuhraun lava field


 

Bárðarbunga update October 15 15:23 UTC
From the Scientific Advisory Board
- During last week the eruption continues at a similar intensity and with similar lava flow.
- Around 130 earthquakes have been measured in Bardarbunga over the last 24 hours, which is an increase of what has been the norm over the last two weeks.
- The GPS station in the centre of Bardarbunga is back on-line.
- The subsidence of the caldera continues with similar rate as before, which is 30-40 cm per day. The subsidence is mainly in the northeast part of the caldera. The subsidence of the caldera is estimated to be 0,75 km3.
- 13 earthquakes greater than M3.0 were recorded over the last 48 hours in or around the caldera. The largest one were M4.8 at 18:51 yesterday.
- Little seismic activity is now detected in the northern part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- GPS measurements show minor movements. No great changes were detected.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained by changing weather.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could
develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
- Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.

Screen Shot 2014-10-15 at 23.25.05

Sunsidence of the Bardarbunga caladera (average 30 to 40 cm per day)

Screen Shot 2014-10-15 at 23.46.24


 

Bárðarbunga update October 12 20:54 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
The eruption: Webcameras show no significant changes in the eruption.
Earthquakes: Since 10:00 UTC yesterday (Saturday) two quakes over magnitude 5 occurred in Bárðarbunga. The first one M5.0 at 11:30 yesterday and M5.2 at 08:43 this morning. Both originated in the northern rim of the Bárðarbunga caldera. Additionally, four quakes over magnitude 4 were registered: Yesterday M4.7 at 19:33, M4.1 at 01:36 last night, M4.0 at 03:57 and M4.2 at 06:20. Over 100 quakes have been registered during past 24 hours in the caldera and about 25 in the northern part of the intrusion.
Gas pollution: Northeasterly winds are expected today (Sunday), so the pollution is expected towards south and southwest from the eruption. Polluted area is bounded by Faxaflói in the west and Mýrdalur in the east and is expected to extend north of Hofsjökull. Tomorrow (Monday) wind will be southerly and the pollution will go north.

Screen Shot 2014-10-12 at 22.57.24


 

Bárðarbunga update October 11 13:27 UTC
From geoscientist on duty @ 10:UTC
From now on a change is made in these reports from a geoscientist on duty, and they will be published daily at about 10:00 UTC.  This may be changed if the eruption changes significantly.
- The eruption continues with the same lava flow rate as in past weeks.
Seismicity is similar to previous days:
- There is low activity in the dyke intrusion. Around 20 earthquakes have occurred during the last 24 hours, all within magnitude 1.5 and in the northern part of the intrusion between the eruption site and to the south some kilometers under Dyngjujökull glacier.
- About 80 earthquakes were detected on the caldera rim of Bárðarbunga. The largest earthquakes were at 11:26 and 23:51 yesterday, both of magnitude 4.8. Earthquakes of magnitude 4.7 and 4.5 also occurred and seven between 3.0 and 3.9. Most activity was on the northern caldera rim.
GPS (no significant changes):
- Minor movements of GPS stations in the area.
- Subsidence of the caldera continuing at similar rate.
Water monitoring: No changes.
Gas forecast (latest forecast 09:32 UTC):
- Today (Saturday) and tomorrow (Sunday): Northeasterly winds are expected with the possibility of gas pollution south and southwest of the eruption site in an area from Hellisheiði in the west to Hornafjörður in the east.

Volcano Activity for the week of 1 October – 7 October 2014

Screen Shot 2014-10-11 at 15.15.14

Bardarbunga Iceland
See our own updates on this page

Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 6-7 October diffuse steam-and-gas emissions from Copahue detected in satellite images contained a small amount of ash. The webcam showed that the emission source was near the summit.

Lewotobi  | Flores Island (Indonesia)
Based on analysis of satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October a narrow, low-level ash plume from Lewotobi rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km WNW.

Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)
PHIVOLCS reported that during 1-7 October the seismic network at Mayon recorded 0-7 rockfall events per day. White steam plumes drifted SSE, ESE, and NW. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).

Ontakesan  | Honshu (Japan)
JMA reported that ash emissions from Ontakesan likely continued during 1-7 October. The plume height could not be determined due to poor visibility although on 7 October observers noted that the plume rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted E. Seismic levels fluctuated; tremor continued to be detected. A news article from 8 October noted that the number of people killed in the 27 September eruption had reached 55; nine were still missing. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)
KVERT reported that during 26 September-3 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 27-29 September and 2 October. Two explosions on 2 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km WSW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung  | Indonesia
Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported four eruptions from Sinabung on 5 October. The first one occurred at 0146, and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled 4.5 km S and an ash plume that rose 2 km. The next three events, at 0638, 0736, and 0753, all generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 2.5-4.5 km S. The fourth event also produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. A news article stated that pyroclastic flows from a fifth event at 0900 were smaller, but again traveled 4.5 km after a sixth event at 1200.
According to the Darwin VAAC a low-level eruption recorded by the PVMBG webcam generated a pyroclastic flow on 6 October; some of the ash rose higher and drifted E. The Jakarta MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 7 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. A news article posted on 8 October noted that eruptions in the previous four days caused some evacuations.


Bárðarbunga update October 10 15:54 UTC
From the Scientific Advisory Board
During last week the eruption continues at a similar intensity and with similar lava flow as previous weeks.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with similar rate.
- 13 earthquakes greater than M3.0 were recorded since noon on Wednesday in or around the caldera. The largest ones were M5.2 at 15:24 on Wednesday and at 21:22 last night.
- Very little seismic activity is now detected in the northern part of the dyke and around the eruption site.
- GPS measurements show minor movements. No great changes were detected.
- No change was detected in water monitoring that cannot be explained by changing weather.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- The eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually and subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera stops.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujokull, resulting in a jokulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jokulhlaup, accompanied by ash fall.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
- The Aviation Colour Code for Bardarbunga remains at ‘orange’.
The next meeting of the Scientific Advisory Board will be held on Monday 13 October.

Screen Shot 2014-10-10 at 17.55.34Below a fine time lapse sequence of the Bardarbunga webcam

Sinabung, Sumatra, Indonesia October 10


 

Kilauea (Hawaii) update October 9 21:17 UTC
The June 27 lava flow is continuing its march toward Pahoa, moving nearly 200 feet since Wednesday.
An overflight Thursday morning showed that the flow front remains active and has advanced some 65 yards since Wednesday, Civil Defense officials said. The narrow flow front is moving northeast along the tree line and may begin to enter areas of lighter vegetation.
During the past week, the lava has advanced approximately 130 yards per day, according to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. At this rate, the lava flow could reach Apaa Street in about 14 days. The flow is currently 0.9 miles from Apaa Street and 1.6 miles from Pahoa Village Road.
The burning activity is producing a significant amount of smoke resulting in moderate to light smoke conditions. A light trade wind is blowing out of the northeast.
Read the full article here

Bárðarbunga update October 9 18:03 UTC
Isn’t this an amazing picture ?

Bárðarbunga update October 9 08:41 UTC
Map of new Holuhraun lava field shows it’s  ~55 km2 by now. Rough estimate of volume ~0.77 km3

Screen Shot 2014-10-09 at 12.58.04 Screen Shot 2014-10-09 at 12.59.29


 

Mount Ontake volcano (Japan) deadly eruption October 8
Death toll reaches 55
Japanese rescue workers have uncovered another body on Mount Ontake in Japan, bringing the total death toll from the volcanic eruption to 55 with nine people still missing, Japanese news agency Kyodo reported Wednesday.
The search operation resumed for the first time in three days since the eruption of the 3,067-meter (10,062-foot) volcano, according to Kyodo. Search operations were suspended on October 5 amid forecasts of a severe typhoon, Phanfone, to hit the area. (Source Ria Novosti)

Steam plume of Ontake volcano 3 days after the initial deadly eruption as photographed from a spot satellite - Image courtesy CNES

Steam plume of Ontake volcano 3 days after the initial deadly eruption as photographed from a spot satellite – Image courtesy CNES

Bárðarbunga update October 8 08:41 UTC
From the geoscientist on duty this morning
- Ten earthquakes have occurred in the northwestern part of Vatnajökull since midnight and almost 30 since 19:00 yesterday evening, most of them in Bárðarbunga.
- The largest earthquake since 19:00 yesterday was M3.9 at 03:37.
- It is cloudy in the area and the eruption has not been seen in webcams since 01:00. At that time it looked similar as the last days.

Screen Shot 2014-10-08 at 10.43.05

New Zealand’s earthquake deep drilling project underway (October 8)
A deep-drilling project into one of the world’s most dangerous earthquake faults is now underway on New Zealand’s South Island.
Scientists from around the world have gathered at the drill site near Whataroa, north of Franz Josef glacier, for the rare opportunity to glimpse the inner workings of the Alpine Fault. The island-spanning fault unleashes a great earthquake every two to four centuries, with the average time between temblors about 330 years. The most recent earthquake, in 1717, was an estimated magnitude 8.1.
Read the full article here

 

Example of a drilling installation - image courtesy Bauer.de

Example of a drilling installation – image courtesy Bauer.de


 

Kilauea (Hawaii) update October 7 12:33 UTC
Awful times for house owners in a suburb of Pahoa, Hawaii, Hawaii
If the lava would continue on the same path than the last couple of weeks and at the same speed than today, it will destroy their houses in approximately 16 days!!
Civil Defense officials, in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration, have restricted the airspace above the leading edge of the flow in response to increased traffic of sightseers and media personnel.
Official USGS report based on yesterdays overflight data :
The June 27th flow remains active, with a narrow flow about 115 m (230 ft) wide moving downslope about 120 m/day (390 ft/day) since October 3. The leading edge of the flow is 1.9 km (1.2 mi) upslope from Apa`a St. along the steepest descent path and 1.7 km (1.1 mi) upslope from Apa`a St. along a straight line. At the average rate of advancement of 120 m/day, the lava could reach Apa`a St. in about 16 days. The advance rate of the June 27th flow has varied significantly during the past month, meaning this projection is subject to change. Our next overflight is scheduled for Wednesday, October 8. Pāhoa town is in the Puna District of the County of Hawai`i.
[Lava flow]
- The June 27th lava flow continued to advance northeast since October 3 at about 120 m/day (390 ft/day). The leading edge is now about 1.7 km (1.1 mi) straight-line
- The June 27th lava flow from the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent is active, and lava is being supplied to the flow front, which is slowly advancing downslope toward Pāhoa.

Image courtesy Hawaiitribune-herald.com

Image courtesy Hawaiitribune-herald.com

Bárðarbunga update October 7 10:51 UTC
Update 10:54 UTC : Their was a strong M5.5 at a depth of 7.5 km at the edge of the Bardarbunga caldera! (biggest bullet in the map below)
From geoscientist on duty this morning
- Since 19:00 yesterday almost 30 earthquakes have occurred in Bárðarbunga, thereof more than 15 since midnight. Three were larger than M4:
00:33 M4.5
03:52 M5.0
06:07 M4.0
At 22:00 last night one earthquake, M3.8 occurred.
- Very few earthquakes were located in the dike. The largest one, M2.7, occurred at 19:29 last night.
- Strong wind was in the area and that can have increased the number of small events. Later in the night the wind has been going down.
- The eruption can’t be seen through webcams. Just for a short while in the night it could be seen and looked similar as last days.

Screen Shot 2014-10-07 at 12.56.10

The bigger bullet to the South-East on the edge of the Caldera rim is the M5.5 earthquake

 


OLDER ARCHIVED PARTS OF THIS REPORT :

2013 : July 8 – July 31
2013 : June 24 – July 7
2013 : June 8 – June 23
2013 : May 26 – June 7
2013 : June 8 – August 20
2013 : August 21 – October 27
2013 : October 28 – December 12
2013 : December 13 – January 30
2014 : February 1 – May 20
2014 : May 21 – August 20
2014 : August 21 – August 28 (Bardarbunga volcano Iceland)
2014 : August 29 – September 4 (Bardarbunga and Tavurvur)
2014 : September 5 – September 18 (Bardarbunga and Mayon)
2014 : September 19 – September 27 (Bardarbunga, Mayon, Long Valley and Ontakesan deadly eruption)

Comments

  1. Gordon Hervey says:

    October 18 2013 UTC
    I always enjoy these reports and wanted to ask a question that I have also posted on Volcano Monitor. Japan Today has an Oct 18 article “Izu Oshima mayor under fire for not issuing evacuation orders.” A Tokyo Uni expert is quoted “the top layer of volcanic ash from recent explosions had been washed off by the massive rainfall….knocking down trees and…houses”. Dozens still missing or dead. My point is that the local volcano Mount Mihara must have had frequent explosions, yet I have not seen the name before now on any listings, anywhere. Modis data problems, Japan keeping secrets, what could this sort of thing imply?

    • Richard Rodger Wilson says:

      Hi Gordon,

      You have to remember, when a volcanologist (geologist) says “recent” he may be referring to an event that has occurred during the last 10,000 years! Mount Mihara has in fact erupted more recently (in a big way in 1986!) to produce exposed ash layers on the island. Regardless of their age, fragmental volcanic deposits are always susceptible to remobilization from heavy rains. If you live any time on a volcano you will understand this, so I don’t understand the accusatory aspect of the headline.

      Thanks for reading our report!

      Rodger

    • Gordon Hervey says:

      Thanks very much for your reply, I’m browsing a bit to try and find how ‘recent’ the Mt Mihara explosions have been. Apparently the mayor was out of town during the typhoon and took a decision NOT to evacuate Izu. As it turned out, that cost a lot of lives. It would seem to me that the description of ash buildup as ‘recent’ probably means ‘since the previous typhoon’, as otherwise the disaster might have occured then?

  2. Craig Heden says:

    Multiple seismo stations around Mt. Shasta are showing what appears to be episodic “pulses” of activity.
    The amplitude of some events are significantly higher than what I usually see.
    I am in visual contact with Mt. Shasta from my home, and no weather-related phenomena appears present.
    I wonder if this is the beginning/associated of deep-tremor event, or whether there is magmatic movement involved? Or, maybe purely tectonic?
    Maybe Roger can comment if this activity is indeed unusual?

    • Armand Vervaeck says:

      I will surely ask Rodger, Craig – Thanks for commenting

    • Richard Rodger Wilson says:

      Hi Craig,

      I’m pretty sure the pulses (the longer, cigar-shaped signals?) you refer to are actually produced by trains (provided you are looking at the northwest flank and Military Pass seismometers). How do I know this you ask?,…I used to maintain the College of the Siskiyous seismographs way back in the early 1980′s for Mr. Paul Dawson who was the C.O.S. Geology Instructor at that time.

      Thanks for your readership Craig!

      Rodger

    • Craig Heden says:

      Rodger and Armand,
      Thanks for your attention to my question. The two stations I was noting unusual seismo-signals were LMP and LGB. Both stations appear quite a ways away from the railroad. Also, as of now, (10-17-13, 12:36 PDT), both stations indicate different types of activity occurred early in the plot as compared to later on. The time duration for each period of elevated signals is also is quite long. I know how long the freight trains can be up there ( I fish the Cantera loop area often), but the duration of the activity appears too long for even the largest trains? Thanks again if you have any further info or theories to share.

  3. Matthew says:

    Some red on the White Island seismic drum today!
    http://www.geonet.org.nz/p/volcano/drums/latest/wiz-seismic-drum.png
    pretty hard to tell whether there was actually an eruption or not, typical NZ weather!

  4. Paul Wyse says:

    I’m curious about the fact that the main seismograph for Cerro Negro in Nicaragua picks up so many more of the volcanic earthquakes at Momotomobo than any of the other INETER seismographs. Has anyone speculated on a remote plumbing connection between Cerro Negro and Momotombo even though they seem to be a litte too far apart? Telica is certainly much closer to Cerro Negro than Momotombo is and yet it seems that there’s only tectonic earthquakes that seem to show up on both the Cerro Negro and Telica graphs.

    • Richard Rodger Wilson says:

      Hi Paul,

      Sorry it’s taken so long for me to respond to your questions! I’m not that familiar with seismic equipment that INETER has on each of the volcanoes, but the discrepencies you noted in seismic data from adjacent volcanoes usually results from: a) different settings in the gain or amplification of individual stations, and b) the type of seismometers placed on individual volcanoes. For instance, many observatories have switched-over to using broad-band instrumentation at volcanoes during the past decade to detect (just as the name implies) the broader range of seismic wave frequencies generated by volcanoes. The “old school” (i.e. less sensitive) single-component vertical seismometers (but continue to be used) are most sensitive to the relatively high frequencies (> 5Hz) generated by nearby events and have difficulty in detecting special types (low-frequency) of volcanic earthquakes as well as more distant events.

      Hope this helps!
      Rodger

  5. rachael says:

    hello i live twety miles of mount shasta its looms in our view in most siskiyou couny. I dont feel it will blow up no earth quakes here the large earth quake a while ago originating frm lassen was not even noticable my thaughts are that lassen will be going sooner tan later that is not far from here
    George Wilson.. if you ever need photos or information from someone who lives next to mount shasta let me know… your site is so great thanks yu

    • Armand Vervaeck says:

      Thanks George! There was just a small earthquake at Mount Shasta overnight! I used to live in Weed for three years in the early 1980′s. There was alot more activity around Shasta at that time. You are right, it is very quiet for a volcano!

  6. Hi My name is Alex Schmollinger and I’m from Dallas TX and i just want too know is MT. Shasta getting ready too go off and blow it’s top in the 2013 year too come and i was in the Shasta area and i didn’t see any smoke or feel any recent quakes around the big Shasta Volcano so i need someone out there too tell me is Mt Shasta going too go off in 2013 year span or no?

    • Richard Rodger Wilson says:

      Hi Alex,

      Actually, Mount Shasta is one of the “quieter” Cascade volcanoes. There were seismic episodes during the late 1970′s, early 1980′s and again in the early 1990′s that made volcanologists sort of sit up and take notice of Mount Shasta, but since those periods,…the volcano has been relatively silent.

  7. v says:

    “This is likely the result of the infamous “familiarity breeds contempt” syndrome where the local population becomes complacent near a growing lava dome.” The real problem is that the scientists are blind and they suffer from the same syndrome.

    • Richard Rodger Wilson says:

      Hi v,

      Not so much the scientists being blind in this case. We are all to some extent free to (…and guilty of) ignore clear warning signs in all sorts of circumstances.

Speak Your Mind

*

Desktop Version