Bardarbunga volcano (Iceland) update(s) + Mayon volcano, Philippines

Last update: September 19, 2014 at 1:46 am by By

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Bárðarbunga update September 18 23:20 UTC
From geoscientist on duty (evening report)
- Nearly 150 earthquakes have been recorded since midnight.
- About 45 of them occurred in Bárðarbunga, the largest a magnitude 5.3 at the northern rim of Bárðarbunga caldera at 14:22.
- The GPS station on Bárðarbunga showed a drop of 15 – 20 cm at the time of the earthquake.
- Two earthquakes occurred with magnitudes between 4 and 5 and four of magnitudes between 3 and 4.
- Over 50 earthquakes were recorded along the northern part of the dyke, all within magnitude 2.
- About 30  earthquakes were recorded by Herðubreið and Herðubreiðartögl, all with magnitudes below 2.

Infrared (heat) image of #Holuhraun fire fountain in Baugur crater. Height ~40m. By Stéphanie Dumont from Uni of Iceland

Infrared (heat) image of #Holuhraun fire fountain in Baugur crater. Height ~40m. By Stéphanie Dumont from Uni of Iceland

Bárðarbunga update September 18 23:00 UTC
Gas emission rates
Measurements of SO2 emission rates with permanently installed scanning DOAS instruments preliminarily indicate 200-600 kg/s SO2 over the last week of the eruption. Relating SO2 to other gases measured by FTIR preliminarily indicates 250-700 kg/s CO2, 2-6 kg/s HCl, 3-8 kg/s HF, and <1 kg/s CO.
These emission rates may be underdetections due to measurement conditions. Experiments will be made this week to help us constrain the measurement bias and uncertainty, and these emission rates will likely change. These values are not to be used for further research as they are preliminary and all rights to the data belong to the scientists who are acquiring and interpreting the data.
The participating institutions include: Icelandic Meteorological Office, Chalmers University of Technology, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Düsseldorf University of Applied Sciences, University of Palermo, University of Cambridge, and British Geological Survey.


Mayon volcano, Philippines September 18 02:19 UTC
Philstar.com writes : The “soft eruption” of Mayon Volcano in Albay province has intensified, with lava trickling down some two kilometers from the crater, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said yesterday. Three cities and five towns covering 46 barangays are now under a state of calamity as the province prepares for the imminent eruption of Mayon, the provincial government said. Albay Gov. Joey Salceda identified the calamity areas as the cities of Legazpi, Tabaco and Ligao and the towns of Guinobatan, Camalig, Daraga, Sto. Domingo and Malilipot.
Classes were suspended starting Tuesday afternoon as schools would be used as evacuation centers. Phivolcs-Bicol chief volcanologist Ed Laguerta said that at least 47 volcanic quakes and 270 rock falls were detected in the past 24 hours by the agency’s instruments at the Lignon Hill Observatory.
“These recorded double-digit volcanic quakes and rock fall incidents mean that the pushing of magma to the surface is escalating and that more lava fragments are now detaching from the lava dome, which is estimated to measure at least 150 meters in diameter,” Laguerta told The STAR.
Philvocs is also closely monitoring the sulfur dioxide emission or gas output as sustained increase in its volume means massive degassing in the magma chamber that could lead to a hazardous explosion.
Read the full article here

Mayon volcano, Philippines September 18 02:09 UTC
PHIVOLCS reported Mayon’s earthquakes, rockfall events, and an inflationary trend from leveling surveys on 15 September. A noticeable escalation occurred later that day, including 39 rockfall events and 32 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. Crater glow became visible around 2000 and PHIVOLCS released an informational bulletin at 2200 announcing Alert Level 3. On 16 September incandescent rockfalls spread to the upper reaches of Bonga Gully on the SE flank.
News reports highlighted the evacuation orders announced by the governor of Albay province, which included the 6 km permanent danger zone surrounding the volcano; an assisted evacuation was enforced for the 6-8 km extended danger zone. In an interview with the press, the governor noted that some residents had already fled their homes in Guinobatan (11.8 km SW) on the evening of 15 September.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 17 23:26 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
- About 115 earthquakes have been located by the automatic system since midnight.
- Over 20 of them were located in Bárðarbunga and almost 40 in the dike, especially in the northern part under Dyngjujökull. The strongest quake occurred at 18:09:52 UTC in the southeastern part of the Bárðarbunga caldera, of magnitude 5.2.
- Subsidence in the caldera is about 25 cm since midnight and no abrupt change was observed during the quake.
- Other earthquakes are less than or about magnitude 2.

Water and lava are making a lot of steam

Water and lava are making a lot of steam

Bárðarbunga update September 17 13:05 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
Warning
E-ly winds with the polluted area to the west and northwest of the eruption, marked by Hofsjökull glacier in the west and Skagafjörður in the north. Tomorrow pollution can be expected over the central highlands west and southwest of the eruption. Valid until midnight tomorrow, thursday.
- Measurements show that the lava field in Holuhraun continues to expand. There are no signs of decreasing lava production.
- The subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continues with the rate of about 50 cm over the last 24 hours.
- Seismic activity has been rather intensive over the last 24 hours. Yesterday 7 earthquakes larger then M3,0 were detected in Bardarbunga. The biggest were M5,4 and M4,8 last night. Smaller earthquakes were detected in Dyngjujokull glacier and in north part of the dyke.
- GPS monitoring show irregularity in in the crustal movements over the last few days. This sign could indicate that the magma movement under Bardarbunga is changing.
No change has been detected in water measurement.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
- Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

Spread of lava at Holuhraun from TerraSAR-X:


 

Bárðarbunga update September 15 23:34 UTC
from geoscientist on duty
- Earthquake rates are similar to recent days.
- Around 120 events have been detected since midnight, the vast majority in the northern part of the intrusion. Some events were located in the old part of the intrusion, i.e. a bit southwest of where the dyke was bending more northerly into Dyngjujökull on 23 August. All events in the intrusion are smaller than magnitude 2.
- Occasional earthquakes on the caldera rim of Bárðarbunga.
- No event exceeded magnitude 2 after the M5.4 this morning at 08:04.
- Microseismic activity around Dreki (east of Askja) continues at low rates, same at Herðubreiðartögl
Standing by the bank of glacial river Jökulsá á Fjöllum watching a river of lava. Credit: Uni. of Iceland

Standing by the bank of glacial river Jökulsá á Fjöllum watching a river of lava. Credit: Uni. of Iceland

Bárðarbunga update September 15 15:06 UTC
Warning
The area likely affected by air pollution from the eruption is now marked by Bárðardalur to the west to Hólasandur/Merlakkaslétta platou in the east. This evening the affected area more to the east from Mývatn-area in the west to Vopnafjordur bay in the east. Tomorrow lighter westerly winds are expected and likely effected area will be from Vopnafjörður bay, and south towards Djúpivogur.

Bárðarbunga update September 15 10:40 UTC
The subsidence of Bardarbunga caldera can now be viewed almost live after the team from Icelandic Met Office installed a GPS meter on top of Bardarbunga a few days ago.

 

Bardarbunga caldera subsidence

Bardarbunga caldera subsidence

The graph can be accesed here.

Bárðarbunga update September 14 22:19 UTC
Little news from Holuhraun as scientists & journalists left area this morning due to very high SO2 levels. Seismic and eruption levels down

Bárðarbunga update September 14 20:00 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
- Earthquake rates remain stable compared to recent days, around 140 events have been detected since midnight (until now 18:50).
- Most events concentrate in the northernmost part of the dyke intrusion, from the eruption site to about 6 km into Dyngjujökull.
- Earthquakes in the intrusion hardly exceed magnitude 2.
- There are still several earthquakes located on the Bárðarbunga caldera rim, one of magnitude around 5 today at 14:06 on the northern rim, five of magnitude 3-4. A small series of events occurred around 17:00 close to Dreki (east of Askja), all events lower than magnitude 1.5.
- Stable subsidence is seen on the GPS in the Bárðarbunga caldera, crudely 50-60 cm since midnight. A short step of 10-15 cm lowering might be associated with the 14:06 earthquake

Bárðarbunga update September 14 18:00 UTC
From the Scientific Advisory Board
Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection. A representative from The Environment Agency of Iceland was also present.
Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity.
- The lava flows at slower rates than it did yesterday.
- The lava is now spreading more to the sides and there is less visible activity is in the eruptive craters.
- The subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera continues and is now up to 23 meters.
- Scientists flying over the area saw new tongues of lava breaking out from the main lava stream towards the east and west. The largest one of these lava tongues stretches towards the east and had become 300 m wide and 2 km long at 18:00 yesterday. An eruption cloud reaches 4 km in height but lowers with distance from the eruption site.
- Seismic activity is similar to what it has been in the past days but earthquakes are starting to go down in numbers and magnitude.
- Over 60 earthquakes have been detected since midnight. Most of them have been by Bárðarbunga and the dyke under Dyngjujökull. The biggest earthquake, of magnitude 4.0, was detected today at around 07:00 in the south of Bárðarbunga. Three other earthquakes of 3.0 in magnitude or more have been detected today.
- GPS monitoring shows continuing subsidence in Bárðarbunga and insignificant crustal movements north of Vatnajökull around the dyke.
- Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:
- High air pollution was detected yesterday in Egilsstaðir and Reyðarfjörður. Forecasts indicate that the gas cloud will blow towards the north in the next 24 hours.
- High concentrations of sulphuric gases can be expected in Mývatnssveit, Kelduhverfi, Tjörnes, Húsavík, Aðaldalur and Reykjahverfi.
Instructions:
People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close their windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage www.loftgaedi.is. The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites.
The Icelandic Met Office will read forecasts for sulphuric gases along with weather news on the national radio and TV.
- The Environment Agency is working on getting more measuring equipment to better monitor the gases coming from the volcanic eruption.
Information and any questions on air pollution can be sent to The Environment Agency through the email gos@ust.is. The Environment Agency is especially looking for information from people who have been in contact with high concentrations of gas; where they were, at what time it happened, how the gas cloud looked (colour and thickness of the cloud) and how they were affected by it. In the near future, there will be a page on the IMO’s webpage for this type of information.
Air quality at the eruption site:
Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field have gas meters for their security.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
- Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ and the code for Askja is ‘green‘.

Bárðarbunga update September 14 03:43 UTC
Video of a drone at a height of 100 meter

Screen Shot 2014-09-13 at 23.47.59

Yesterday, the University of Iceland geologists went into the cauldron in Bardarbunga caldera to install GPS (image courtesy Uni Iceland)


 

Bárðarbunga update September 13 13:24 UTC
The eruptive activity at Holuhraun and the the subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera floor continues at similar intensity.
The subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera and seismic activity continues the same as the last few days. The GPS station on top of Bárðarbunga shows a subsidence of the caldera around half a meter over the last 24 hours.
The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun is still ongoing with similar strength as last few days. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday towards East into Jökulsá á Fjöllum.
The lava filed was measured yesterday afternoon to be 24,5 square kilometres.
Accumulated volume of the lava is now estimated to be at least 200 million cubic meters.
Gas cloud from the eruption drifts to the east. High level of SO2, sulphur dioxide, was measured at Reyðarfjörður last night around 10:00 o’clock. The highest value measured were just under 4000 micrograms per cubic meter. These are the highest values measured in Iceland. High level, 685 micrograms per cubic meter, was also measured in Egilsstaðir.
Warning was sent via the GSM system to all mobile phones in Fjarðarbyggð.
Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:
- Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and on Langanes. Forecast indicates that concentration may become higher later today. The Environment Agency will set up new monitoring stations in Akureyri and in South Iceland. Geographical conditions must be considered when estimating air quality.
Instructions:
- People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage www.loftgaedi.is The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites www.ust.is and www.landlaeknir.is
- The Icelandic Met Office will read forecasts for sulphuric gases along with weather news on the national radio and TV.
- The Environment Agency is working on getting more measuring equipment to better monitor the gases coming from the volcanic eruption.
Air quality at the eruption site:
- Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field carry gas meters for their security.
- Degassing from the volcanic eruption is now estimated to be up to 750 kg/sec.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
Bárðarbunga update September 13 12:15 UTC
Warning
Dispersion forecasts indicate a risk of high concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in northern part of Eastfjords and in Fljotsdalsherad-valley today and in the Myvatn-area tomorrow.
A screenshot from Bardarbunga webcam  at 12:13 UTC (click on the image for a full view)
Bardarbunga

Bardarbunga


 

Bárðarbunga update September 12 12:54 UTC

Warning
A high concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from the Holuhraun eruption is expected in an area extending from northern part og East Fjords, north to Langanes peninsula. A larger pollution area cannot be ruled out. (Valid until noon tomorrow, Saturday.)

Scientific Advisory Board
The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday. The lava is flowing towards East into Jökulsá á Fjöllum, slightly narrowing its path. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava.
Scientists flying over the Bárðarbunga area yesterday reported no new changes in the surface.
Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:
- Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and Vopnafjörður. Forecast indicates that concentration may become highest in Hérað later today. High concentrations could occur in other areas as well. The Environment Agency will set up new monitoring stations in Akureyri and in South Iceland today. Geographical conditions must be considered when estimating air quality. People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows and turn off air conditioning. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage loftgaedi.is. The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites.
Air quality at the eruption site:
Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field carry gas meters for their security.
Earthquake activity in the caldera of Bárðarbunga remains similar to that of the last days. Epicenters are distributed along the northern and south-eastern caldera fault. Earthquake activity at the dyke tip has decreased. More than 50 events have been detected since midnight. Low frequency tremor has decreased.
GPS observations:
- There are minor crustal movements around the dyke supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke slightly exceeds the flow of magma erupted to the surface.
- Considering the time period since the beginning of the eruption slow movements towards the Bárðarbunga caldera indicate continuing subsidence of the caldera.
- A new GPS station was installed on top of Bárðarbunga yesterday to monitor the subsidence of the caldera floor.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.


 

Bárðarbunga update September 11 14:30 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday. The lava is flowing towards East but widens slightly towards North. The main flow follows the river bed of Jökulsá á Fjöllum. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava.
Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:
- Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and Vopnafjörður. High concentrations could occur in other areas as well. People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows and turn off air conditioning. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage loftgaedi.is. The Meteorological Office issues warnings if conditions change to the worse.
- Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environmental Agency can be found on their web-sites.
Air quality at the eruption site:
- Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably.
Earthquake activity in the caldera of Bárðarbunga remains similar to that of the last days. Epicenters are distributed along the northern and south-eastern caldera fault. An earthquake of M 5.3 occurred at 00:07 h. Earthquake activity at the dyke tip has decreased. More than 30 events have been detected since midnight. Low frequency tremor is similar to what has been observed in the last few days.
GPS observations show insignificant crustal movements supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke continues to be similar to the magma erupted to the surface. Considering the time period since the beginning of the eruption slight movements towards the Bárðarbunga caldera indicate continuing subsidence of the caldera.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup.
Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ but the code for Askja has been changed to ‘green’.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 10 15:06 UTC

Lava flow at Holuhraun, seen from space-Landsat 8:

Click here for a detailed view

Bárðarbunga update September 10 14:30 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity. Lava flows to the East at similar rates as yesterday. The lava is flowing in the river bed of Jökulsá á Fjöllum. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava.
Air quality in urban areas in East of Iceland:
- Concentrations of SO2, comparable to those measured in the last few days, could increase slightly today in the east due to the direction of the wind. Efforts to increase gas monitoring in inhabited areas are ongoing. Data from The Environmental Agency SO2 monitoring stations in Reyjahlíð, Egilsstaðir and Reyðarfjörður are accessible on the web-site of the institute. Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environmental Agency can be found on their web-sites.
Air quality at the eruption site:
- Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters.
- Scientists on the site have had to leave the area repeatedly as concentrations of gas reached dangerous levels due to sudden changes in wind conditions.
- At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably.
Around 80 earthquakes have been recorded since midnight. The largest two earthquakes, M 5.5 and M 4.9 occurred on the northern rim of Bárðarbunga caldera. Low frequency tremor is similar to what has been observed in the last few days.
GPS observations show insignificant crustal movements supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke continues to be similar to the magma erupted to the surface.
Three scenarios are still considered most likely:
- Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
- Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ and the code for Askja at ‘yellow’.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 10 14:25 UTC
Grave concern on Bárðar­bunga subsidence
Mag­nús Tumi Guðmunds­son, Geophysicist (Ph.D.) Professor at University of Iceland, says: “The sub­si­dence is a cause for grave con­cern. We are now go­ing down a path that we don’t know where will end,”  adding that the caldera is full of ice. Sub­si­dence like the one seen in Bárðar­bunga has not been ob­served in re­cent times.
“An erup­tion in the caldera can cause a mas­sive jökulh­laup. If the erup­tion man­ages to break through the ice, we might also be look­ing at a large ex­plo­sive erup­tion.” Mag­nús warns that with in­creas­ing sub­si­dence in the Bárðar­bunga caldera, the odds of an erup­tion in Bárðar­bunga are also in­creas­ing.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 10 01:44 UTC
- Bardarbunga caldera has subsided by allmost a meter per day for the last three days
- Scientists are closely watching the depression of Bardarbunga caldera closely as continued lowering increases likelihood of eruption at the caldera.
- 3 scenarios for Bardarbunga : 1. Depression stops and Holuhraun stops ; 2. Depression continues. Holuhraun goes on for long 3. Caldera erupts es.
- Current Bardarbunga caldera depression is around 20m. If it goes to few hundred meters then we know we are in trouble.
- Caldera depressions are often followed by large eruptions. Given the amt of magma in the Bardarbunga system – eruption there would be big

Screen Shot 2014-09-09 at 22.30.13

Bardarbinga caldera depression

Screen Shot 2014-09-09 at 22.19.58Screen Shot 2014-09-09 at 22.29.04


Bárðarbunga update September 9 13:14 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity.
- Air quality in urban areas in East of Iceland may affect people with underlying respiratory problems although others should not experience any significant discomfort.
- Air quality at the eruption site: Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high.
- Around 150 earthquakes have been recorded since midnight. The largest two earthquakes, 3.8 and 5.2 in magnitude occurred on the northern rim of Bárðabunga Caldera.
- GPS observations show insignificant crustal movements supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke continues to be similar to the magma erupted to the surface.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 8 20:25 UTC
From geoscientist on duty (19:20 UTC)
The earthquake activity today continues at the northern part of the dyke intrusion. The largest earthquake in the dyke since the end of August occurred at 16:27 today with magnitude 4.5. The largest earthquakes located today at the caldera rim:
kl. 06:15, M 4,8
kl. 07:20 M 4, 6
kl. 14:48, M 5,0
kl. 17:53, M 4,3
An earthquake swarm is taking place north of Herðubreið. About 80 earthquakes have been recorded today, all below magnitude 2. Swarms in this area are not uncommon. Due to high concentration of SO2, scientists are leaving the area.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 8 20:19 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board (13:20 UTC)
Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection. Also, representatives from The Environment Agency of Iceland and the Chief Epidemiologist from the Directorate of Health, were present.
Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity.
  • The eruption sites are the same as before. Lava flows to the East at similar rates as yesterday. Although the lava is now in contact with the river Jökulsá á Fjöllum, it does not reduce the lava flow rates significantly. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava. The extent of the lava is now approximately 19 square km.
  • No activity is now detected on the southernmost fissure although small amounts of gas and steam are rising from it.
- Air quality in urban areas in East of Iceland:
  • Measured concentrations of SO2 in Reyðarfjörður, suggest that people with underling respiratory problems might be affected although others should not experience any significant discomfort.
  • Efforts to increase the gas monitoring in inhabited areas are on-going, by The Environment Agency of Iceland.
  • If eruptive activity continues at similar rates, the air quality in Eastern part of Iceland will remain similar.
- Air quality at the eruption site:
  • Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters.
  • Scientists on site, have had to leave the area as concentrations of gas reached dangerous levels, due to sudden changes in wind conditions.
  • At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably.
- The seismicity has reduced since yesterday. Around 80 earthquakes have been recorded since midnight. Around 07:20 UTC, a magnitude 4.7 earthquake occurred on the rim of Bárðarbunga caldera. Small but continuous low frequency tremor has been observed for the last few days.
- GPS observations show insignificant crustal movements supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke continues to be similar to the magma erupted to the surface.
- Four scenarios are still likely:
  • The migration of magma could stop, resulting in a gradual reduction in seismic activity and no further eruptions.
  • The dyke could reach the Earth’s surface at different locations outside the glacier. Lava flow and/or explosive activity cannot be excluded.
  • The intrusion again reaches the surface under the glacier and possibly leads to a significant eruption. This would most likely produce a flood in Jökulsá á Fjöllum and perhaps explosive, ash-producing activity.
  • An eruption in Bárðarbunga. The eruption could cause an outburst flood and possibly an explosive, ash-producing activity. In the event of a subglacial eruption, it is most likely that flooding would affect Jökulsá á Fjöllum. However it is not possible to exclude the following flood paths: Skjálfandafljót, Kaldakvísl, Skaftá and Grímsvötn. Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

Bárðarbunga update September 8 11:55 UTC
- Yesterday the field scientists had to leave the eruption site for a moment when CO2 & SO2 gas reached danger levels
- What will happen if the lava blocks the river flow? There’s still room for the river to flow. Answer from the University of Iceland : A lagoon might form and in the end, it will work it’s way through the new lava field
- Scientists will be flying over Bardarbunga and Holuhraun shortly. Their plane left Reykjavik around 09:30 UTC

Screen Shot 2014-09-08 at 08.51.53

Bárðarbunga update September 8 10:55 UTC
- Scientists will attempt to put GPS sensors into #Bardarbunga caldera itself later today using a helicopter according to the Iceland Civil Protection
- The northern part of the eruption has now made contact with the river
From geoscientist on duty (06:50 UTC)
- The earthquake activity since midnight continues at the northern part of the dyke intrusions and at Bárðarbunga.
- Between 30 and 40 events have been located in the area since midnight.
- The tremor has been similar since yesterday, no changes and the eruption continues

Map of lava field in #Holuhraun. It flowed into Jökulsá á Fjöllum glacial river. No explosive activity so far

Map of lava field in #Holuhraun. It flowed into Jökulsá á Fjöllum glacial river. No explosive activity so far


 

Bárðarbunga update September 7 21:18 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
- Today, most of the earthquakes have been located in Bárðarbunga caldera, at the eruption site, in Dyngjujökull and at Herðubreiðatögl. The two largest events occurred this morning (M4.6 and M5.4) at 3:27 and 7:07 UTC in Bárðarbunga caldera. We have recorded about 155 earthquakes since this morning and the seismic tremor has been lower than yesterday.
- Earth scientists in the field report that the eruptive activity in the northernmost part of the north-fissure has no more lava fountaining, whereas the central craters are the most active like previous days. The new fissure in the south shows no visible activity since this afternoon.

 

Bárðarbunga update September 7 14:16 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun has not decreased. Magma flow is between 100 and 200 m3/s. The lava advances by about 1 km/day and its area yesterday afternoon was around 16 km2. The eruption sites are the same as before. The eruptive intensity on the southern fissure that opened on Friday is much less than on the northern fissure that has been active since the beginning of the eruption.
- The lava tongue now extends 11 km to the north and has reached the western main branch of Jökulsá á Fjöllum river. However, no explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava. A white eruption cloud rises 3 – 4 km and is directed to the north and northeast.
- Seismicity in the area is similar to yesterday. Around 140 earthquakes have been recorded since midnight. At 03:30 this morning, a magnitude 4.6 earthquake occurred at the rim of the Bárðarbunga caldera. Shortly after 07:00, a magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred on the rim, one of the largest recorded since the start of the present activity. The amount of magma flow into the dyke seems to be similar to the magma erupting from the fissures.

A recent image capture from Bardarbunga webcam:

Bardarbunga 7 sep

Bárðarbunga update September 7 08:21 UTC
From geoscientist on duty

Earthquake activity continues in Bárðarbunga, in the northern part of the dike intrusion and in Herðubreiðartögl. Total of 70 earthquakes have been detected since midnight, the largest M5,7 at 07:08 in the Bárðarbunga caldera. The lava has reached the western channel of Jökulsá á Fjöllum. Steaming occurs.

Bárðarbunga update September 7 07:11 UTC
Seismicity since midnight UTC

Screen Shot 2014-09-07 at 04.07.34

Tavurvur volcano, Papua New Guinea – September 7 01:28
Nice explosion of captured on video – many times less powerful than the main explosion but still very spectacular

Bárðarbunga update September 7 01:15 UTC
Map from the University of Iceland scientists showing change of Holuhraun lava field today. Red = start Yellow = end of day

Screen Shot 2014-09-06 at 21.12.26


 

Bárðarbunga update September 6 22:45 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
Earthquake activity today has been in similar places as recent days, in Bárðarbunga caldera, at the eruption site, Dyngjujökull and at Herðubreiðartögl.
- Two earthquakes 4.4 and 4.3 were recorded in Bárðarbunga caldera in the afternoon, at 14:32 and 18:43 respectively, but this morning at 05:40 a magnitude 5 was measured in a similar location.
- The total number of recorded earthquakes since midnight is around 170.
- Earth scientists at the eruption site think that the eruptive activity is similar as yesterday.
- Seismic tremor has low amplitudes today.

subsidence of the glacier surface above the Bardarbunga caldera

subsidence of the glacier surface above the Bardarbunga caldera

Bárðarbunga update September 6 22:40 UTC
SO2 satellite map as published by ESA (European Space Agency)

Screen Shot 2014-09-06 at 18.36.30

Bárðarbunga update September 6 20:48 UTC

Spectacular river of lava at Holuhraun:

Bárðarbunga update September 6 14:11 UTC
Scientific Advisory Board
Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection.
Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:
- In the surveillance flight yesterday the ice-surface at Bárðarbunga was measured with the radar system of Isavia’s aircraft. The measurements show large changes on the ice-surface. Up to 15 m subsidence has occurred in the centre of the caldera, which corresponds to a volume change of 0.25 km³. The shape of the subsidence area is in accordance with the elevation of the caldera floor having lowered by that amount.
- Subsidence of this order has not been observed in Iceland since measurements of crustal movements started around the middle of last century.
- No signs of eruption or increased geothermal activity in the Bárðarbunga caldera are observed.
- The volume of the subsidence in Bárðarbunga is considerable portion of the total volume of the magma dyke.
- The most probable explanation is that this subsidence is related to the recent high seismic activity and subsurface magma flow to the northeast.
- In the surveillance flight yesterday a shallow, wide depression was observed on the surface of Dyngujökull, 10 km from the glacier edge. Another depression 6 km from the Dyngjujökull ice edge, which has been monitored over the last few days has deepened and is now 35 m deep.
- It is likely that these depressions are signs of small and short subglacial eruptions.
- The eruptive activity at Holuhraun is the same as yesterday.
- Two eruptive fissures are active. The main activity is on the same fissure that has been active since the eruption began. In addition the fissure that opened yesterday morning is still active.
- The lava now extends 10 km ENE and has just under one km to reach Jökulsá á Fjöllum river.
- Seismic activity has decreased since yesterday. Approximately 90 earthquakes have been detected since midnight. One earthquake,  of magnitude 5 was located in the  Bárðarbunga caldera at 05:40 UTC.
- 14 earthquakes of magnitudes greater than 5 have been located since 16 of August.
- Deformation changes since yesterday, measured with GPS north of Vatnajökull are small.
- Four scenarios are still likely:
*** The migration of magma could stop, resulting in a gradual reduction in seismic activity and no further eruptions.
*** The dyke could reach the Earth’s surface at different locations outside the glacier. Lava flow and/or explosive activity cannot be excluded.
*** The intrusion again reaches the surface under the glacier and possibly leads to a significant  eruption. This would most likely produce a flood in Jökulsá á Fjöllum and perhaps explosive, ash-producing activity.
*** An eruption in Bárðarbunga. The eruption could cause an outburst flood and possibly an explosive, ash-producing activity. In the event of a subglacial eruption, it is most likely that flooding would affect Jökulsá á Fjöllum. However it is not possible to exclude the following flood paths: Skjálfandafljót, Kaldakvísl, Skaftá and Grímsvötn.
***** Other scenarios cannot be excluded.
From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ and the code for Askja at ‘yellow’.

Click on this picture to enlarge - back to return to the page

Click on this picture to enlarge – back to return to the page

Bárðarbunga update September 5 21:16 UTC
A beautiful NASA picture with the eruption plumes

Screen Shot 2014-09-05 at 23.10.21

Bárðarbunga update September 5 20:30 UTC

This view from the Bárðarbunga webcam (located north of the eruption site, not far from Akureyri), shows the Holuhraun eruption at 20:26 UTC. The more visible tendrils of flame on the far right is the original fissure eruption which has been erupting continuously since last Sunday (31st August).

Slightly further towards the centre of the webcam view are two small dots of flame; this is the new fissure eruption that started this morning closer to Dyngjujökull glacier, which is south of the original fissure eruption. This new fissure eruption is has a smaller intensity than its predecessor, but has formed in the rift valley (graben) spotted on Wednesday (3rd September) which extends several kilometres into Dyngjujökull glacier. This has formed a cauldron in the ice (see second picture) which has reportedly grown bigger since first being spotted a few days ago.

The faint red line just seen above the brow of the hill that this webcam sits upon is the northernmost extent of the massive lava flow that is being produced by the original lava flow. This shows very clearly just how far the lava flow has moved since the eruption began.
5.9.14 20.26 UTC

Mila’s Bárðarbunga webcam (20:26 UTC), looking southwards towards Holuhraun and Bárðarbunga.

Dyngjujokull Cauldron 5.9.14

The cauldron in the Dyngjujökull outlet glacier  as seen earlier this morning (credit: RUV)

Bárðarbunga update September 5 19:30 UTC

Below is a map from the Icelandic Met Office showing the progression of the Holuhraun fissure eruption since last Sunday. The red triangle at the south of the map near Dyngjujökull is the location of the latest fissure eruption which began today (5th September). The red circle marks the extent of the lava flows as of earlier today.

Holuhraun 5.9.14 Lava Extent

Bárðarbunga update September 5 16:10 UTC

Bárðarbunga update September 5 15:50 UTC
Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection.
Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:
At about 7:00 UTC this morning RÚV reported that new eruptive fissures had opened to the south of the on-going eruption.
At 8:30, a surveillance flight with scientists from the IMO and University of Iceland observed the following
- Two new eruptive fissures formed south of the previous eruption site in Holuhraun, in a graben, that had formed above the intrusion, about 2km away from Dyngjujökull.
- The eruptive fire fountains from the new fissures are substantially smaller than in the older fissure. Steam and gas rises in a south eastern direction from the fissure.
- The cauldron in Dyngjujökull seems to have grown deeper since the last observation.
- No changes are visible in Bárðarbunga.
- Substantial amounts of SO2 are still being released to the atmosphere in association with the eruption.
- Conductivity measurements show a slight increase in conductivity in Jökulsá á Fjöllum.
- Some tremor was detected on seismometers shortly after 3:00 UTC last night. It decreased at about 6:00 UTC this morning.
- Considerable activity is in the northern fissure (fissure 1) and the height of the steam cloud is about 15,000 feet.
- There are no indications of the eruption in Holuhraun being in decline. The lava from fissure 1 continues to flow to the east north east and has grown in area since yesterday.
- Seismicity in the area is similar to yesterday’s activity. About 170 earthquakes were detected since midnight. Two earthquakes of magnitudes 4,4 and 5,3 were detected in the Bárðarbunga caldera region at around midnight UTC.
GPS displacements have continues to decrease and are now within uncertainty limits.
Four scenarios are still likely:
*** The migration of magma could stop, resulting in a gradual reduction in seismic activity and no further eruptions.
*** The dike could reach the Earth’s surface at different locations outside the glacier. Lava flow and/or explosive activity cannot be excluded.
*** The intrusion reaches the surface and another eruption occurs where either the fissure is partly or entirely beneath Dyngjujökull. This would most likely produce a flood in Jökulsá á Fjöllum and perhaps explosive, ash-producing activity.
*** An eruption in Bárðarbunga. The eruption could cause an outburst flood and possibly an explosive, ash-producing activity. In the event of a subglacial eruption, it is most likely that flooding would affect Jökulsá á Fjöllum. However it is not possible to exclude the following flood paths: Skjálfandafljót, Kaldakvísl, Skaftá and Grímsvötn.
***** Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

From the Icelandic Met Office:
The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ and the code for Askja at ‘yellow

Credit: Univ. of Iceland/Sævar Helgi Bragason

Credit: Univ. of Iceland/Sævar Helgi Bragason

Bárðarbunga update September 5 15:24 UTC
- Increase in conductivity detected in Jokulsá á Fjöllum – the main glacial river from #Dyngjujokull – no increase in flow (yet)
- Scientists and journalists have again retreated from the #Holuhraun area to the #Dreki hut where many of them stay overnight
- 2 seperate fissures (from the same dyke intrusion of course)
- The video below is a promotion for an eruption flight by helicopter – If you have the chance : DO IT ! (2000$ is the price)

Image courtesy @uni_iceland / Thora Arnadottir

Image courtesy @uni_iceland / Thora Arnadottir

Epic Iceland Eruption helicopter tour from Nordurflug Helicopter Tours on Vimeo.

Bárðarbunga update September 5 11:24 UTC
The commercial guys and girls have taken over the filming and photographing from the scientists. Result : more unique material in newspapers in formats which cannot be shared in the open web. Better work of course, we have to admit that (check the video link in tweet below)

Bárðarbunga update September 5 09:23 UTC
What a great picture – even more jealous on the scientists working there

Bárðarbunga update September 5 08:49 UTC
A flight from @almannavarnir (Iceland Civil Protection) will be taking off shortly with scientists to investigate the new fissure eruption closer to #dyngjujokull

Bárðarbunga update September 5 08:45 UTC
- ER: Based on the webcam views, the fissure area has seriously extended to the left (in fact south towards the glacier
- While the threat from the new fissure eruption is being evaluated no further scientists/journalists will be allowed to #Holuhraun area
- The area where #lava is now coming up further south of original Holuhraun fissure had large cracks before – but now magma found a way up
- The fissure @ #Holuhraun extending south towards the glacier pic.twitter.com/OUxQyX0Hjb – as discovered by @laraomars in this morning’s flight

Screen Shot 2014-09-05 at 10.33.16

Bárðarbunga update September 5 07:52 UTC
From geoscientist on duty
- Earthquakes until 06:00 have been recorded in similar locations as in recent days: in Bárðarbunga, in the dyke intrusion beneath and north of Dyngjujökull and at Herðubreiðartögl.
- Two earthquakes of magnitude 4.3 and 5.2 occurred on the rim of the Bárðarbunga caldera. The first earthquake was recorded at 23:33 yesterday and the larger event at 01:19.
- Since midnight, the total number of automatically located earthquakes is around 100.
- Web camera views of the eruption site during the night showed volcanic activity at similar levels to yesterday.
- ER: Below the epicenters of the earthquakes since midnight UTC
- ER: The number of earthquakes is further decreasing compared to yesterday over the same period

Seismicity since midnight UTC

Seismicity since midnight UTC

Bárðarbunga update September 5 07:49 UTC
Close up video of the pahoehoe lava @ Holuhraun


OLDER ARCHIVED PARTS OF THIS REPORT :

2013 : July 8 – July 31
2013 : June 24 – July 7
2013 : June 8 – June 23
2013 : May 26 – June 7
2013 : June 8 – August 20
2013 : August 21 – October 27
2013 : October 28 – December 12
2013 : December 13 – January 30
2014 : February 1 – May 20
2014 : May 21 – August 20
2014 : August 21 – August 28 (Bardarbunga volcano Iceland)
2014 : August 29 – September 4 (Bardarbunga and Tavurvur)

Comments

  1. MattTheTubaGuy says:

    Hopefully White Island actually erupts this time!
    NZ volcanoes have been really pathetic lately. lots of minor activity that never ends up going anywhere.

  2. Biard cédric says:

    It is false. Video sakurajima published in February on YouTube!!!

    Click below is entitled to the video on “YOUTUBE”.

    Video published in February one YouTube!!!

    • Armand Vervaeck says:

      We know, we did not mention that it was from today but we will clarify

    • Why say that there is activity if there is not?? I look at the Japanese official site and there is nothing! The 09 and 10 yes but not 11, I’m sorry …

    • Armand Vervaeck says:

      Once again – The daily activity overview is another article. We have now added (OLDER) Richard Roscoe video’s. Sorry for the confusion.

    • OK thank you if you want one more information, I look at 200 real time webcam and I publish on my page Facebook at most within the hour, I do not see everything and I do not know everything especially when I sleep but it will bring you maybe one more from time to time.

      http://www.facebook.com/VolcanFusionTerrestre

  3. goldminor says:

    Those photos of Sakurajima are stunningly beautiful.

    • Armand Vervaeck says:

      We love them too, the nature can be extremely beautiful but you do not want to be in that cloud

  4. goldminor says:

    It’s really great to see the page back up. Congratulations.

  5. Stephen Desrosiers says:

    I love this page. It’s good to have a daily dose of my volcano fix! Keep up the good work!

  6. InfoSeismic says:

    Update – Eruption Kerinci Volcano,Jambi,Indonesia https://twitter.com/InfoSeismic

  7. Ash from the Popo Volcano in Central Mexico has arrived to Mexico City and state of Morelos.

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