Strong earthquake in Kashmir kills 2 persons and injures 100 (many dangerous aftershocks)

Last update: June 14, 2013 at 11:27 am by By

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Update May 2 – 07:59 UTC : At least 2 houses have collapsed after that a number of aftershocks did strike the Bhaderwah area.
- Schools remain closed today by order of the local government
- people spent the night in the open due to the fear of aftershocks
-  Bhaderwah Valley has witnessed 15 tremors during the past 3 days (11 yesterday alone)
- Apart from the 2 killed people, nearly 100 people (among them 32 students) were injured and scores of buildings damaged in Doda and Kishtwar districts yesterday.


Update 16:45 UTC : USGS has after all published some additional details of this earthquake (probably because is became a deadly and damaging one).  This was the MMI shaking in the different cities and villages nearby :
MMI V (moderate shaking) : Bhadarwah    13,000 people
MMI IV (light shaking) : Kishtwar 21,000, Doda 18,000, Ramban 7,000, Batoti 4,000 and Ramnagar 8,000
MI III (weak shaking) : Amritsar 1,092,000,  Lahore 6,311,000, Srinagar 976,000, Gujranwala 1,384,000 and Kotli 640,000

Screen Shot 2013-05-01 at 18.44.47

Screen Shot 2013-05-01 at 18.55.54

Update 16:32 UTC : The images below have been taken after the earthquake in Bhaderwah. Click on this image to see them in full size. Images courtesy Photos by Rafiqi Aamir and Randhir Singh Rathore

Click on this image to see every picture in full size

Click on this image to see every picture in full size

Update 16:18 UTC :  Minister for Rural Development Ali Mohammad Sagar has said that the government will extend all the support to the earthquake victims of the Doda and Kishtwar districts. The Minister has further said that the necessary instructions have been conveyed to the concerned District Administration to assess the loss caused to various structures, so that necessary relief can be provided to them at an earliest. Sagar has also sympathized with the affected people who have been injured as a result of the earthquake and assured them that all possible help would be extended to them.

The Indian Air Force came to the rescue of a 6-year old girl who was blocked inside debris of a collapsed building at Kishtwar. The condition of the girl was deteriorating continuously (brain concussion). To IAF has airlifted the girl to a GMC Hospital in Jammu.

Image courtesy Jammu Links

Image courtesy Jammu Links

Update 14:40 UTC : A second killed person in Kuntawara area. The number of injured people rises to at least 69. 32 of them are students. Many hundred buildings, among them schools and hospitals, were damaged or destroyed in different parts of the region. Detailed numbers are not available yet.

Update 11:22 UTC : Meanwhile PCR Kishtwar told Kashmir Life that one girl, about 2 and half years old was seriously injured when a stone hit on her head near a stone quarry. “She was shifted to Kishtwar district hospital but she went into coma and now she is being shifted to Jammu hospital.”

Update 11:06 UTC : Hundreds of buildings in Chenab valley suffered damage.
- Earthquake triggered landslides which led to blocking of Kishtwar-Batote highway.

Twitter image courtesy @tawqeerhussain

Twitter image courtesy @tawqeerhussain

Update 10:40 UTC : We unfortunately have to report that based on local well informed sources in K&J (Kashmir and Jammu) 1 person has been killed by the earthquake in Kishtwar.
An elderly villager, identified as Gusavun Ram, was killed when a bolder hit him while he was rushing out of his home. In another incident two school kids and one of their teachers were seriously injured in Putinag village of district Kistwar.

Update 10:27 UTC : A Facebook message from APINews reports that people from Bhaderwah town say that smoke (probably dust) is coming out of the mountain at the backside of Rainda village, a huge portion of the hill has blown up (ER : Typical for a landslide).

Rainda village - a lot of farming terrasses !

Rainda village – a lot of farming terrasses !

Update 10:12 UTC : Jammu and Kashmir experienced at least 6 aftershocks. 25 students and 2 teachers were at least injured, but this number will increase soon. While the roof of a school building collapsed in Baderwah injuring eight girl student, four students were injured when the building of their school collapsed in Kishtwar district. The children were being served mid-day meals when tremors hit the area.
- Most buildings in Chenab valley in J&K developed cracks.

Update 09:48 UTC : An avalanche alert has been issued for people living in the Bhaderwah-Chamba border belt after tremors shook the valley in Doda district on Wednesday. ZEE news is telling his readers  “We have alerted people living in the foothills of the Ashapati glacier and Chater-gala hills in the Bhaderwah-Chamba border belt after three tremors shook the valley,” police said.  Over 10,000 inhabitants occupy the Thanhala belt in the foothills of the Ashapati glacier and the Chater-gala hills.

Update 09:35 UTC : “We have reports of many buildings having developed big cracks while some mud houses in Chatroo, Thathri, Bhaderwah areas have collapsed,” an official in Jammu said.
9 children reported injured, 5 in Gandoh Village and 4 in Bhot Village of Doda District
- We are mentioning also a M4.5 aftershock
- Chandigarh : slight damage to buildings like plaster cracks, bricks fall

Screen Shot 2013-05-01 at 18.40.52Update 09:27 UTC : @imsabbah writes on twitter : My home damaged. School and kids okay, alhamdulillah. Damage reported in nearby villages as well; nothing major though.
- The Department of Earth Sciences India is stating in his report that : This earthquake is likely to cause slight to moderate damage to poorly built structures in and around the epicentral area. The earthquake focal mechanism is mainly Reverse Faulting (compression of 2 tectonic plates – South West to North East)

Update 09:13 UTC : 4 children were injured when a school building collapsed in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kishtwar district. The children were being served mid-day meals when tremors hit the area.
In another (twitter) massage : 7 children & 2 teachers reported injured in 3 different schools. Some damage to structures in the region of Doda, Gandoh & Badarwah.

Update 08:57 UTC : So far we have only reports of slight damage, but based on our broad experience, we know that it will take many hours before we will know whether landslides have made additional damage. We assume that Rescue and Relief teams will now visit the whole area to assess the situation. As it is daylight, we think that we will know more in 2 to 4 hours from now.

Update 08:33 UTC : The same area had a HUGE M7.8 (M8.6 following other sources) shallow earthquake on April 4, 1905 (our map shows April 4 1904 and has a slightly different epicenter location. (see also map below). This earthquake killed 19000 people !
The earliest large Indian earthquake for which a well documented instrumental magnitude (8.62) can be assigned. This was a great disaster; the loss of life is stated as 19,000. Instrumental data are not adequate to fix the epicenter. The meizoseismal area, including Kangra, was on the Tertiary rocks of the foothills of the Himalaya. An isolated area of high intensity, lower than that at Kangra but not approached elsewhere, included Dehra Dun, also in the foothills; this was separated from the Kangra meizoseismal area by about 100 miles. The available evidence does not support the idea of two separate earthquakes; it is more likely that there was a great linear extent of faulting.
Another similar report speaks of : Catastrophic earthquake in which a large number of people were killed in the region between Kangra and Dera Dun. The loss of life is stated as 19,000. The shock was felt with an intensity VII at Chamba, Patankot, Lahore, Nagan, Bajaura, Bilaspur and Kasauli. At Tir, Dera Dun and Saharanpur, VIII. The shock was felt in Quetta, with a radius of perceptibility of more than 1,200 km. Probable faulting extending from Kangra to Dera Dun.
ER : Of course the Magnitude of the 1905 earthquake was much much much stronger than today’s earthquake. This information shows however that this is a dangerous area.

Bhaderwah, village closest to the epicenter (17 km following USGS) Image courtesy Savoshinde

Bhaderwah, village closest to the epicenter (17 km following USGS) Image courtesy Savoshinde

Update 08:29 UTC : Telephone lines are jammed and it is very difficult to reach the people in the valley because of massive call traffic. ER : always the same story : people should not use voice lines but use SMS (text) messages instead. The capacity of SMS messages is far greater without voice calls than with voice calls.

Update 08:25 UTC : Reports reaching The Kashmir Life say that the intensity of the earthquake was so huge that people fled out of their homes. “WE were in the court room and it shock like hell and we fled out,” leading lawyer Asim Hashmi told the Kashmir Life. “The court developed cracks and I am told my home also has cracks.”
Details suggest that a number of houses were grounded in certain areas. The details are being collected. The losses are reported from Kishtwar, Bhaderwah and Doda. Not much of the details are right now available about what happened in the villages of the valley. Unconfirmed reports even said that a hospital that was newly built has suffered damage.

Update 08:22 UTC : Preliminary reports said several properties in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have sustained damage but the same could not be confirmed.

Update 08:16 UTC : We invite our India – Pakistan readers to send us news of eventual damage if this would be reported in local media. You can send it to the following email :  armand@quakemail.org (photos and videos are  welcome too)

Update 08:09 UTC : According to new initial reports, about six buildings have suffered minor damages including two schools in Bhaderwah.  As can be seen at our 08:06 update, Bladerwah is at only 17 km from the epicenter according to the USGS

Update 08:06 UTC : USGS has updated his data and now reports a Magnitude of 5.4 at a depth of 9.8 km. (we want to stress however that USGS is only one of the reporting agencies and the values are not always the most accurate ones). These are the new USGS epicneter parameters :
17km (11mi) NE of Bhadarwah, India
24km (15mi) SSE of Kishtwar, India
25km (16mi) E of Doda, India
65km (40mi) NNW of Chamba, India
268km (167mi) ESE of Islamabad, Pakistan

Update 08:03 UTC : Earthquake-report.com fears more and more for a grim outlook as this is a very mountainous populated region. LANDSLIDES are our main fear as well as the way villages have been build against the slopes as can be seen on the image below (image courtesy J D Pahadi).

Image courtesy JD Pahadi

Image courtesy JD Pahadi

Update 07:53 UTC : The situation looks grim as we could trace that damage / collapse of buildings was reported in the Chamba region of Himachal Pradesh and Kishawad in Jammu and Kashmir. 

Update 07:36 UTC :
Population numbers in the epicenter area (based on the EMSC epicenter) :
130 km SE of Srīnagar, India / pop: 975,857
8 km S of Kishtwār, India / pop: 20,553

Update 07:34 UTC :Buildings shook in Delhi, offices and homes were evacuated in parts of Kashmir, and tremors were reported across the border in Lahore and Islamabad in Pakistan.

Update 07:30 UTC : EMSC has now changed the earthquake parameters from M5.3 at 60 km to M5.7 at 51 km.

Update 07:30 UTC : IMD (Meteorological Department of India) is reporting a very dangerous depth of 15 km. Let’s hope that they are not right and that the hypocenter will be deeper. 4.4 million people are living within a radius of 100 km from the epicenter.
People in affected cities came out of their homes immediately after the tremors were felt.

Update 07:26 UTC : The I Have Felt It MMI’s we are receiving from our readers are indicating a strong shaking in Northern India. As every earthquake is being felt differently by people, this earthquake gives us a bad feeling. We hope to bring as fast as possible some news from the epicenter area

Update 07:23 UTC : This earthquake proves another time that showing the different reported data is a plus as they are very contradictory at this moment. In Indie also a 5.7 Magnitude has been reported.

Update 07:19 UTC : USGS is however reporting a strong M5.7 earthquake at a depth of 10 km which would make this earthquake VERY dangerous. We think however that the intermediate depth will be more likely.

Update 07:12 UTC : We are relatively happy to tell you that it looks like it was (only) a M5.1 at 60 km depth

Update 07:04 UTC : We have still no clue what exactly happened, but most of our readers are coming from North India

Update : This earthquake is also felt in India and the UAE

Screen Shot 2013-05-01 at 09.20.46

17km (11mi) NE of Bhadarwah, India
23km (14mi) SSE of Kishtwar, India
24km (15mi) E of Doda, India
66km (41mi) NNW of Chamba, India
267km (166mi) ESE of Islamabad, Pakistan

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 5.6

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2013-05-01 12:27:22

GMT/UTC Time : 2013-05-01 06:57:22

Depth (Hypocenter)  : 40 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
Click on the “I Felt It” button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
EMSC Eastern Kashmir May 01 09:19 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It INFO
GEOFON Eastern Kashmir May 01 09:19 4.8 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Eastern Kashmir May 01 09:19 4.6 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Eastern Kashmir May 01 06:57 5.6 40 MAP I Felt It INFO
  • Chandigarh - Unpleasant experience, chairs shook and it continued for about 15 seconds.
  • Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India - moderate shaking for 5 seconds
  • Amritsar - Shaking desk in Amritsar, Punjab at approximately 12.26/27 - local time.
  • Karnal, India - Felt my bed shake a couple of times. I am quite sure it is earthquake.
  • New Delhi - It was very slow
  • amritsar - earthquake felt
  • New Delhi - It was all shaking
  • GURGAON - Believe me, it was fun this time around as we are getting habitual of earthquakes these days!!
  • Hafizabad - I just felt a moderate earthquake
  • Phagwara,punjab - felt like someone was jumping on the floor. later i realised that i was in the forth floor and it was an earthquake ..
  • Chandigarh - Earthquake felt for 5 sec
  • amritsar punjab india - i felt 2 minute ago medium earth quake on 1 may 2013
  • Noida - Brief but moderate shaking. Could be felt by many.. Entire floor in my office vacated! Stay Safe! Peace
  • New Delhi - feel it
  • New Delhi - Felt like i was rocking lightly
  • Bazidpur,nawanshahr,Punjab,india - A weak shaking was expirienced approximate at 12:35 pm on May 1,2013. No any economic or physical trouble comes..
  • North india - Mild Earthquake felt in Punjab
  • islamabad - Felt earthquake chok in Office....walls, fan and floor were visibly moving
  • Chandigarh, Chandigarh - We all felt it !!Twice..
  • delhi, India - felt at 12:35 IST
  • Islamabad - Felt like light shifting, not really jolting. Must have been a distance away.
  • Lahore - Just felt it a few mins ago Scary
  • Noida - Alarm at office went out and we felt shaking on 4th floor
  • Ludhiana - Feel earthquake
  • Chandigarh, Punjab India - My worksttion started shaking i thought my collegue is kicking it skeleton. But we all realised that was earthquake. Lasted for 7 seconds at 1230 hrs on 1 may 2013
  • kaputhala,jalandhar, punjab - was for just a second and my bed was shaking strongly
  • jalandhar city,punjab,india - felt strong tremors for about a minute at 12.28 pm
  • Chandigarh - Felt like someone pushed me
  • Chandigarh - The tables and chairs at my work shook for about 4-5 seconds.. Everyone in the office noticed the shaking.
  • Central New Delhi, India - Barely noticebale and I was located on the 3rd floor of an office building. A few hanging signs were lightly swaying in my office. Lasted 10-15 seconds.
  • Ambala - 1st May 2013, @ 12:38 hrs i felt sudden shaking and saw all the things like fans shaking and fish in aquarium were also agitated a bit more than usual
  • Gurgaon - There were mild tremors for not more than 20 seconds
  • Delhi - The water on the table was moving
  • Gurgaon, India - Felt my chair sway
  • noida - it was not so shaky
  • Lahore, Pakistan - felt earthquake multiple time. All ppl in our building get out to get safe.
  • gurdaspur - I Was Siting an my. bed was shaking
  • Srinagar J&K - My building shaked moderately for quite a few seconds.I felt it more that last time. very recently we experienced a similar one but I think this was a stronger one...??
  • Lahore - a couple of bursts of shaking over 30-45 seconds
  • Islamabad - I have felt it for about 4-5 seconds.
  • Chandigarh - I was sleeping and felt the bed was shaking. This is the first time i experienced earthquake in my life.
  • Jalandhar - Very Shaking and strong jolt
  • Noida - Felt it a little bit
  • Ganderbal kashmir - My com comes down from my table .My window open automaticly
  • delhi - felt earthquake
  • LUDHIANA - IT WAS MOST SHAKING
  • Delhi - Small tremors in New Delhi and Noida
  • Chandigarh - Two noticeable shakes; tabled shook for at least 5-10 seconds.
  • jammu - nthin much ..:
  • Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh - (Tremors intensified over time. No visible damage to buildings in the area. No items displaced. Items on shelves rattled. Tables rattled.
  • sultanpur lodhi(kapurthala) - Felt my bed shake a for few seconds ,then I am quite sure it is earthquake.
  • Mohali - We all felt it at Mohali
  • Gurgaon, India - On the 6th floor of the office building in Gurgaon, India next to New Delhi. Good 2 minutes of an earthquake. The building was swaying. Much stronger than what was felt a few days back which originated from the Iranian-Afghani border....
  • Doabgah - It was a moderate earthquake.
  • Gurgaon - Shaking was strong enough to move my chair back and frth, towards east west rocking
  • IMT Manesar, Gurgaon - I am working in my office and I felt that the building is shaking.
  • nawanshahr - I saw my table shaking.
  • Lahoer, Pakistan - Walls and floor shaked and desks viberated as well
  • National Institute of Pathology(ICMR) SJ - I did not felt shaking but people around me told me about the earthquake
  • jalandhar,punjab - my computer table started shaking ...myy god!!!! first time i felt such a strong earthquake
  • lahore - bed shooked
  • Gurgaon - The ground shook all of a sudden, for approx 10 seconds, the tremor was moderate.
  • jalandhar - Strong tremors. Fan, tables and chairs shook strongly. Whole building was avacuated.
  • noida - felt like I am going to faint..
  • Chandigarh - The chairs and computers screen were shaking.
  • Srinagar - It was frightening... happened at 12:30 IST on 1st May 2013... we ran out of our offices out into the open
  • Pauanui - Sounded like a Quarry blast
  • Lahore Cantonment - I first assumed my legs were trembling. Then we all realized the earth was shaking!
  • Lahore, Pakistan - short lived but intense.
  • chandigarh, india - Earthquake in chandigarh
  • Gujrat, Pakistan - I was sitting on the couch and it started to move two and fro for 3-4 seconds.
  • Lahore - First it was weak, then within five seconds it became strong enough to shake a four flour building I was in!
  • delhi - horrible
  • ludhiana - moderate shaking
  • Chandigarh - Felt it for a while and building of my workplace started shaking lightly..
  • Chandigarh - I was seating in the office on first floor. it was moderate shaking when i felt that my chair is being shaken by something. i took no time to recognize that it was earthquake. i immediately left my seat and also told my colleagues to come out to ground.. Hope all is well and no loss of life has happened.
  • Patiala - Felt shaning in the office like chair and fans
  • Gurgaon - It was a very minor shake feeling, we didn't realized until we confirmed with each other.
  • Chandigarh - very less shaking
  • Pulwama - I Was on The second floor of my house .i felt whole building started moving.
  • noida - light earthquake shake felt. my workstation, desk was shaking. felt the floor shake as well inside my building. Immediate evacuation.
  • India , chandigarh - the chairs and computer screen were shaking
  • MACHHIWARA LUDHIANA - I FEEL MY CHAIR VIBRATING
  • Chandigarh - It was of intensity of around 5
  • New Delhi - Desks and chairs moved
  • Islamabad - short but strong shaking as we felt it well and are in a very solid building
  • hoshiarpur - Bed was shaking.
  • Lahore - Lahore shaked.. :O
  • jalandhar,punjab, india - The Earthquake was so strong that i was in the room and my bed,table was sounding like musical instruments...i was totally scared and i went to outside...tg
  • Ludhiana - I was working on my laptop, sitting on bed. I felt that my bed is moving and glass of showcase is making sound.
  • mirpur - Strong but short shaking
  • Ferozepur - I felt shaking of my bed on which i was sitting and ask my Mother to move out of the house immediately. All my neighbours even came out of their houses.
  • mandi, hp - Floor shook
  • Jalandhar - It was very powerful
  • Guargaon - i felt my chhair is shaking on which i was sitting in office. our office sirens hoot up and immediately our office premises got vaccant.
  • Ludhiana - Foi uma agitação moderada, o meu guarda fato moveu um pouquinho e não foi mesmo agradavel
  • Lalamusa, Gujrat Pakistan - Light shaking was observed. I usually do not notice th earthquakes but this time I did.
  • Zakura, Srinagar - I was in my working room situated in the 2nd floor and felt a moderate shaking.I called my friend who is from Handwara some 80 Kms from srinagar said that the shaking observed was of the moderate magnitude.
  • AKSIPS41 - I did not felt shaking but people around me told me about the earthquake
  • Lahore pakistan - Azzlolinna........io tarmo a casa.
  • Noida, India - Chair shook. Went outside. Came back after 10 minutes.
  • Ludhiana - My computer was shaking and I think I was having something in my head
  • amritsar - Earthquake comes 2 times first was for 2-3 sec and the second one was for 5-6 sec.But both was too Strong.
  • ludhiana - i was lying on bed when i felt it......cool....
  • chandigarh - sitting in beant singh library i was first to alarm about earthquake
  • gurdaspur - it was very strong shaking while i was studying in my school. every one is scared.the chair of our principal fell down on which.but my she was standing os she don't get any harm.
  • chandigarh - it was first time in my life when i experienced such a strong shocks of earthquake.
  • Ludhiana - Ai Galera! Esse terremoto foi legal... a gente abanou abanou e abanou muito, por 5 seguntos... foi muito maneiro phó!!!! Edivaldo
  • nangal township - i was in my office & a first chamce with me & i afraid
  • gurgaon,haryana,INDIA - i was on a call with a client and suddenly i felt some shaking initially i ignored but later on i felt it again. after that we all ran towards the ground floor where we all gathered and discussed about this thing...
  • Chandigarh - I was studying in library and I felt everything around me is shaking.It was around 12:28 pm.My books and laptop were shaking.Then I realised it was an earthquake.
  • baramula - It simply refreshed the memories of the last earthquake of 2005 , but thankfully it didn't continue for a longer period as it did the last time.
  • Maharashtra - It was a very scary experience.
  • fujairah uae - i felt for a a second weak shaking
  • islamabad - 1 ayda 3 defa sarsıldık ben 2 sini hissettim
  • mac leod ganj - la secousse à durée quelques secondes les gens sont sorti rapidement des batiments un peu effrayés
  • India - Felt very mild shaking
  • Roorkee, IIT Roorkee - I had feel this earthquake while sitting on chair in my office on the first floor Dr Daya Shanker, Earthquake Engg. Department, IIT Roorkee, Uttaranchal India
  • South Delhi, India - I don't think people notice it..but my heartbeat rose. I went down from second floor of the building I live in. None just me alone was downstairs.
  • Ludhiana - I was in Office, sitting on chair suddenly my chair started shaking and my water bottle too, Mother Earth was showing her power. I prayed her for all well being. It calmed down.
  • Noida - it was light shaking
  • Gurgaon - Was on floor 5th in my office felt moderate shaking of chair in Gurgaon.
  • Ladakh - feeling very giddy. chairs, table, cupboards, vases, books, glasses etc. are rocking. in outside homes and buildings shaking like rocking cradle.
  • Dushanbe - very beautiful shaking
  • GEOFON Eastern Kashmir May 01 06:57 5.6 17 MAP I Felt It
  • Bhaderwah - Scary
  • Doda - as I am from a hilly area(doda) n earthquakes are. common here..we have seen many of them..but severely saying this kind of devastating earthquake I had never ever seen in my life..it shook up everything....I can't xplain excatly what I had experienced....everything was shaking...may the creator protects us..
  • USGS Eastern Kashmir May 01 06:57 5.4 9 MAP I Felt It


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    SHARE YOUR EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE WITH US

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    Country where you felt the earthquake
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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