Potential Tsunami from M7.7 earthquake off Alaska – ALL WARNINGS and ADVISORIES are now CANCELED

Last update: January 5, 2013 at 11:48 pm by By

Earthquake overview : A major earthquake has struck off the Alaskan coast with the potential for a tsunami. Finally, no dangerous tsunami was generated but during a couple of hours people had to evacuate to higher grounds in many locations
Alaska-only earthquake list

Keep this page open to read more details when they become available
Most recent information on top – Start of the article at the bottom

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Screen Shot 2013-01-05 at 17.54.34Tectonic Summary
The January 5, 2013 M 7.5 earthquake off the west coast of southeastern Alaska occurred as a result of shallow strike-slip faulting on or near the plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates.  At the location of this earthquake, the Pacific plate is moving approximately northwestward with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of 51 mm/yr.
This earthquake is likely associated with relative motion across the Queen Charlotte fault system offshore of British Columbia, Canada, which forms the major expression of the Pacific:North America plate boundary in this region. The surrounding area of the plate boundary has hosted 8 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater over the past 40 years; In 1949, a M 8.1 earthquake occurred close to the Pacific:North America plate boundary approximately 230 km to the south east of the January 5th earthquake,  as a result of strike-slip faulting. In October of 2012, a M 7.8 earthquake occurred approximately 330 km to the south east of the January 5th event, slightly inboard of the plate boundary, and was associated with oblique-thrust faulting. The latter earthquake was likely an expression of the oblique component of deformation along this plate boundary system. The January 5th, 2013 earthquake is related to that Haida Gwai earthquake three months previously, and is an expression of deformation along the same plate boundary system.

Update 16:52 UTC : This earthquake was shallow, strike-slip and possible on Queen Charlotte Fault & few 100 km N of Haida Gwaii thrust quake
- We thank our many readers to send us your experiences almost immediately after the shaking stopped and before we got the official seismological data

Update 13:24 UTC : Most of the Pacific West Coast people  (USA, Alaska and Canada) have returned to their beds
- Only few of them will feel the many moderate aftershocks which will continue for many days and even weeks

Update 12:31 UTC : Most recent and normally last Tsunami bulletin for Alaska, British Columbia and the West Coast

PUBLIC TSUNAMI MESSAGE NUMBER 4 - NWS WEST COAST/ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PALMER AK
158 AM AKST SAT JAN 5 2013

…THE TSUNAMI WARNING IS CANCELLED…

CANCELLATIONS
————-
* THE TSUNAMI WARNING IS CANCELED FOR THE COASTAL AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALASKA FROM THE NORTH TIP OF VANCOUVER ISLAND BRITISH COLUMBIA TO CAPE FAIRWEATHER ALASKA/LOCATED 80 MILES SE OF YAKUTAT/

IMPACTS – UPDATED
—————–
* A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED DURING THIS EVENT BUT NO LONGER POSES A THREAT.
* SOME AREAS MAY CONTINUE TO SEE SMALL SEA LEVEL CHANGES.
* THE DETERMINATION TO RE-OCCUPY HAZARD ZONES MUST BE MADE BY LOCAL OFFICIALS.

RECOMMENDED ACTIONS – UPDATED
—————————–
* DO NOT RE-OCCUPY HAZARD ZONES UNTIL LOCAL EMERGENCY OFFICIALS INDICATE IT IS SAFE TO DO SO.

OBSERVATIONS OF TSUNAMI ACTIVITY – UPDATED
——————————————
TIME OBSERVED MAX  SITE OF MEASUREMENT TSUNAMI HEIGHT
—————————- ————— ————–
PORT ALEXANDER AK 1026 UTC 01-05 – 00.5FT
SITKA AK 1041 UTC 01-05 – 00.3FT

HEIGHT – OBSERVED MAX TSUNAMI HEIGHT IS THE WATER LEVEL ABOVE THE
TIDE LEVEL AT THE TIME OF MEASUREMENT.

DEEP OCEAN PRESSURE SENSORS DID NOT RECORD A TSUNAMI.

Update 11:01 UTC : GREAT NEWS :  ALL WARNINGS and ADVISORIES are now CANCELED

Update 10:44 UTC : Nothing really dramatic has happened and will probably not happen also.
Port Alexander, Alaska, sees 6-inch rise in sea level after magnitude 7.5 earthquake
Some warnings remain in effect but maybe downgraded soon :  THE COASTAL AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALASKA FROM THE NORTH TIP OF VANCOUVER ISLAND BRITISH COLUMBIA TO CAPE FAIRWEATHER ALASKA/LOCATED 80 MILES SE OF YAKUTAT/

PARTLY GOOD NEWS

A NUMBER OF ADVISORY and WARNING CANCELLATIONS
-------------
* THE TSUNAMI ADVISORY IS CANCELED FOR THE COASTAL AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE WASHINGTON-BRITISH COLUMBIA BORDER TO THE NORTH TIP OF VANCOUVER ISLAND BRITISH COLUMBIA
* THE TSUNAMI WARNING IS CANCELED FOR THE COASTAL AREAS OF ALASKA FROM CAPE FAIRWEATHER ALASKA/LOCATED 80 MILES SE OF YAKUTAT/ TO CAPE SUCKLING ALASKA/LOCATED 75 MILES SE OF CORDOVA/
* THE TSUNAMI ADVISORY IS CANCELED FOR THE COASTAL AREAS OF ALASKA FROM CAPE SUCKLING ALASKA/LOCATED 75 MILES SE OF CORDOVA/ TO KENNEDY ENTRANCE ALASKA/LOCATED 40 MILES SW OF HOMER/

Update 10:18 UTC :  Some distances from the epicenter to important locations on land
106km (66mi) WSW of Craig, Alaska
304km (189mi) WNW of Prince Rupert, Canada
341km (212mi) S of Juneau, Alaska
404km (251mi) WNW of Terrace, Canada
610km (379mi) S of Whitehorse, Canada

Screen Shot 2013-01-05 at 11.55.02

…THE TSUNAMI WARNINGS REMAINS IN EFFECT…
…THE TSUNAMI ADVISORIES REMAINS IN EFFECT…

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Update 10:08 UTC :  Good news for the broader connected Pacific / Statement for the Pacific Tsunami and weather Center :

NO TSUNAMI THREAT EXISTS FOR OTHER COASTAL AREAS IN THE PACIFIC  ALTHOUGH SOME OTHER AREAS MAY EXPERIENCE SMALL NON-DESTRUCTIVE  SEA LEVEL CHANGES LASTING UP TO SEVERAL HOURS.

Update 10:12 UTC : Tsunami advisory in effect for Prince Rupert. RCMP members going door to door and evacuating residents close to the shore.

Update 10:04 UTC : USGS has now downgraded the Magnitude from 7.7 to 7.5 with a little change in intensities but an important change for an eventual Tsunami potential

Update 09:49 UTC : A visual overview of the Tsunami a warning (red) and Tsunami advisory (orange) locations along the coast. Red means get away from the coast and walk urgently to higher grounds – Orange : be aware of strong waves and potentially higher tides

Screen Shot 2013-01-05 at 10.39.01

Update 09:34 UTC : Our main concern goes to the fisheries in case of a widespread tsunami.

A tsunami Warning is now in effect which includes the coastal areas of British Columbia and Alaska from the north tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Cape Suckling, Alaska (75 miles SE of Cordova).

Tsunami arrival times if any : 

* BRITISH COLUMBIA
- LANGARA          0129  PST JAN  5
- TOFINO           0314  PST JAN  5

* ALASKA
- SITKA            0045 AKST JAN  5
- ELFIN COVE       0056 AKST JAN  5
- CRAIG            0113 AKST JAN  5
- YAKUTAT          0145 AKST JAN  5
- SEWARD           0224 AKST JAN  5
- VALDEZ           0238 AKST JAN  5
- CORDOVA          0247 AKST JAN  5
- HOMER            0338 AKST JAN  5 – Sitka should be in 23 mins or so that we see the first signs

Tsunami warning visually

Screen Shot 2013-01-05 at 10.24.02

Update 09:21 UTC : USGS has calculated that a strong MMI VI shaking should have been experienced at Craig (pop. 1000) and Petersburg (pop. 3000), Moderate shaking at Wrangell (pop. 2000). Many coastal locations are currently evacuating the shores and people are going to evacuation places on higher ground.

Update 09:16 UTC : Intensity III in Ketchikan, quite close to the epicenter. Intensity V average further in land. The shaking values are not extreme which is a good sign for the damages on properties. Only the Tsunami warning remains

Update 09:14 UTC :  Prince of Wales Island is pretty uninhabited so shaking should be ok

Update : We have a lot of Canadian users in the site which (seen the hour of the night) means that they have felt the earthquake too.

TSUNAMI WARNING IN EFFECT FOR...

 * THE COASTAL AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALASKA FROM THE
   NORTH TIP OF VANCOUVER ISLAND BRITISH COLUMBIA TO CAPE
   SUCKLING ALASKA/LOCATED 75 MILES SE OF CORDOVA/

TSUNAMI ADVISORY IN EFFECT FOR...

 * THE COASTAL AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE
   WASHINGTON-BRITISH COLUMBIA BORDER TO THE NORTH TIP OF
   VANCOUVER ISLAND BRITISH COLUMBIA

 * THE COASTAL AREAS OF ALASKA FROM CAPE SUCKLING
   ALASKA/LOCATED 75 MILES SE OF CORDOVA/ TO KENNEDY ENTRANCE
   ALASKA/LOCATED 40 MILES SW OF HOMER/

Update : Geofon Germany reports a Magnitude of 7.4

First update – Massive earthquake in Alaska
We have just received the report that a massive 7.8 Magnitude quake struck Alaska
More details in a moment

Most important Earthquake Data:
Magnitude : M7.7
UTC Time : 5th January 2013, 08:58:19 UTC
Local time at epicenter : 4th January 2013, 23:58:19 UTC-09:00
Depth (Hypocenter) : 9.9km
Geo-location(s) : 101 km (63 miles) SW (221 degrees) of Edna Bay, AK
102 km (64 miles) W (259 degrees) of Craig, AK
106 km (66 miles) S (182 degrees) of Port Alexander, AK
314km (195mi) WNW of Prince Rupert, Canada
335km (208mi) S of Juneau, Alaska
1032 km (641 miles) NW (315 degrees) of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Links to important maps
USGS Did You Feel It Map
Google satellite map showing the epicenter and the surrounding area
Historic earthquakes map
Shaking map
Scientific parameters
Human impact map
NOAA tsunami report

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SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 21:26 4.0 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 20:43 4.2 7 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 19:53 3.9 5 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Off Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 15:41 4.5 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 15:41 4.4 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 15:32 4.0 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Andreanof Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Jan 05 14:05 2.5 25 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 13:45 3.5 10 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:28 5.1 5 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:28 5.1 14 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:28 5.1 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:28 5.4 10 MAP I Felt It
WCATWC 75 Miles Nw Of Dixon Entrance Alaska Jan 05 12:28 5.4 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:24 3.7 14 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 12:05 3.8 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 11:39 4.0 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Northern Alaska Jan 05 11:22 2.9 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southern Alaska Jan 05 10:18 2.5 100 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 10:11 4.8 2 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 10:11 5.1 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 10:11 4.8 7 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 10:11 4.8 7 MAP I Felt It
USGS Central Alaska Jan 05 09:53 3.0 67 MAP I Felt It
PTWC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:43 7.6 5 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:41 4.2 16 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:41 4.2 16 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:32 4.5 9 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:32 4.5 9 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Off Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:27 4.7 2 MAP I Felt It
USGS Off The Coast Of Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:27 4.7 9 MAP I Felt It
PTWC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 09:06 7.7 5 MAP I Felt It
EMSC Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 08:58 7.5 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 08:58 7.5 9 MAP I Felt It
GEOFON Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 08:58 7.5 10 MAP I Felt It
USGS Southeastern Alaska Jan 05 08:58 7.7 5 MAP I Felt It
  • Juneau, Alaska - I actually feel a bit nauseated by the wobbling of the house. My bedroom door was waving around and things were falling off shelves.
  • Terrace, Canada - shook the house
  • Petersburg Alaksa - strongest longest quake ever here
  • Juneau alaska - House shaking enough that I could hear wine glasses in the kitchen tinkle together on the shelf. Lasted 30 sec? 2 min?
  • Smithers bc - got me out of bed with the shaking - i felt a rumble and the wood frame house crack - chandeliers swinging - not as bad as the recent earthquake we felt from haida gwaii a couple months ago
  • Haida Gwaii - Steady rumble, shaking...plants dancing, chandelier sways...nerves bouncing once again...in the village of queen charlotte, up a rock hill
  • Terrace - Thought my son was shaking his leg waiting for the Canada Russia Bronze medal game. Then family came upstairs asking if we felt that.
  • Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada - Felt like my house was slightly swaying. Not a big deal. It was nothing like what happened when there was that earthquake near Haida Gwaii.
  • Juneau Alaska - woke me up from a deep sleep, the house swaying i got up and weaved my way, holding onto to door frames and walls and got to outside door and it stopped.
  • Whitehorse Yukon - Felt a little movement in the house.
  • Tlell BC - House shifting and rocking regularly for about 10 seconds.
  • Kitimat BC - It lasted for about 4 minutes
  • Wrangell Alaska - The shaking was more intense than we've experienced before. So much so that we stood under a doorway. It seemed to last quite a while. The house shook and dishes rattled in the cupboards.
  • Watson Lake, Yukon - ornaments on Christmas tree shaking and hanging plants swaying
  • Juneau - Shook the Christmas Tree pretty good.
  • Whitehorse Yukon - I was recording guitar and I started swaying ... and it wasn't to the beat of the music!
  • Vanderhoof B.C. - Not as intense as the last one a few months ago, but it woke me up out of bed. House made creaking sounds and the lights were swaying.
  • South Hazelton, BC - I was at the computer and felt a moving like I was on the water in a boat after a 'wake'... looked at the hanging plant which was swinging like a pendulum.
  • Juneau - felt movement, Christmas decor swinging, nothing fell from shelves
  • Whitehorse Yukon - Felt shaking and mirror knocking against wall for several seconds
  • Wrangell, Alaska - It was like the movies, the entire house shook. Seemed to last about a minute. No damage that I can see but Yowza! First one I've experienced like that. Stay safe everyone around Alaska and Canada!
  • Terrace, BC - Working at the computer and felt my mobile home kind of swaying, wondered what was going on, looked at the shade on my lamp, but didn't see it moving. Thought it was an earthquake, and then my brother phoned to confirm that it was. I started shaking as a reaction.
  • Queen Charlotte, Haida Gwaii - It felt very different from the recent earthquake we experienced here (on HG). It almost felt circular and more irregular. The lights on the ceiling were still spinning after a few minutes.
  • Prince Rupert - Was watching movie an my chair started shaking an the whole aptment building ,,, lasted almost 2 minutes
  • New Westminster, B.C., Canada - New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada. Light shaking.
  • Terrace - chandlier was swaying, lazyboy was moving back and forth
  • Petersburg - Very strong in Petersburg - woke us all up
  • Ketchikan - Lasted for about 8-10 seconds...7.7 or 7.8, January 5, 2013. It surprised us while we were sitting and talking. Seemed to last a long time.
  • Petersburg - Scared enuf that I got baby outta bed and stood in door way. My other kid was in the rocking chair sleeping, swaying back an forth back and forth everything was shacking on the was dogs were barking!
  • Whitehorse, yt - laying in bed back against the wall and felt the wall shaking not once but a few times within a few minutes, this is not a normal occurance and have never experienced this before.
  • Whitehorse, Yukon - Felt within a basement of a house; items hanging loose swaying back and forth. Doug
  • Juneau - That was pretty cool.. Reminded me of some of the bigger quakes up in the interior of AK. No damage felt like being tossed about in the ferry with 70 kt wind, somewhat unnerving that it was the house and not a boat however!
  • Petersburg, ak - woke us up; house was definitely moving.
  • terrace bc - Was on the floor and had a hard time keeping my balance getting up
  • Smithers b.c Canada - Vet small but shocking for the little town of Smithers at 1:03in the morning the bed started shaking and my mind started spinning I didn't know what to think!!! But all is well there was no damage! Prayers and thoughts go out to all of the family's affected by the earthquake in Alaska and surrounding areas
  • West Juneau (near bridge) - heard a noise, i thought, then felt top floor of my 2 story house sway and shake a couple of times, with enough force to cause me to fall down when I stood up.
  • Terrace - Blinds were slightly swaying.Had a necklace hanging on my bedroom door knob and was also swaying back and forth,lasted about 5 to 10 seconds.
  • Terrace, B.C. - Doors swinging unbolted shelves moving away from walls aftershocks felt
  • Juneau AK - First experience. With an earthquake, not so bad lasted near 5 minutes
  • Prince Rupert - in bed when this happened the bed shook pretty darn good
  • Sitka, AK - No structural damage. Will need a couple of tubes of superglue for the small things.
  • Juneau, AK - I was playing my video game and all of sudden my house was swaying back and forth I had to go wake up my dad and stepmom. It lasted about a good 4 minutes.
  • Edna Bay - This was the strongest and longest quake I have felt. Shook the house pretty strongly to the point walking was a bit wobbly. Been through a lot of quakes including Oakland in 89 and this was the strongest by far.
  • Terrace BC N Sparks - Chair was shaking and christmas decorations on ceiling were swaying
  • Princeville, HI 96722 - The mild shaking lasted for about 30 sec. to a min...I'm guessing it's related to the quake in Alaska.
  • Tenakee springs - Woke me from a dead sleep saw clothes in closet swinging
  • Seattle, Washington - I was working on 57th floor of the Seattle Municipal Tower. Heard the building creaking, saw windows blinds and doors swaying. When I stood still I could feel the motion, like being on a ship.
  • Edna Bay - Like being on top a crazy washing machine. Boulders rolling down the hill. Dogs going nuts. Called my Mommy before it quit.
  • Juneau airport - Everyone in the baggage area felt a strong rolling motion, signs were rattling, a lot of swaying. I estimate it lasted a.few minutes, with a lingering feeling of stomach rolling, as if you just got off a boat.
  • Edna Bay - Pretty shaky. Up and out of house to higher ground
  • Nelson BC - Woke up this morning and turned to my husband and said 'there was an earthquake last night - did you feel it?' Then turned on the news to confirm. Light shaking just enough to wake me from sleep.
  • Moricetown, BC - Chandelier was swinging
  • Metlakatla - My husband and I were sleeping and woke up due our bed and shelves shaking.
  • Edmonds, WA - I was woken up by gentle shaking and slight rattling sounds in the house. Sat up while shaking and rattling continued- about 60 seconds from the time I woke up. I am unsure of the exact time.
  • Ketchikan - It sounded like a very very large rat in the wall - the only wall I had something on that rattled - a bunch of plastic hangers. I thougt something was after my bird in the next room..she went bonkers.
  • Gabriola Island, bc - Interesting effect of fault line location. despite proximity, i never felt this one or the one in the queen charlottes in october (i was in victoria then). for both quakes, there were no comments from vancouver island, but people felt it all the way in alberta!
  • Terrace bc - Felt like being on a boat in choppy waters
  • Haida Gwaii - At first thought it was someone jumping in the hallway. My mom, who remembered the one in 1949 told me to go. My son and I ran to the doorway. My moms house is on bedrock and we shook badly. I wouldn't have wanted to feel what those on the loose soil by the beach felt. NEVER want to go through another one like that.
  • USGS Andreanof Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Jan 05 06:30 2.7 36 MAP I Felt It
    EMSC Unimak Island Region, Alaska Jan 05 04:14 4.9 20 MAP I Felt It
    USGS Unimak Island Region, Alaska Jan 05 04:14 4.5 23 MAP I Felt It

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    Country where you felt the earthquake
    City/Village where you felt the earthquake
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?
    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
    Walls and frames of buildings, and partitions and suspended ceilings in commercial buildings, may be heard to creak.
    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?
    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?
    People Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or "easy glide" drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?
    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?
    People Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected. Structures : Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down. Environment : Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?
    Structures Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames. Environment : Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.
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