The impact of cultural and religious influences during natural disasters – References

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The impact of cultural and religious influences during natural disasters  

References

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APPENDIX

1 Krakatau Responses

1.1 Religious Responses

Methodology (see Section 4.3.1)
- God
- Allah
- Pray
- Day of Judgement/Last Judgement
- Spirit
- Antoe Laoet (the sea ghost)
- Koran

The Results of the Krakatoa Eruption, Anon (1885), Science 6 (139), p. 291 – 293

  • At the bottom of one of these ravines [on the island of Sebesie], in the midst of the remains of houses and household utensils, 50 shelters were found lying about. Sebesie was inhabited by 2,000 Malays; and the unfortunate natives, unable to escape the hail of burning projectiles resigned themselves to their fate, and gathered together to invoke divine protection by means of their Koran, which was found in many places scorched and torn among the ruins.

Theme of article: Report of the aftermath by two messengers; Rene Breon and Korthals

Profession of the author(s): N/A

Cultural Politics of natural disasters: Discourse on volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Schlehe J (2008), IN: Culture and the Changing Environment, Bergahn Books, Casimir M.J (eds), New York, p.275 – 299

  • Punishment from Allah, because Islamic law had been violated
  • Faithful saw it as an admonition from Allah to combat the unfaithful

Theme of article: Looking at cultures around volcanic disasters
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Vulcan’s fury: Man against the volcano, Scarth A (1999), Yale University Press, New Haven and London, p. 145 – 146

  • First class passengers could hear the chain-boys and coolies praying for help, whilst the Muslims amongst them intoned “La Ellaha ele Allah” (There is not God but Allah)

Theme of article: Humanity and volcanic eruptions
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Surfing the scriptures after the tsunami, Sugartharajah R.S (2006), Theology CIX (851), p. 323 – 333

  • Last time there was a tsunami in Indonesia (1883), Muslim clergy in Java made connections between the disaster, God’s judgement and colonial rule
  • The tragedy of Krakatoa was the final omen and the mullahs immediately pounced upon these averts as God’s sign, and used them to strengthen their hold on the people and to whip up anti-colonial sentiments
  • Message of mullah was that Allah was angry because they were acquiescing in rule by foreign infidels

Theme of the article: Historic representation of what happened after Krakatau
Profession of the author(s): Historian

Krakatoa, Winchester S (2005), Viking, London

  • References in Java to a mysterious monarch, Jayabaya, who was told about the eruption by a Hindu God called Narraddha

Theme of the article: Mainstream book that explains the impacts of Krakatau
Profession of the author(s): Writer

The Krakatoa Eruption, Neale P (1885), Leisure Hour p.348

  • The followers of Mohammed, clinging tenaciously to their fatalistic creed, calmly said ‘It is Allah’ and resigned themselves to their fate. In times of difficultly and anger the natives of Java, and indeed the whole of the Malay Archipelago are some of the most helpless and useless people under the sun.

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Reverend

Krakatoa – Preparing For The Future?, Johnson D (2004), World News and Prophecy, Chapter 4

  • “A fearful explosion. A frightful sound, I am writing this in pitch darkness. We are under a continual rain of pumice-stone and dust. So violent are the explosions that the eardrums of over half my crew have been shattered. My last thoughts are with my dear wife. I am convinced that the Day of Judgement has come” (Captain Sampson of HMS Norham Castle)

Theme of the article: Looking forward to what the future of Krakatau might bring
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

Volcanoes and Earthquakes, Buchanan H.B.M (1893), Sunday at Home, 2021, p.181

  • “Why this awful destruction? Is there no more merciful means, whereby the laws of God could work, except in this apparently cruel manner?”

Theme of the article: Acknowledging the power of natural disasters to a large audience (unscientific)
Profession of the author(s): Reverend

The Island That Went Straight Up, Ellis R (2003), The New York Times, Section 7, Column 1, Book Review Desk, p. 9

  • Many people thought it was the end of the world or the Day of Judgement
  • Willingness of the Javanese to blame the gods for the destruction of their islands and villages opened the door to Islamic militants who rapidly gained the hearts and minds of the people, making modern Indonesia the largest Muslim country in the world

Theme of the article: Review of Winchester’s book
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

The Big Bang, Jablow V (2003), the Washington Post, Book World, p. 9

  • The numerous and impoverish native peoples are silent in Winchester’s book, except for an occasional reference to their ‘fatalistic acceptance’ and their apparent belief that the eruption occurred when the spirit inhabiting Krakatoa was angered

Theme of the article: Review of Winchester’s book
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

The moon turned blue or sometimes green, Baker P (2010), Newstex, Web blog

  • No doubt scientists will tell us there are perfectly rational explanations for the volcanic activity. But surely the involvement of angry gods cannot be completely ruled out
  • So if the God’s really are involved, let’s hope they’re not as angry as they were in South East Asia in 1883. On that occasion, they lost their head altogether conspiring in a massive volcanic event that put the small island of Krakatoa on the map and, simultaneously, almost took it off again

Theme of this article: God’s anger and natural disasters
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

Volcanoes in Human History: The Far-reaching effects of major eruptions, de Boer J.Z and Sanders D.T (2002), Princeton University Press, Princeton

  • “A horrifying spectacle presented itself to our eyes; the coasts of Java, as those of Sumatra, were entirely destroyed. Everywhere the same grey and gloomy colour prevailed. The villages and trees had disappeared; we could not even see any ruins, for the waves had demolished and swallowed up the inhabitants, their homes, and their plantations…This was truly a scene of the Last Judgement”

Theme of the article: Global impacts of volcanic eruptions
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Krakatau, Anon. (1889), Edinburgh Review 169, p.152 – 153

  • The natives on board were busily engaged in putting out the corposants (balls of fire) with their hands, for fear the ‘evil spirits’ would scuttle the ship

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): N/A

On the volcanic phenomena of the eruption, and on the nature and distribution of the ejected materials, Judd J.W (1888), IN: The eruption of Krakatoa and subsequent phenomena of the Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society, Symons G.J (eds), p.1 – 56

  • The natives pleaded that if this phosphorent light, or any portion of it, found its way below, a hole would burst the ship,; not that they feared the ship taking fire, but they though the light was the work of evil spirits, and that if the ill-omened found its way below the evil spirits would triumph in their design to scuttle the ship

Theme of the article: Overview of the findings of the eruptions
Profession of the author(s): Professor

Krakatau 1883: The volcanic eruption and its effects, Simkin T and Fiske R.S (1983), Smithsonian Press, Washington D.C

  • “Krakatau began, a little later in the evening, an ective eruption; a violent thunder-storm broke over us, and the ground shook and trembled as if the day of judgement had come (Tenison-Woods 1884, Sydney Morning Herald)
  • “I gasped for breath, but a hearty offering of thanks to heaven rose through my choking throat, for my deliverance and for the Providential care by which my family had been left in Batavia (ibid.)
  • “No human tongue could tell what happened. I think hell is the only word applicable to what we saw and went through” (Tenison-Woods 1884)
  • “The Antoe Laoet (The Sea Ghost) is close by. The sea has gone. Far, far away I hear the waves”…A whole lot of native now came up to the house and corrobated the same story (Mrs Beyernick in Furneaux 1964)
  • Mrs Beyenrick thanked God they had at last reached safety. No-one could sleep, for the noises coming from Krakatoa were quite ghastly. Around the hut lay thousands of terrified natives, moaning and crying and praying to Allah for deliverance
  • “I don’t think I lost consciousness for I heard the natives praying and crying ‘Allah il Allah’”
  • “Suddenly the water returned with the same force. I said a quick prayer, asking for help for myself and everybody and prepared myself or death (Controller P.L.C Le Sueur, in Furneaux 1964)
  • We all held our breath, after such a long darkness, we yearned for God’s heavenly sun or moonlight
  • “the cries for help of the cahin boys and coolies in the foreship could be heard continually, as well as their ‘la Illah il Allah’, their prayer to the God of the Islam”
  • We are under continual rain of pumice-stone and dust. So violent are the explosions that the ear-drums of over half my crew have been shattered. My last thoughts are with my dear wife. I am convinced that the Day of Judgement has come” (Captain Samson)

Theme of the article: Analyzing the impacts and effects of the eruption of Krakatau
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Krakatoa, Furneaux R (1965), Hazell Watson and Viney Ltd.

  • The Dutch were not particularly disturbed; volcanic eruptions were part of life in the East Indies. The natives were frightened. They whispered that the mountain ghost, Orang Aljeh, was on the prowl.
  • Mrs Beyernick was told by her native servants that the bangs and ash came from Krakatoa, a story she disbelieved. It was a burnt-out crater, she informed them. Antoe Laoet, the sea ghost, lives there, they warned her.
  • The native peoples of Java and Sumatra knew all about volcanoes. The explanation of their outbursts was simple. Inside the earth lived a wicked spirit who, if he was not propitiated by proper sacrifices, made it tremble; and he expressed his rage by vomiting smoke and fire
  • The ancients were in no doubt; volcanoes were burning mountains, the homes of the fire god
  • The Dutch had caused the eruption, the natives retorted; the spirits were retailing against the Dutch aggression in fighting the Achitenese
  • The poor natives thinking that the end of the world had come, flocked together like sheep, and made the scene more dismal with their cries and prayers
  • A violent thunderstorm broke over us, and the ground shook and trembled as if ‘the day of judgement’ had come (Mr Schruit (Anjer resident), Batavia Handlesblad)
  • The Antoe Laoet (the sea ghost) is close by. The sea is gone. Far, far away, I hear the waves (Jeroemoedi, servant of Mrs Beyernick)
  • Around the hut lay thousands of terrified natives, moaning, and crying and praying to Allah for deliverance
  • The light was the work of evil spirits, and that if the ill-grown light found its way below, the evil spirits would triumph in their design and scuttle the ship
  • The villagers were in their houses, wailing and calling, “Allah il Allah”
  • From Java and Sumatra rose a great cry of fear. The distraught people turned to their gods for aid. “Allah il Allah”, prayed the Muslims. “Lord, deliver us”, beseeched the Christians
  • She was quite unable to tell rescuers how she herself was saved. “It was God’s will” was all she could say.
  • If no other help arrived, he would find his death in the waves of the sea on his raft, Frans remembered, he said later, the proverb “ the higher the need, the nearer to God”, and he prayed more frequently than he had ever done before
  • We had difficulty recognising Anjer, as not one house of this lively town was left standing. This was truly a scene of the “Last Judgement”

Theme of the article: Overview of the impacts and destruction of Krakatau
Profession of the author(s): Writer

1.2 Cultural Responses

Methodology (see Section 4.3.2)
- Wonder/curiosity/awe
- Lunacy/lunatic
- Accustomed
- Terror/anxiety

A Volcanic Valve, Alden W.L (1897), The Pall Mall Magazine, p .409 – 420

  • “I have been quite sure whether the story that he told us concerning the eruption of Krakatau was true, or was the invention of a lunatic or a practical joker…for my own part I am inclined to believe the story, but the reader is at perfect liberty to regard it as the dream of a madman”

Theme of the article: A story/hypothesis on what happened at Krakatau
Profession of author(s): Writer

Science, Anon. (1888), the Athenaeum, p. 450 – 452

  • The gorgeous sunsets and blue moons of November 1883 were the subject of common conservation and wonder

Theme of the article: Overview of the effect of Krakatau on the UK
Profession of the author: N/A

The Eruption of Krakatoa, Van Gestel J (1895), Leading articles in the Reviews, p. 423 – 430

  • For hours and hours he fled upwards the road…at last, at 4 or 5 o’clock in the afternoon, he reached the city of Serang, where he as the first to bring the news. He was a supposed lunatic for two days.

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Eye witness

On the volcanic phenomena of the eruption, and on the nature and distribution of the ejected materials, Judd J.W (1888), IN: The eruption of Krakatoa and subsequent phenomena, report of the Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society, Symons G.J (eds), p .1 – 56

  • The first reports of the tremendous outburst of the volcanic forces appear to have been quite misleading and altogether unworthy of credence…The towns and villages along the shores of the Sunda Strait were, during the crisis of the eruption, enveloped in a terrible darkness, which lasted for many hours, and, while thus obscured, were overwhelmed by a succession of great sea-waves, those who succeeded in saving their lives amid these appalling incidents were, it need scarcely be added, not in a position to make trustworthy observations upon the wonderful successions of phenomena occurring around them.
  • It seems that the eruption, which was so violent at its first outburst soon became of a moderate character – so much so, indeed, that the residents in Batavia and other portions of the surrounding district, who were accustomed to having earthquakes and volcanoes in their vicinity, soon ceased to pay much attention to the subject.

Theme of the article: Overview of the findings of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Professor

Science Notes, Williams W.M (1884), Gentlemen’s Magazine 256 (1838), p. 196

  • Accounts of extraordinary sunsets have flowed in from all parts of the world…superstitious terrors and intelligent curiosity have been simultaneously awakened by these unnatural manifestations of sun-light

Theme of the article: Overview of the strange sunsets
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

Earthquake weather, Anon. (1884), Cornhill Magazine 2 (7), p.42 – 54

  • Earthquake weather in the meteorological or climatic sense seems to be mainly connected with such volcanic disturbances. It indicates some change of conditions in the air, some curious but perfectly recognisable sensations, not only in man but in lower animals as well…[In reference to Krakatau] “A sudden feeling of awe seems to come over me for no particular assignable reason; the birds leave off singing; the dogs forged to howl; the black people drop for a moment from their perpetual high monotone of shouting and quarrelling; and in a minute the shock is upon awe”

Theme of article: Weather differences in natural disasters
Profession of author(s): N/A

Krakatoa, Ball R.S (1888), Contemporary Review 54, p. 661 – 673

The inhabitants of these regions were so accustomed to be threatened by volcanic phenomena that the early stages of the outbreak, which began on May 20th, did not seem to create any alarm, indeed quite the reverse, pleasant excursions to Krakatoa from Batavia were organised

Theme of the article: Overview of the eruption
Profession of author(s): Journalist

A Marvellous Event, Anon. (1920), The Athenaeum, London

  • We are now so scientific as to be interested in each fact merely as an example of some general law; if the fact be sufficiently striking we can still, with round-eyed wonder, delight in it for its own sake

Theme of the article: Overview of the Krakatau eruption
Profession of author(s): N/A

Indonesia: Playing with fire, Anon. (2010), the New Zealand Herald, Travel, General

  • But I know this much, Krakatoa is an awesome and mighty force that deserves respect. If you don’t you may pay for it with your life

Theme of the article: Large eruptions in Indonesia
Profession of author(s): N/A

The Krakatoa Eruption, Neale P (1885), Leisure Hour p.348

The object terror of the poor natives, cowering down in the most helpless way, was quite a sight to behold

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Reverend

1.3 Revised Cultural Responses

Methodology (see section 4.4.1)
- A sense of fear
- A sense of confusion
- A reason for the eruption to occur
- Actions during or immediately after the eruption (by the indigenous and the Dutch) and they were perceived by others
- A sense of wonder

Pompeji in seinen Gebauden, Alterthumern, und Kuntstwerken dargestellt – The Paintings of Pompeii, Anon (1891), Edinburgh Review, Critical Journal 173 (353), p.203 – 231

  • The people could not imagine whence it came, nor judge it to be anything else but an effect of a general destruction of the world…

Theme of the article: Analysing Pompeii eruption, but with special reference to Krakatau
Profession of the author(s): N/A

More than a ‘Scream’: A blast felt ‘round the world, Jaroff L (2003), The New York Times, Section F, Column 2, Science Desk, p.3 – 4

  • “All at once the sky became blood-red…clouds like blood and tongues of fire hung above the blue-black fjord and the city…and I stood alone, trembling with anxiety…I felt a great unending scream piercing through nature”…

Theme of the article: Reviewing Edvard Munch’s Scream and the relationship to Krakatau
Profession of the author: Journalist

A Volcanic Valve, Alden W.L (1897), The Pall Mall Magazine, p .409 – 420

  • “I’ll tell you truth about that eruption and then you can tell me, in your opinion, who was to blame for the death of the 30 thousand. They were all heathen sir, and I’ll like you to remember that fact, for I don’t suppose that killing a heathen is as serious a business as killing white men”…
  • Story revolves around a man installing a valve to Krakatau to attract tourists, but the valve goes wrong and causes the explosion…
  • “I have been quite sure whether the story that he told us concerning the eruption of Krakatau was true, or was the invention of a lunatic or a practical joker…for my own part I am inclined to believe the story, but the reader is at perfect liberty to regard it as the dream of a madman”…

Theme of the article: A story/hypothesis on what happened at Krakatau
Profession of author(s): Writer

Science, Anon. (1888), the Athenaeum, p. 450 – 452

  • The gorgeous sunsets and blue moons of November 1883 were the subject of common conservation and wonder…

Theme of the article: Overview of the effect of Krakatau on the UK

Profession of the author: N/A

The Eruption of Krakatoa, Van Gestel J (1895), Leading articles in the Reviews, p. 423 – 430

  • [In reference to the early activity] “By that time every one had got used to it, and no-one even talked about it anymore”…
  • The roar of [the explosions] was already calling out excited crowds in the city of Anjer at my feet……
  • An immense and deafening explosion, louder than ever heard at Krakatoa, partially stunned him. It was a moment of two before he could realise the fact that the whole world around him had been plunged into darkness…
  • The awful surge of the ocean as it rushed landward frightened him, and he ran as fast as he could up the mountain side…
  • For hours and hours he fled upwards the road…at last, at 4 or 5 o’clock in the afternoon, he reached the city of Serang, where he as the first to bring the news. He was a supposed lunatic for two days…

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Eye witness

On the volcanic phenomena of the eruption, and on the nature and distribution of the ejected materials, Judd J.W (1888), IN: The eruption of Krakatoa and subsequent phenomena, report of the Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society, Symons G.J (eds), p .1 – 56

  • The first reports of the tremendous outburst of the volcanic forces appear to have been quite misleading and altogether unworthy of credence…The towns and villages along the shores of the Sunda Strait were, during the crisis of the eruption, enveloped in a terrible darkness, which lasted for many hours, and, while thus obscured, were overwhelmed by a succession of great sea-waves, those who succeeded in saving their lives amid these appalling incidents were, it need scarcely be added, not in a position to make trustworthy observations upon the wonderful successions of phenomena occurring around them…
  • It seems that the eruption, which was so violent at its first outburst soon became of a moderate character – so much so, indeed, that the residents in Batavia and other portions of the surrounding district, who were accustomed to having earthquakes and volcanoes in their vicinity, soon ceased to pay much attention to the subject…

Theme of the article: Overview of the findings of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Professor

Science Notes, Williams W.M (1884), Gentlemen’s Magazine 256 (1838), p. 196

  • Accounts of extraordinary sunsets have flowed in from all parts of the world…superstitious terrors and intelligent curiosity have been simultaneously awakened by these unnatural manifestations of sun-light……

Theme of the article: Overview of the strange sunsets
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

Earthquake weather, Anon. (1884), Cornhill Magazine 2 (7), p.42 – 54

  • Earthquake weather in the meteorological or climatic sense seems to be mainly connected with such volcanic disturbances. It indicates some change of conditions in the air, some curious but perfectly recognisable sensations, not only in man but in lower animals as well… [In reference to Krakatau] “A sudden feeling of awe seems to come over me for no particular assignable reason; the birds leave off singing; the dogs forged to howl; the black people drop for a moment from their perpetual high monotone of shouting and quarrelling; and in a minute the shock is upon awe”…

Theme of article: Weather differences in natural disasters
Profession of author(s): N/A

On the Blood-Red sky of Munch’s ‘The Scream’, Olson M.S, Olson D.W and Doescher R.L (2007), Environmental History 12 (1), p.131 – 135

  • “I was walking along a mountain road near Oslo…The sun went down and it was if a flaming sword of blood slashed open the vault of heaven – the atmosphere turned to blood- with glaring tongues of fire – the hills became a deep blue – the fjord shaded with cold blue…I felt something like a great scream had pierced through nature”…
  • Tennyson’s Verse:
    Had the fierce ashes of some fiery peak
    Been hurl’d so high they ranged about the globe?
    For day by day, thro’ many a blood-red eve…
    The wrathful sunset glared…

Theme of the article: Studying the influence behind Edvard Munch’s Scream
Profession of author(s): Art Historians

Krakatoa, Ball R.S (1888), Contemporary Review 54, p. 661 – 673

  • The inhabitants of these regions were so accustomed to be threatened by volcanic phenomena that the early stages of the outbreak, which began on May 20th, did not seem to create any alarm, indeed quite the reverse, pleasant excursions to Krakatoa from Batavia were organised…

Theme of the article: Overview of the eruption
Profession of author(s): Journalist

Descriptions of the unusual twilight glows in various parts of the world 1883 – 1884, Russell R (1888), IN: The eruption of Krakatoa and subsequent phenomena, Report of the Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society, Symons G.J (eds), Part IV – Section I, p. 152 – 178

  • Persons who were not quite sure about its direction mistook it for an aurora; others spoke of a great fire in the neighbourhood…

Theme of the article: Assessing the hypotheses for the strange sunsets
Profession of author(s): Scientist

General list of dates of first appearance of all the optical phenomena, Russell R (1888), IN: The eruption of Krakatoa and subsequent phenomena, Report of the Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society, Symons G.J (eds), Part IV – Section II, p.  263 – 312

  • “Explosions heard and dust fell…These had a very strange appearance when rising: you would think the earth was on fire” (August 26 – 28th, Captain L Reid)…

Theme of the article: Dates of first strange sunsets around the world
Profession of author(s): Scientist

Four Victorian poets and an exploding island, Altick R.D (1960), Victorian Studies, 3 (3), p. 249 – 260

  • In attempts to describe the brilliant celestial displays, observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favour of a descriptive style that can only be called lyric…

Theme of the article: Poetic descriptions of the eruption of Krakatau
Profession of author(s): Historian

A Marvellous Event, Anon. (1920), The Athenaeum, London

  • We are now so scientific as to be interested in each fact merely as an example of some general law; if the fact be sufficiently striking we can still, with round-eyed wonder, delight in it for its own sake…
  • There are, of course, many scientific lessons to be drawn from the Krakatoa eruption we have been content…however, to abstain from all improving reflections and to present in merely as one of the marvels of the world…

Theme of the article: Overview of the Krakatau eruption
Profession of author(s): N/A

Cultural Politics of natural disasters: Discourse on volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Schlehe J (2008), IN: Culture and the Changing Environment, Bergahn Books, Casimir M.J (eds), New York, p.275 – 299

  • Eruptions supported resistance against the Dutch – much social unrest and rebellion following the eruptions…“These rebellions were caused, amongst others, by the poverty of the farmers after the eruption”…

Theme of the article: Looking at cultures around volcanoes
Professions of author(s): Social Scientist

The Krakatoa Eruption, Neale P (1885), Leisure Hour p.348

  • The object terror of the poor natives, cowering down in the most helpless way, was quite a sight to behold…
  • The Chinese on the other hand, took a very different view of matters. Unfettered by any fatalistic notions, they plainly showed their belief that while there is life, there is hope…On the occasion they accordingly gathered together all their valuables and cleared out of the city with as much dispatch as possible…There are 25,000 of them in Batavia alone…
  • The Europeans also thought it wiser to suspend business on account of the darkness and to leave the city for their suburban homes…

Theme of the article: Eye witness account of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Reverend

Krakatau 1883: The volcanic eruption and its effects, Simkin T and Fiske R.S (1983), Smithsonian Press, Washington D.C

  • There were some terrible scenes afterwards on the roads leading into the interior of the island. All the natives in the neighbouring kampongs turned against us and refused those of us who had escaped the least help or food…
  • Not only did many of the natives refuse to help us in the least, but they actually drove us fiercely from their houses. The reason of this was that the Javanese are exceedingly superstitious, and attributed their misfortunes to us…
  • It was evident that these poor people were glad to see Europeans amongst them, and that their presence diminished their dread and anxiety…
    But the little crowd was by no means quiet and still as natives and Chinese usually are in the presence of Europeans. They began to lament their hard lot and to complain more or less against the “company” (The government) who by the war against Atjeh (NW Sumatra), was the cause of all disasters…

Theme of the article: Overview of the eruption and its impacts, including many eye witness acounts
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Krakatoa, Furneaux R (1965), Hazell Watson and Viney Ltd

  • There were vague native legends of a great eruption 200 years before when the sea had been choked by pumice…these stories were discounted by Dutch officials…
  • It was evident that these people were glad to see Europeans amongst them, and that their presence diminished their dread and anxiety…

Theme of the article: Overview of the eruption and its impacts
Profession of the author(s): Writer

Aftermath; Accounts of Early Visitors to Devastated Areas, IN: Krakatau 1883: Eruption and its effects, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C, p. 113 – 130

  • It was said that the natives manifested great animosity towards the Europeans, and blamed them as being the cause of this calamity…”This”, they said, “is a judgement of your cruelty towards the Archimase”…

Theme of the article: Eye witness accounts of visitors after the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

2 Pinatubo Responses

2.1 Religious Responses

Methodology (see Section 5.2.1)
- God
- Pray
- Spirit
- Apo Namalyari
- Anito/Kamana (good and bad spirits)
- Manganito (spirit medium)
- Divine
9 Sacred

The voice of God, Anon. (1991), The Economist, 22nd June, p.64

  • Catholic hierarchy advised for a prayer to understand and see what God is saying from the eruption

Theme of the article: The presence of God in Pinatubo
Profession of author(s): N/A

In the eye of the storm: The social construction of the forces of nature and the climatic and seismic construction of God in the Philippines, Bankoff G (2004), Journal of South East Asian Studies 35 (1), p. 91 – 111

  • The idea that forces of Nature are at the service of divine command and that disasters are caused by natural hazards are the expression of a vengeful deity permeates Judeo-Christian perceptions of the universe
  • After the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991, the churches felt it expedient to organise prayer services to help people understand the meaning of the event, apparently because most had regarded it as a punishment for their sins – many still take retributionist stand.
  • The then president Corazon Aquino, whose home was devastated, concluded that God was testing the Philippines

Theme of the article: Presence of God around Mt. Pinatubo
Profession of author(s): Social Scientist

The Mount Pinatubo disasters and the people of Central Luzon, Bautista C.B (1996), IN: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Newhall C.G and Punongbayan R.S (eds), Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, Philippines and University of Washington Press, Seattle, p. 151 – 161

  • There were traumatised adults and children…there was pandemonium as they ran…People were screaming and crying as they ran calling on their God for help and deliverance…they all spent the terrified, crying and praying to God for help and mercy
  • Religious rituals such as prayer sessions and processions around villages and along the river channels have been the most visible activities in different parts of central Luzon. The rituals have been conducted all year round, although they are practiced most frequently during the rainy season.

Theme of the article: Assessing the people’s response to the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Return to Pinatubo, England V (1993), Geographical Magazine 55 (9), p. 28 – 31

  • “we believe in nature, the God of nature, so every night we pray a lot”

Theme of the article: Aftermath of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Writer

Traditional societies in the face of natural hazards: The 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption and the Aetas of the Philippines, Gaillard J-C (2006), International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 24 (1), p. 5 – 43

  • Uphill dwellers before the eruption believed in supernatural beings called ‘Anito’ (good spirit) or ‘Kamana’ (malicious spirit). The universal creator lived at the heart of Pinatubo (Apo Namalyari).

Some syncretism between Christianity and traditional views e.g. Apo Namalyari = God and Anitos = the Holy Spirit

Theme of the article: Traditional viewpoints during and after the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Territorial implications of the Mount Pinatubo eruption for some Aeta indigenous communities: The case of Pasig and Sacobia River basins (Provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac), Gaillard J-C, Dizon L.L and Leone F (2003), Natural Hazards Review

  • Their way of life has been widely influenced by beliefs in a number of supernatural beings called Anitos. And according to them, the universal creator, or Apo Namalyari, lives at the heart of Pinatubo volcano. Some Aetas impute the re-awakening of the volcano to the anger of Apo Namalyari caused by geothermal drilling of the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC)

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Assessment and response to lahar hazard around Mount Pinatubo, 1991 to 1993, Janda R.J, Daag A.S, Delos Reyes P.J, Newhall C.G, Pierson T.C, Punongbayan R.S, Rodolfo K.S, Solidum R.U and Umbal J.V, IN: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Newhall C.G and Punongbayan R.S (eds), Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, Philippines and University of Washington Press, Seattle, p. 107 – 139

  • The residents view natural hazards as God’s will, largely beyond their control, but preventable by prayer and engineering works

Profession of the author(s): Scientists and Social Scientists

Analysis of the institutional and social responses to the eruption and lahars of Mount Pinatubo volcano from 1991 to 1998 (Central Luzon, Philippines), Leone F and Gaillard J-C (1999),GeoJournal 49, p .223 – 238

  • During the volcano’s eruptive phase in June 1991, most of the population reacted quite well to the evacuation orders…However; some evacuated Aetas changed their minds and returned to the mountain to seek refuge in caves and religious comfort from their God. A second warning in July 1992, the population reacted better for they were more prepared and awed by their previous events. In spite of repeated pleas from PHIVOLCS, 300 Aeta families however refused to evacuate.
  • In the areas still at risk from lahars ‘there are efforts to ward off nature’s bad luck by organised religious procession and prayer sessions

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Staring into the face of hell, Millar P (1991), the Times June 11

  • The eruption that shook the Philippines today inspire the same atavistic dread of the uncontrollable power of nature that more pantheistic religions considered divine

Theme of the article: Overview of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Journalist

Vulcan’s Fury: Man against the volcano, Scarth A (1999), Yale University Press, New Haven and London

  • To the Aetas, Pinatubo means ‘to make grow’ – a place where crops would grow easily. The Aetas grew bananas, coffee and root-crops in changing plots in th forest, and they supplemented their diet by hunting and fishing. The Aetas believed that Pinatubo was the home of Apo Namalyari, the Great Protector and Provider…They had no folk memories of eruptions

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

People’s response to eruption warning: The Pinatubo Experience, 1991 – 1992, Tayag J, Insauriga S, Ringor A and Belo M (1996), IN: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Newhall C.G and Punongbayan R.S (eds), Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Quezon City, Philippines and University of Washington Press, Seattle, p .87 – 99

  • Some believed their God, Apo Namalyari, would not let them come to harm – 3% of the respondents

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Manila links cut off after storm winds bring cloud of ash, England V (1991), the Times June 17th

  • Some respondents thought it was an act of God to rain ash and mud on the two American military bases at a time when negotiations to extend the Americans’ lease were almost over

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Planning for the future: A multi-displinary approach to reconstructing the Buag episode of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, Gaillard J-C, Delfin F.G, Dizon E.Z, Paz V.J, Ramos E.G, Remotigue C.T, Rodolfo K.S, Siringan F.P, Soria J.L.A and Umbal J.V (2007)

  • Aetas Oral tradition of Apo Namalyari: “finding the lake a useless place of refuge, he climbed the Mount Pinatubo in exactly 21 tremendous leaps. When he reached the top, he at once began to dig a big hole into the mountain. Big pieces of rock, mud, dust, and other things began to fall in showers all around the mountain. During all the while, he howled and howled so loudly that the arth shook under foot. The fire that escaped from his mouth became so thick and hot that the pursuing party had to run” (Rodriguez 1918)
  • Aeta parents would warn children who will not go to sleep by saying ‘Apo Namalyari will wake up and start throwing stones if you don’t behave’ (Rodolfo 1995)

Profession of author(s): Scientists and Social Scientists

Coping strategies in an ethnic minority group: The Aeta of Mount Pinatubo, Seitz S (1998), Disasters 22 (1), p. 76 – 90

  • Despite the large Christian segment, the traditional spiritual ideas have been fully maintained among the Aeta. They believe in Anito, spirits residing in particular places in nature, preferably springs, trees or rocks, or moving within a specific habitat, for example, on Mt. Pinatubo. One can make contact with these spirits with the help of a manganito, a spiritual medium. These Anito must not be disturbed or insulted, or else they may take revenge, causing illness or death, or even natural disasters (Shimuzu 1992).
  • In this world-view Mt. Pinatubo plays a central role as the spiritual centre of their communities, as the dwelling-place of the spirits, above all the residence of Apo Namalyari, the Supreme Being and Creator. For certain Aeta groups it is also the resting place for the souls of the dead (Fox 1952, Shimuzu 1983, Fondeville 1991)
  • Aeta perception: eruption caused by supernatural forces. Apo Namalyari, The Supreme Being, had set off the eruption after being provoked by drilling done for a geothermal power plant on the mountain (Fondeville 1991, Sherrnoff 1991)
  • At the first signs of activity, the Aeta held manganito (spirit medium) séances and let the Anito (spirits) be asked the reasons, obtaining information that Apo Namalyari was angry over the encroachment
  • The few families who initially refused to evacuate thought that it was impossible that their God, Apo Namalyari, wanted to hurt them (Tayag et al 1992)

Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Eruption and Exodus, Fondevilla E (1991), LAKAS

  • “Pinatubo is our sacred ground. Although buried and covered from out sight, she remains sacred to us. And that which is sacred will continue to draw our hearts across any distance and across all time”

Profession of the author(s): Practicing Nun in the Pinatubo region during the eruption

Decision-making in times of disaster: The acceptance of wet-rice cultivation amoung the Aeta of Zambales, Philippines, Seitz S (2008), IN: Culture and the changing environment: uncertainity and risk management in cross-cultural perspective, Casimir M.J (eds), Bergahn Books, p .125 – 145

  • For them [the Aetas], Pinatubo was the centre of both their habitat and their spiritual world
  • Rice was the preferred offering in the rituals designed to appease the spirits, e.g. in the ‘atang’, a sacrifice made to avoid offending and irritating the spirits (Rice and Tima 1973) or in the ‘patay’, the offering or sacrifice presented to Apo Namalyari or other spirits after the harvest

Theme of the article: Showing how the Aeta were before and after the eruption and their cultural practices
Profession of author(s): Social Scientist

Early warning for the 1991 eruptions of Pinatubo volcano – a success story, Punongbayan R.S and Newhall C.G (1999), Proceedings of the WMO/UNESCO Sub-Forum on Science and Technology in Support of Natural Disaster Reduction, p. 140 – 149

  • The Aetas consider Pinatubo as their god whom they call as Apo Namalyari. When they have a good harvest, they make offerings to Apo Namalyari in the steaming ground located on the northern slopes of Pinatubo.
  • Those who did not evacuate immediately when, and as advised, gave various reasons, such as: …they believed that their god, Apo Namalyari, which is the Pinatubo Volcano, would not let them come to harm (Tayag et al 1996)

Theme of the article: Looking at the activities and responses to the eruption of Pinatubo
Profession of author(s): Scientists

2.2 Cultural Responses
Methodology (see section 5.2.2)

- A sense of independence/A sense of community involvement
- Refusal to leave
- A sense of scepticism/denial/lack of knowledge

Differentiated adjustment to the 1991 Mt Pinatubo resettlement program among lowland ethnic groups of the Philippines, Gaillard J-C (2008), Australian Journal of Emergency Management 23 (2), p.31 – 39

  • The role of the parish church is particularly interesting to explain why the people of Bulaon regularly come back to attend masses, fiestas and other ceremonies. Given its history and remarkable architecture, the church was, until the awakening of Mt Pinatubo, more a symbol of representing Bacolor to the inhabitants of the neighbouring municipalities. With the crises and the ceremonial practices that took place in that time, it acquired a stronger meaning beyond its architectural and religious value. A female interviewee reflected this in the following quote: “I do not believe in God and I never went to church before Mt Pinatubo erupted but now I regularly attend the Sunday mass just to meet my former village mates”…

Theme of the article: Migration and resettlement programs of the Aeta
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Traditional Societies Response to Volcanic Hazards in the Philippines, Gaillard J-C and Masson V (2007), Mountain Research and Development 27 (4), p. 313 – 317

  • An unknown number of Aetas who refused to leave their native area and found shelter in caves perished, buried by pyroclastic flows…
  • The lack of involvement of the visitors at different stages of the rehabilitation process meant that they had limited control over their fate, thus delaying the resilience process and compelling culture change…
  • Insensitivity and lack of cultural knowledge about the Aetas were evident among disaster managers…

Theme of the article: Responses of the Aeta during and after the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientists

Alternative paradigms of volcanic risk perception: The case of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, Gaillard J-C (2008), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 172, p. 315 – 328

  • “We are dead and drowned, but we will never leave Bacolor”…
  • “Because it is my birth place and because I love it, I will never abandon Bacolor”…

Theme of article: How the Aetas perceived the eruption and their lives
Profession of author(s): Social Scientist

The narrow margin of volcanic-risk mitigation, Newhall C.G and Punongbayan R.S (1996), IN: Monitoring and Mitigation of volcano Hazards, Scarpa R and Tilling R.I, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 807 – 838

  • Initially much scepticism and concern even on Philippine and on the US military bases, where there is a tradition of responding quickly to threats. Guerrillas in the mountains and war in the Persian Gulf were perceived as much more immediate threats. “We were alarmed because similar scepticism and preoccupation with other threats had contributed significantly to the disaster at Nevado Del Ruiz”…
  • The Franciscan Sisters of Mary had earned the trust of all Aetas with whom they had contact, and the sisters served as invaluable, proactive links between those who were most at risk and those who could help them…

Theme of the article: Mitigation strategies during the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Scientists

The Mount Pinatubo disaster and the people of Central Luzon, Bautista C.B (1996), IN: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Philippine Institute of Volcanology, Newhall C.G and Punongbayan R.S (eds) Quezon City and Seattle, p. 151 – 161

  • Prior to the calamity, the population in the barangay villages were divided into those with access for overseas employment to agricultural assets or opportunities for overseas employment and those without. Lahars buried agricultural lands, equipment, and houses in these communities regardless of wealth of the owner. In some instances, residents who were relatively well-off lost so much that they found themselves in positions similar to those who were once their social inferiors. It is in this sense that ordinary folks have referred to Mount Pinatubo as the ‘Leveller’ or the ‘Equalizer’…
  • Upon arrival in the evacuation sites, they trembled from cold and fear continuously. Some went into hysterical laughter. Even days later, victims found it difficult to sleep and did not have much appetite for food…some respondents judged that the Mount Pinatubo disaster affected males and females differently. Males tended to become more quiet and withdrawn then did the woman, and spent time in all-male drinking sessions (Jimenez 1993)…
  • Snags in the resettlement process and attachment to their original lands and homes have discouraged many would-be settlers from moving to resettlement areas…
  • To the dismay of scientists who warn against remaining in danger zones, many of the potential victims have chosen to remain in high-risk areas because they have no viable alternatives…

Theme of the article: Responses from people and their actions during the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Coping strategies in an ethnic minority group: The Aeta of Mount Pinatubo, Seitz S (1998), Disasters 22 (1), p. 76 – 90

  • Centralised help is unlikely to meet the culturally conditioned needs of such groups. Rather their own efforts in self-help activities, supported by NGO’s aware of and accommodating cultural requirements play the most significant role in successful rehabilitation…
  • In the case of the Aeta, NGO’s seeking to help should take into account their flexibility and mobility as major advantages for any attempted survival strategies, and also their social behaviour dedicated to individualism…One must respect different ways of life with such an ethnic group. Such societies are generally regarded as homogenous, and more account should be taken of the social and economic disparity with such communities…

Theme of the article: How the Aeta coped during the crisis
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Decision-making in times of disaster: the acceptance of wet-rice cultivation among the Aeta of Zambales, Philippines, Seitz S (2008), IN: Culture and the changing environment: uncertainty and risk management in cross-cultural perspective, Casimir M.J (eds), Bergahn Books, p. 125 – 145

  • Due to the clear separation of lowland, the coastal plane, and highland habitats, the mountains area and the tableland between the coasts and Mt. Pinatubo, the Aeta in the highland had largely managed to remain economically independent and culturally autonomous in the years before the disaster (Shimizu 1989:1992)…

Theme of the article: Looking at how the cultivation standards of the Aeta have changed before and after the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Social Scientist

Early warning fro the 1991 eruptions of Pinatubo volcano – a success story, Punongbayan and Newhall (1999), Proceedings of the WMO/UNESCO Sub-Forum on Science and Technology in Support of Natural Disaster Reduction

  • The people at risk and their leaders were understandably sceptical as most of them had never heard or witnessed an eruption…
  • Initial response [from the video] was typically, shock and disbelief or denial, but somehow, the tape must have jolted many viewers into preparing for a possible eruption…
  • Not all the civil defence and public officials and community leaders whom we reached were responsive to our warnings and advisories. Some provincial and municipal groups and military commanders remained sceptical until the volcano proved us right. The most sceptical was the then mayor of Angeles City who refused to meet with national civil defence officials and USGS-PHIVOLCS scientists, and accused us of speaking in ignorance and berating the Americans at Clark Air Base or over-reacting to a non-existent threat…
  • Results show that a majority (58%) took defensive/adaptive action and evacuated immediately as and when advised…
  • Those who did not evacuate immediately when, and as advised, gave various reasons, such as: they thought the eruption would not be strong enough to affect their place; they were reluctant to leave behind their properties, livestock and crops – especially as it was harvest time; they had no ready means of transport and some community member could not walk long distances…

Theme of the article: Looking at the mitigation strategies of the eruption
Profession of the author(s): Scientists

3 Organisation or Faculty

Have any of your previous work (either your own work or with colleagues) mentioned any cultural or religious inferences with regard to risk mapping, evacuation procedures or potential dangers to populations?Do you communicate with multiple disciplines when a disaster occurs?Would you consider involving more work and research into the concept of cultural and religious understandings of risk or is the current way (in your opinion) sufficient? And why do you think that?

Survey Responses
3.1 Blank Survey
3.2 Completed Survey

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