Eritrea and Ethiopia volcanoes with historically proved eruptions
Eritrea – Nabro – Dubbi volcano complex – Last eruption Dubbi : 1861 – Last eruption Nabro : 2011
The 2218-m-high Nabro stratovolcano is the highest volcano in the Danakil depression of northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. Located at the SE end of the Danakil Alps, Nabro lies in the Danakil horst. Nabro is the most prominent and NE-most of three volcanoes with large summit calderas aligned in a NE-SW direction SW of Dubbi volcano. These three volcanoes, along with Sork Ale volcano, collectively comprise the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Nabro stratovolcano is truncated by nested calderas, 8 and 5 km in diameter. The larger caldera is widely breached to the SW. Nabro was constructed primarily of trachytic lava flows and pyroclastics. Post-caldera rhyolitic obsidian domes and basaltic lava flows were erupted inside the caldera and on its flanks. Some very recent lava flows were erupted from NNW-trending fissures transverse to the trend of the Nabro volcanic range.
Dubbi, located east of the Erta Ale Range and south of the crystalline basement rocks of the Danakil Alps, is a large volcanic massif that rises to 1625 m above the western shore of the Red Sea. About 20 small cinder cones are located at the summit, and extensive basaltic lava fields to the north and NE, known as the Edd lava field, cover an area of 2700 sq km and reach the Red Sea coast. The two most-recent eruptive centers are fissure systems that extend NW-SE and NNE-SSW. The former produced lava flows that reached the Red Sea in 1400 AD. The second created 19 small craters at the summit in 1861. Ash fell more than 300 km from the volcano. Two villages were destroyed and more than 100 persons were killed during Africa’s largest eruption in historical time. Lava flows from the 1861 eruption traveled as far as 22 km and reached the coast
|GEOFON||Ethiopia||Jul 01 16:19 PM||4.6||10||MAP I Felt It|
|EMSC||Near The Coast Of Eritrea||Jul 01 16:19 PM||4.8||10||MAP I Felt It|
|USGS||Eritrea - Ethiopia Region||Jul 01 16:19 PM||4.8||10||MAP I Felt It|
|EMSC||Eritrea - Ethiopia Region||Mar 20 19:34 PM||3.7||2||MAP I Felt It|
|EMSC||Eritrea - Ethiopia Region||Mar 12 01:30 AM||3.7||1||MAP I Felt It|
|EMSC||Eritrea - Ethiopia Region||Mar 03 04:47 AM||3.1||1||MAP I Felt It|
|James Daniell CATDAT||Eritrea, Ethiopia||Jun 17 07:00 AM||5.6||10||MAP I Felt It|
|James Daniell CATDAT||Eritrea, Ethiopia||Jun 12 07:00 AM||5.7||10||MAP I Felt It|
Ethiopia – Erta Ale volcano – Last eruption : 2007
Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield volcano that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide volcano rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The 613-m-high volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located to the SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the northern flank of Erta Ale.
|ER||Erta Ale, Ethiopia (startup Record)||Jan 01 00:00 AM||0.1||0||MAP I Felt It|
Ethiopia – Alayta – Last eruption : 1907
The massive Alayta shield volcano covers an area of 2700 sq km in the western Danakil depression SW of Lake Afrera. A series of very recent craters is aligned along the NNW-trending axis of the basaltic-to-trachytic shield. The Alayta lava field, covered by very fresh lava flows, was erupted from N-S-trending fissures along the east side of the shield volcano and laps up against the western flank of Afderà volcano. Two historical eruptions that were formerly attributed to Afderà volcano actually originated from Alayta. One of those eruptions, in 1907, produced a large lava flow from a SE-flank vent. Fumarolic activity occurs at two locations in the southern part of the complex.
|ER||Alayta, Ethiopia (startup Record)||Jan 01 00:00 AM||0.1||0||MAP I Felt It|
Ethiopia - Tullu Moje – Last probable eruption : 1900
Tullu Moje is a youthful trachytic-to-rhyolitic pumice cone with a 700-m-wide summit crater, located in the middle of one of the most active parts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A large silicic lava flow at Giano was erupted about two centuries ago from a regional fissure. Flank fissures have produced silicic lava flows as recently as about 1900 AD. The same fissures have also erupted prehistorical basaltic lava flows.
|ER||Tullu Moje, Ethiopia (startup Record)||Jan 01 00:00 AM||0.1||0||MAP I Felt It|
Ethiopia - Dama Ali – Last eruption : 1631
Dama Ali is a broad shield volcano that rises above the NW shore of Lake Abbe (also known as Lake Abhe) in eastern Ethiopia. The 25-km-wide volcano was constructed at the southern end of the Kalo Plain. Nested circular craters are located at the summit of the dominantly basaltic volcano, which also displays an older caldera rim. An arcuate chain of rhyolitic lava domes occupies the northern, western, and southern flanks. Youthful basaltic lava flows surround these domes and blanket the flanks of the volcano, and recent flows cover the young sediments of the Kalo and Abhe basins. The Asmara basaltic pyroclastic cone located in the southern Kalo basin SW of the base of Dama Ali volcano and was considered to have had activity during the last 2000 years (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, 1973). Dama Ali is considered the most likely source of an eruption reported to have occurred in 1631 (Gouin, 1979). Major fumarolic activity occurs in the summit crater, and abundant hot springs are found on the volcano.
|ER||Dama Ali, Ethiopia (startup Record)||Jan 01 00:00 AM||0.1||0||MAP I Felt It|
Ethiopia - Fentale – Last eruption : 1250 or 1820 ?
Fentale, also known as Fantale, is a large stratovolcano at the northern end of the Main Ethiopian Rift. It consists primarily of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows with minor tuffs. Welded pantelleritic ash flows accompanied formation of a 2.5 x 4.5 km summit caldera, which has steep-sided walls up to 500 m high. The WNW-ESE-trending elliptical caldera has an orientation perpendicular to the Ethiopian Rift, and post-caldera vents occur along the same orientation. Trachytic and obsidian lava flows occur on the caldera floor, and fresh-looking lava flows descend the flanks from satellitic vents. An eruption from Fentale during the 13th century destroyed an Abyssinian town and church south of the volcano. In 1820 basaltic lava flows were extruded onto the Main Ethiopian Rift from a 4-km-long fissure on the south flank, and lava flows were erupted on the floor of the caldera.
|ER||Fentale, Ethiopia (startup Record)||Jan 01 00:00 AM||0.1||0||MAP I Felt It|